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Prejudice is a behavior that is part of human nature and stems from a psychological need that associates with generalization and decision-making process. The video "Without Prejudice" provides insight on the concept of prejudice based on race, first impression, age, and gender. Roets’ article explains the ideology of discrimination as the need for individuals to associate factors to avoid ambiguity. The first impression provide the basis for judgment by other people; thereby, our presentation helps people form a positive or negative opinion. The conclusions made may not necessarily be correct. However, many they are part of interaction. The first impression in most cases is non-verbal and influence one's opinions, which is prejudicial.
Impression and Prejudice
Racial profiling and stereotypes are one of the first impression that affects opinions. One of the panelists with racist ideologies is an example of prejudicial victimization. In the end, the racist panelist favors the least person anyone would expect ("Without Prejudice"). Racial stereotyping is common with many associating races with some tendencies. An example is associating black people with violence or hip-hop music.
According to Roets, such kind of generalization of people based on social categorization distorts the real character of a person. However, with time and communication people tend to eliminate prejudice by gaining more understanding of a person’s background, perception, and lifestyle. In the show, the first instance contestants were judged based on their appearance. The first contestant was eliminated based on his dressing code ("Without Prejudice"). From the video, it is quite conclusive that it is human nature to be judgmental and prejudicial based on first impressions.
Non-Verbal gestures are an important part of communication, which provides meaning to verbal communication since they show one's attitude. In "Without Prejudice," Jack one of the contestants is judged based on his tone (monotone). The process of communication involves more that verbal gestures. In essence, other forms of communication provide vital information to others and influence their opinions. Tone, dressing, and expression is essential in forming a judgment on one’s character. Using non-verbal gestures collaborate with verbal communication to provide sufficient information about a person. In the show, the panelist uses the non-verbal cues as ways of telling the contestants’ sincerity and integrity. Communication is a complicated process that involves factors that are both verbal and non-verbal. There are also other factors such as lifestyle that people use to judge one morality and behavior.
Personal communication tells a story about people; although, other factors such as lifestyle communicate about a person’s moral standing to the public. In "Without Prejudice," Jack is quickly judged due to his career as an adult films actor, while Mike receives the accolade for his work as a Christian missionary. From the video, it is evident on the role of lifestyle choices and others perception of our character or moral standing.
One’s career determines how people view them; for people to consider one positively, it is imperative that they follow society’s moral codes. To some extent, it is practical to form an opinion based on a person’s choice of career and background. However, the factors when weighed only act as additional information that is used to remove prejudice. Essentially, prejudice is a communication barrier that is part of human nature, although, verbal and non-verbal communication provides a better understanding of a person's character.
Roets, Arne. "Research States That Prejudice Comes From A Basic Human Need And Way Of Thinking". Association For Psychological Science, 2011,
"Without Prejudice (Part 1and 2)". Vimeo, 2016,
Every human being has provided false information in at least one situation in their lives and the reasons for telling the lies vary among different people. The easiest definition of a lie is a false statement that is given with the deliberate intention to deceive or hide the truth. Therefore, a lie is a statement provided with the aim of making an individual to believe something that is false. The effects of a lie on the individual who receives and believes the false statement vary depending on the reason for the lie being told in the first place. However, despite lies being told for varying reasons, the individual who agrees to the false statement is kept in the dark concerning the truth. At some point, the truth is finally revealed, while in other cases, the truth is concealed forever. With time individuals who are used to lying tend to use it as a habit and in some cases it can become difficult to fight the urge to lie. In this essay, the discussion tries to solve the question; why do people lie?
A lie can be classified into a number of categories depending on the form and reason for the lie. A white lie falls into the classification of the least serious lies and individuals tell white lies in order to be polite or tactful. An example of a white lie could be making up an excuse for not showing up at a gathering or giving thanks for an undesired gift (Ariely, 2012, 36). A broken promise is another category of lies, and it includes individual giving promises that they have no intention of keeping. A fabrication is a type of lie that involves the spread of information that one is not sure whether it is false or true. A bold-faced lie includes the provision of information that everyone knows for sure is false. An exaggeration is the process of enhancing a truth by adding lies to the facts, and it includes a balance of truthful and false statement to convince the audience.
