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The most significant argument made in Federalist 70 is the unitary executive provided for in the United States constitution. The argument has been seen in the sense that, the author tries to argue that unity in the executive division is a major component for energy and safety. The book provides that energy comes from the proceedings of a person with decision, activity, secrecy and dispatch whereas safety emanates from the unitary executive’s apparent accountability to the persons (Hamilton, 2).
According Hamilton, he argues that the importance of a unitary executive are to ensure accountability in the government, it helps the president to remain powerful by ensuring the defense against his by avoiding the encroachments of the legislature and also to maintain and prevail energy in the executive.
He argues also that purpose, direction and flexibility in the executive division of the government will be realized easily through a unitary executive structure and this will be applicable most significantly during the periods of emergencies and warfare (Hamilton, 3). He argue that safety arise from accountability and in general a unitary executive is in a good position to promote this accountability in the government since it seems easier to blame a single person than to distribute a fault among many people within a group.
When a unitary executive fails in performing a useful task for the entire government and country at large, he is not able to cover up the failings by blaming his council members but he has a robust ability to bring, observe and maintain good ethics and social characters in his place of work or office. Through this accountability which is promoted by the presence of a unitary executive, the governance of different tasks and responsibilities of officials will be effective and representative (Hamilton, 3).
He reinforces his argument on accountability further by giving an example of situations where accountability was not conducted led to failures in leadership. He claimed that for a nation or a state to prosper successfully, the council members of a given executive have to be united and conduct themselves ethically or else that entire state or nation or empire will decline in various development divisions. For example he claimed that the poor conduct and continuous disintegration among the council members of Rome contributed to the Empire’s decline. He again gives his warning to the people of America that at the end of his book Federalist 70, due to the situation that happened I Rome, the Americans should be more worried of governance by a plural executive structure like that of Rome than of the application of a single individual.
The second reason for the existence of a unitary executive that Hamilton is the defense against legislative encroachments. A part from campaigning for a unitary executive, he endorses strength in the executive division of the government. He proves this by putting a claim that a quick and decisive executive will best bring a balance to a slow-moving Congress, which is a body designed for deliberation he also claims that this governmental balance can only be realized by the state officials only if each branch of government with an inclusion of the executive division has an adequate and sufficient power and freedom that is autonomous such that oppression and hostility of one division or subdivision over the other cannot take place ( Hamilton, 2).
Another reason for the existence of a unitary executive is to ensure energy in the executive. He argues that energy is the most important ingredient or character in defining a good government. Some other related scholars relate this energy to presidential activity to mean the duties he performs while at the same time some profile the energy as a president’s eagerness to act on his constituents’ behalf. In this book, Hamilton comes up with four components or elements that make up energy in the executive. The four components are necessary for a unitary executive to be energetic according to Hamilton. The elements that he refers to ingredients are: unity, duration, competent powers and lastly an adequate provision for its support (Hamilton, 1).
Unity in the executive is where the core and the most significant argument of Hamilton revolve. The argument also centers upon unity’s role of promoting the executive energy. In his opinion, the contribution of unity to the energy is to permit necessary decision, activity, secrecy and dispatch in the executive division (Hamilton, 2). Similarly, a unitary executive is encouraged and required therefore to act on behalf of his residents as a matter of exercising authority, decision and providing information and communicating to them.
Duration has been discussed by Hamilton to mean that the president should have a term long enough so as to enable him promote stability in the government and to fulfill his duties and goals in serving the citizens or the constituents. The issue of enough time for the term is also to enable the president to act in harmony and in the ways that the public like and expect to be good. (Hamilton, 2).
When he talks about support in energy in executive, Hamilton means presidential wages and salary which reduce corruption and bribery in the government, preventing the government officials from such acts through the promotion of assigning those individuals with integrity, apparent and honesty in their work or in the office. Hamilton claims that the role of a person in the public service is not to make those working there to become famous or glorious and so just a sufficient pay is enough so as to attract talented and capable politicians. (Hamilton, 3).
The argument is so important in understanding the founding conception of presidency since Hamilton has argued soundly by mentioning how the unitary executive is important for presidents to adopt. Some presidential legal advisors have supported the argument by saying that when the authority of the president is centralized, it is much easier to deal with issues like national defense, war and foreign policy where a unitary executive is able to evaluate and determine the threats, review the policy and mobilize the national resources efficiently and effectively with energy which is much superior to any other division in the government.