A deception includes giving false information with the intention of misleading an individual by creating an impression that is not truthful in any way. Plagiarism refers to the act of both stealing and lying; it includes copying another individual’s work and claiming it is original. Compulsive lying involves false information with the aim of getting something from the audience. It is significant to focus on the eight types of lies and understand people use them and for what intention, in order to understand why people lie. A white lie is in most cases provided with the intention of being polite or tactful. White lies avoid an individual getting themselves in a situation where it seems like they are impolite or disrespectful. However, white lies at some point cause conflicts with people after the insincerity of the individuals is discovered. Broken promises are given in order to make the other person feel good about themselves. Therefore, the effects of a broken promise include breaking the hopes and hurting the feelings of those lied to.
Fabrications are spread with the aim of trying to find out the truth about a certain topic or simply for fun. However, fabrications greatly influence the spread of rumors, and this can damage the reputation of an individual greatly. The spread of a rumor is not only considered as a lie, but also an act of stealing an individual’s reputation (Scott, 2010, 70). A bold-faced lie in most cases is given with the aim of avoiding the consequences of an individual submitting the truth. Bold-faced lies are quite common with children who opt to lie to reduce the chances or completely avoid being punished. Adults also offer bold-faced lies especially in cases when it is known they are lying, but there is no way to prove that it is a lie. An exaggeration is a combination of the truth and lies and in some cases it also causes confusion to the liar. An individual who frequently offers exaggerations also at some point even starts to believe his or her exaggerations.
An individual who offers exaggerated accounts and statement often feel low about themselves, and, therefore, have to make up stories in order to look good in the eyes of others. Plagiarism is a very strict offense and has caused a number of college and graduate students to be expelled from school. The act is mostly common in students and the reason for copying information and calling it their original work is the laziness to find the required information without copying. A compulsive or psychopathic liar is an individual that provides false information even when providing true information was an option (Vrij, 2011, 91). For a compulsive liar, lying is more of a hobby or habit or an addiction, and every opportunity they have to tell a lie, they will take it. The main cause of individuals lying is the fear of the truth coming out and facing consequence for the exposure.
Children start lying at the beginning of four or five years, and this shows the seriousness of the issue. Children will often lie to avoid being punished though parents eventually find out the truth, and they get punished. Some individuals also provide false statement due to the lack of courage to admit the truth. In other cases, the lack of an individual having problem-solving skills might cause them to result in providing a lie. In such cases, the individuals should be encouraged to consider providing the truth as an option. Provision of the truth will solve the problem while offering a lie only makes the situation worse. It becomes difficult to solve the problem after a lie is told, considered to when the truth is offered. A lie is also used as a way of escaping from the truth especially concerning issues that one does not want to provide an answer.
Most people will also provide a lie concerning unexpected events that an individual cannot comprehend. In some cases, lies are used for advantageous reasons at the moment considering the factors behind the information being sought (Ford, 1999, 66). For example, when a young child seeks to find out how children are born, it is a seemingly hard task explaining to a five-year child the process of inception, conception and giving birth. Therefore, in such a case, parents are forced to come with a white lie to feed the undying hunger for knowledge in the children. In some other scenarios, when seniors are challenged by the juniors, they tend to lie in order to avoid looking incompetent.
In conclusion, there are various reasons why people lie, and the statement provided are given with the aim of eliciting different reactions in the individuals. The human race has a problem with lying and the habit becomes more of a trend especially when an individual advances in age. The lies told by children are minimal, compared to the lies told by adults, which shows a bad trend. Adults should work as role models for the young children, and it is a shame that adults are the lead liars globally. Despite lies being used in some cases for a good cause, in the end it causes a lot of pain especially if those fed with lies to find out the truth. Lying is also going against the Ten Commandments, so it is a sin in a religious outlook. Therefore, humans should focus more on providing the truth, rather than false information.
Ariely, D. (2012). The (honest) truth about dishonesty: How we lie to everyone especially ourselves.
Ford, C. V. (1999). Lies!, lies!, lies!!!: The psychology of deceit. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric.
Scott, G. G. (2010). Playing the lying game: Detecting and dealing with lies and liars, from occasional fibbers to frequent fabricators. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Vrij, A. (2011). Detecting Lies and Deceit: Pitfalls and Opportunities. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
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