The argument also helps in understanding the role s of the president like he should be allowed to grab and check personal property in times of national crisis like forcing an official to fight the war on terror during warfare. This is with reference to energy in the executive. The presidential is also expected to express accountability in his work. Several courts have cited the book to prove that the president should be accountable for his actions and hence cannot be granted freedom from civil litigation.
I have used the first five passages since they contain and talk much about the main topic of which the author argues on. For example, page 2 talks about energy in executive while page one introduces the topic which has let me become familiar with the book and the most significant argument of the book. It also introduces the concept of a unitary executive.
Kaminski, John P, and Richard Leffler. Federalists and Antifederalists: The Debate Over the Ratification of the Constitution. Madison, Wis: Madison House, 1998. Print.
Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist. Fairford [England: Echo Library, 2011. Print.
Cooke, Jacob E. The Federalist. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2010. Internet resource.
Kerber, Linda K. Federalists in Dissent: Imagery and Ideology in Jeffersonian America. Ithaca [N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1980. Print.
Every student wants a job that will get him or her a good, well paying job. Different jobs have different salary scales and hence students ought to choose wisely when they chose a course to study either in college or in the university. It is important to note that the course one takes also determines how fast they will get an employment upon completion. There are courses that are more marketable as compared to others. Marketability of a course is by a great deal influenced by the economy of the day and the economic activities that are driving the economy. For instance, technological innovations are on the rise in today’s economy (Roche, 2010). Almost every organization has ICT department while organizations that deal with technological goods are working to make new discoveries every day. As a result, a course in the technological field is likely to be more marketable as compared to a course in the history field.
There have been arguments regarding whether it’s worth for a student to invest in liberal arts as compared to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics fields. There are some people who maintain that STEM fields are better since they help a student get a job faster as compared to liberal arts. On the other hand, there are arguments that liberal arts are better since they give students a wide range of skills, which makes it more appealing to employers as the skills can be transferred to different fields at the work place. From each of the opposing sides, there is sufficient evidence to prove each side’s logic. The choice of which side one takes is relative to a number of factors based on individuals. This essay gives an argument on whether it is worth to continue investing in liberal arts or focus on STEM fields. In doing so, the benefits accruing from each field will be discussed and then compared.
Liberal Arts Arguments for
Liberal arts refer to the subjects that were considered the best for a free person during the classical antiquity era. People who studied liberal arts were well positioned to take active part in the civic society. They are people who could contribute to debates, work in the military service, defend themselves in court as well as gain arithmetic skills. In addition, a liberal arts student had skills in music, astronomy, logic as well as grammar and education. Basically, this is a field that cuts across many fields. A liberal arts graduate makes a multi-skilled employee (Zakaria, 2015). In today’s world, employers are looking to cut costs on labor among other areas. Organizations are focused on increasing their profits and hence they need to cut down on the number of employees they hire so as to reduce the wages expense. As a result, employers are likely to look for an employee who can work in different fields and still perform at his or her best. This makes liberal arts students the ideal employees in the capitalistic economy.
Liberal arts students help students to work in different jobs. They can apply for a job in different fields and still qualify. Liberal art is different from other field of education where one is required to acquire vocational skills in order to fit in a specific job. Liberal arts is a course that is known to give students an excellent foundation in law, health care, business and science among other fields. As a result, studying in other fields limit the student on the number of jobs they can apply for as compared to liberal arts (Roche, 2010). For instance, most organizations are looking for employees in the business field. In fact, almost every organization has a business aspect of its operations. Having basic law knowledge even increases the qualifications of a student in the field of law as he or she can be advising the organization on various matters. The fact that a student who has graduated with liberal arts is able to work in different fields makes him or her more marketable in the job market and hence it is worth for parents and students to invest in the field.
Liberal arts graduates are said to posses a problem solving as well as a communicative acumen. These are two areas that are important for the success of any business organization. Managers and businesses are faced with many situations that need to be addressed efficiently, failure to which they might have a negative effect on the organizations’ profitability. Communication is also regarded as an essential in business organizations. Liberal arts students posses these skills and hence are seen as valuable by employer. It is important to note that over the years, the field of liberal arts has been seen as not being so valuable. However, this has changed in the recent economy (Zakaria, 2015).
Liberal arts graduates are also well equipped to deal with issues of the society. Business organizations operate in an environment that is in the midst of a society. Therefore, among their operations should be social responsibilities. They should be in position to handle matters that affect the society as a result of their operations. Having social responsibility programs not only creates competitiveness for organizations but also increases its goodwill and relationship with the people in a society. It is for this reason that organizations are looking for liberal arts graduates, as they will help them on social responsibility programs and hence create competitive advantage.
In the wake of globalization, students are facing challenges that are more global as compared to the challenges they faced in the past. They are living in the world that is becoming smaller every day and where they have to rub shoulders with other people from different cultures. As a result, they need to posses good communication skills for them to be able to communicate effectively in the global world. It is the new reality that people have to work and communicate across cultures. It is a trend that has been anticipated in the future and the preparedness of the same questioned. Liberal arts education has been considered as essential in preparing students for the new reality. As it has been mentioned earlier, liberal arts gives graduates communication skills. As a result, liberal arts graduates are more prepared for the global world, as they are able to communicate with people from different cultures (Bissonnette, 2010).
With the rise of globalization, internationalization has also been a major element of the world economy. Business organizations are opening operations in different nations in the bid to find more customers and increase their competitiveness. As a result, their employees are required to work across cultures as well (Zakaria, 2015). In addition, business organizations are hiring the best talents so as to get the best performances from them and in turn a good organizational performance. These employees need to possess the best communication skills in order to be able to communicate and work with people from different cultures.
Thomas R. Cech, who is currently the president Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and also a university professor at University of Colorado, conducted a research on liberal arts education. According his findings, some of the scientists who get elected to the NAS (National Academy of Sciences) have a background in liberal arts (Christ, 2012). It is an indication that liberal arts graduates can also excel in STEM fields. Therefore, liberal arts does not limit graduates from studying STEM subjects.
Liberal Arts Arguments against
Business world today is highly competitive as technological advances continue to influence business operations. Business organizations need to be highly innovative and inventive in order to maintain the competitive advantage in the current business world. Innovation is considered to be one the business bloodlines and hence should be maintained at all cost. It is imperative to note that technology is key in reducing costs of production and the overall costs incurred in an organization and hence helps in increasing profitability. Specialization is vital for innovation to take place. Liberal arts graduates are not specialized in any specific area (Bissonnette, 2010). They are graduates who have knowledge in a variety of areas but do not specialize in any. As a result, they lack innovation capabilities as compared to their counter parts in STEM. This has led to liberal arts education being considered as becoming irrelevant in the wake of globalization.
In recent years, research indicates that career ready degrees are being sort for by most employers. Degrees such as engineering, sciences, finance and mathematics are considered to be more valuable as compared to liberal arts degrees. A student with STEM degree can readily fit in a certain job description as compared to students with liberal degrees who lack any specialization. It is cheaper to recruit a career ready graduate as compared to recruiting graduates who are not ready for the career (Department of Economics, 2011). This is because the employer will not need to spend a lot of money on preparing and training the employee on the specific jobs they are expected to be working on. As a result, employers prefer STEM graduates to liberal arts graduates.
The other factor that has to be taken into consideration is the salary that one gets from a STEM degree career and a liberal degree career. In general, employees who have studied and of the STEM field get good salaries as compared to their liberal arts counterparts. According to an article on Chronicle of Higher Education, engineers have the highest salary followed by mathematics and computer science employees (The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2015). Arts students on the other had earn the lowest salaries. The salary factor makes STEM field more worth investing in as compared to liberal arts.
Generally, a degree in liberal arts has more benefits due to the wide diversity that it offers students. A student who has graduated with liberal arts can work in virtually almost field. They have a wide range of skills, which can be transferred. Liberal arts graduate gives employers a wide range of options. In addition, these graduates are able to communicate effectively within a given culture as well as across different cultures. Further, they possess problem- solving skills, which are essential to the success of business organizations. The fact that liberal graduates have multiple skills makes them more marketable.
On the other hand, STEM graduates are specialists in specific areas. Employers are looking for employees who are career ready. STEM employees are well positioned for innovation and invention due to their specialization in specific fields. It is cheaper for employers to hire STEM employees due to their career readiness. STEM field therefore has courses that are highly marketable. In addition, STEM careers are well paying as compared to liberal arts careers. Any investors want an investment that has high returns. Therefore, parents and students should invest in STEM rather than liberal arts since they are likely to get higher returns. However, the decision on which field to invest in is relative to the students and their career aspirations as well as the economy in which they are studying from.
Bissonnette Z. (2010). Your College Major May Not Be As Important As You Think, The New York Times. Accessed Online < http://thechoice.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/03/major/?_r=0 > On October 26, 2015
Christ T. C. (2012). Myth: A Liberal Arts Education Is Becoming Irrelevant. American Council Education. Retrieved Online < http://www.acenet.edu/the-presidency/columns-and-features/Pages/Myth-A-Liberal-Arts-Education-Is-Becoming-Irrelevant.aspx> On October 26, 2015
Department of Economics (2011). STEM: Good Jobs Now and for the Future. Economics & Statistics Administration. Accessed online from < http://www.esa.doc.gov/reports/stem-good-jobs-now-and-future > On October 26, 2015
Roche, M. W. (2010). Why choose the liberal arts?. Notre Dame, Ind: University of Notre Dame Press.
The Chronicle of Higher Education (2015). Median Earnings by Major and Subject Area. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Accessed online < http://chronicle.com/article/Median-Earnings-by-Major-and/127604/> on October 26, 2015
Zakaria, F. (2015). In defense of a liberal education. New York: W.W. Norton & Company
The three career professions are doctor, clinical director, behavior analyst. The skills common to these careers include excellent communication and interpersonal skills primarily because they involve dealing with people. Critical thinking is also a requisite skill. Soft skills such as the ability to show compassion, empathy, and patience could also come in handy for doctors and behavior analysts as well.
The educational and professional requirements for doctors are satisfactory MCAT scores in high school followed by a pre-med or biological sciences. Once one has acquired the bachelor’s degree in general sciences, an M.D or D.O degree is required. 3 – 7 years residency training is also needed (Study.com, “Requirements to Become a Doctor in the U.S.”). For clinical directors, a bachelor’s degree is required for entry positions, but most organizations prefer candidates with a Master’s degree in Medical or Life Sciences. Certification from the Licensed Clinical Social Workers (LCSW) or Registered Nurse (RN) groups can be required sometimes. Skills required are supervisory, interpersonal, time management, leadership and communication (Study.com, “Clinical Director: Job Outlook & Career Info”). For Behavior Analysts, a Master’s degree in Applied Behavior Analysis is mostly required. Licensure varies according to State, but national certifications are required by most States. Key skills include observation, communication and analytical skills (Study.com, “Become a Certified Behavior Analyst: Education and Career Roadmap”).
Perhaps the FIU Handshake website is one of the most useful resources a student wishing to start a career in any of the above professions can use. It provides students and alumni of FIU with internship opportunities, job postings and career events that take place on campus (FIU | Student Affairs, “Handshake”).
"Become a Certified Behavior Analyst: Education and Career Roadmap." 2017. Study.com. 25 September 2018. https://study.com/articles/Become_a_Certified_Behavior_Analyst_Education...
"Clinical Director: Job Outlook & Career Info." 2017. Study.com. 25 September 2018. https://study.com/articles/Clinical_Director_Job_Outlook_and_Information...
"Handshake." 2017. FIU Student Affairs. 25 September 2018. https://studentaffairs.fiu.edu/academic-success/career-and-talent-develo...
"Requirements to Become a Doctor in the U.S." 2018. Study.com. 25 September 2018. https://study.com/requirements_to_become_a_doctor.html
What constitutes ‘a work of art’? This is the question this paper attempts to answer through a comparison of artworks from two prominent artists of the modern era.
Art is defined as the diverse expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, mostly in a visual form e.g. paintings or sculptures, by creating works appreciated for their aesthetic value or emotional ability. Accordingly, Calvin Harris of Arts & Theatre, argues that in the final analysis, it comes down to what an individual appreciates on a piece of art subject to which it will have its admirers. Andy Warhol, an American painter, preferred works of pop art and culture. He painted people and objects and is hugely regarded as a commercial illustrationist. Some of his most famous paintings like the Coca Cola Bottle and the Marylyn Monroe Diptych, were done purposefully to sell them as objects of desire to the masses. The question we then ask ourselves is, was this achieved? Critics say that Warhol merely reproduced iconic images on canvas and that his works lent their credence to the primary object of antecedent. Jack Pollock found relevance in abstract expressionism. His influence lied in developing abstract styles in modern art. Critics argue that his work was own expression of life as he saw it; an ‘expression of a man entrapped in his anxious mind and lost in the intrigues of the modern world,’ and that because they were ‘drip paintings’ they involved less skill and effort. Art must have the ability to influence, to evoke emotions and to amass appreciation. In this regard, these two are true works of art.
Tattoo number 7 stands out because of the use of color variations to illustrate the element of depth and form. The texture of the tattoo is also enhanced by the use of hue between different shades of colors. By using different shades of orange and black, the artist has been able to make the viewer ‘feel’ the texture of the wings of the creature. Using the shade of blue depicts the sky, and the viewer gets the feeling that the creature is mid-flight. He has also used shading aptly to outline the features of the creature in alignment with the temperature of different parts of its body; green and orange to show ‘warmer’ and ‘cooler’ areas. This incorporates the value element.
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