Black Nationalism Essay Example & Outline

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Black Nationalism


(A)Define integration and Black Nationalism.

Integration refers to the process of answering “Yes” to the question on “Can I be both American and African”. They believed that it was possible to achieve justice in America for both races. They argued that Africans arrived in America, worked and paid taxes; therefore, the whites should not mistreat them. The whites should use own religious beliefs to freedom, work and live together with Africans. Nationalism meant that African could not be Americans.

In fact, they should move to Africa or another continent and settle. The whites have killed them, beaten and ignored them. Therefore, no way can whites and Africans agree. The two terms revealed different perceptions within African minds and pertaining to slavery and integration in America.

(B) Discuss the development of the concept of integration before Martin Luther King, Jr. and the modern civil rights movement and Black Nationalism before Malcolm X. The concept of integration grew progressively before Martin King.

Since the foundation of the nation, many prominent church preachers, great abolitionist such as Douglass and various institutions such as National Association of Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) promoted integrations.

They accused the whites of hypocrisy because they should not talk about God; who believes in one people and color. They non-violently opposed some of the slavery bill and thoughts that 8 million Africans can return to Africa. Essentially, they informed the whites that African can be assimilated, integrated within white society, but they can accept returning to Africa. These great men before Martin King proclaimed equality and respect for human rights through churches.

They questioned the white based Christianity on how they can claim to be Christians while on the other hand, holding Africans slaves. Several African churches emerged, and they had classification of radicalized groups of individuals who purposed to rebel against white dominance. Finally, some whites joined African hands for freedom and rose ranks to head some of these freedom based organizations.

On the other hand, Nationalism developed since the first portion of the ninetieth century. Great nationalism advocates such as Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner believed that black are not Americans but Africans. Moreover, they were ready to risk and go back to the homeland. They believed that Africans were not made to become someone slave. The nationalists never relied on Christian basis or churches to condemn slavery and human right violation. Unlike integration, these nationalists before Malcolm relied on connection between race and slavery to hit the whites.

They valued African heritages and this was a key factor in creating a different word-thought between the two groups. The difference rose from nationalist and integrationist pervasive disagreement on freedom and strategies used to fight slavery. The nationalists believed that Africans should move from America and settle in another continent for instance Latin America or Africa. On the other hand, the integrationists oppose the move and supported that African are there to stay. They are ready for assimilation, freedom and adoption. However, the black Americans seemed to be interested in gain equality rather than moving. In 1940s, the nationalists gut declined, and they abandoned emigration-based thoughts. Most of the whites hit back by claiming that nationalism was a loss of hope among blacks until Malcolm arrived.

Therefore, our conclusion has a basis on the thought that before Martin King and Malcolm, integration and nationalism hit grounds for African based freedoms. Although they had different ideas on freedom, both played a key role that martin and Malcolm took over in later years towards justice and equality between Americans whites and blacks.

Explain what Cone says are the origins of each man’s beliefs

Cone indicates that the origin of each man’s belief is embedded on the circumstances that he come across not but not those chosen by themselves. Essentially, the past incidences will also determine what a man beliefs in. We notice that Martin’s beliefs relied on the slavery incidences happening in America. Summarize the development and nature of King’s “dream,” from the Montgomery bus boycott to the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Several bus incidences happened in Montgomery, and Boston, but the most serious one and that triggered a boycott was the Montgomery bus incidence.

The Montgomery city had a characteristic of segregation and abuse of black’s rights. Even though African Americans made over 70 percent of the total passenger population, the drivers were very abusive. They called Africans all sort of names such as black cows etc. In addition to that, the driver could even command all Africans stay in rears or give the white passengers seats. This triggered most of the Africans avoid riding the bus. However, King changed his mind and decided to fight segregation after the incidence in which Claudette Colvin; fifteen years old student went to jail for failing to give a seat to a white man. Though he had not transferred to the city as a pastor, he sat in the committee that addressed bus-seating policies.

He organized the famous Montgomery bus boycott in Rosa Park. He became a social activist pastor who could use any congregation to speak against human injustices. In the process, he joined NAACP and preached to blacks in churches about freedom. He declined running for the presidency after a confrontation in 1947. He joined several other organizations such as Alabama council of Human Relations until in 1964 when the civil Human right Act became part of the law. The development and nature of Malcolm X’s “nightmare,” from his release from prison in 1952, to 1963, when he was “silenced” for ninety days by Elijah Muhammad for statements he made about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy

Malcolm X nightmare started in 1952 when he was arrested prosecuted and imprisoned. His failure to integrate religion in the fight against segregation and use of violence led the whites to arrest him. While in prison, he made critics about John F Kennedy‘s assassinations. He linked the Islamic community with the assassinations leading Elijah Muhammad to silence him for three months.
The Elijah Muhammad Nation of Islam believed that Malcolm planned to create more conflict between black Muslims and the whites hence decided to silence him. This took place when Malcolm X visited hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), leading to a split from the Nation of Islam, and founded his own Muslim Organizations.

Discuss Chapter 5, “We Must Love Our White brothers,” and Chapter 6, “White man’s Heaven is a Black Man’s Hell,” concentrate on the “impact” of both men’s religious views.

Martin Luther King used biblical studies to cool the tension between blacks and whites. Through the churches, he influenced the blacks as indicated in chapter five; “We Must Love Our White brothers,” that African Americans must see the whites as their brothers amid of remaining in slavery and segregated in bus stations work places among others. The scriptures waved many, and he gained popularity not only from the African Americans but also from the whites. However, the same chapter’s juxtaposes Malcolm ideas who saw the whites as non-brothers and hence could not recognize them. He termed them as the enemy and therefore ready to fight.

On the other hand, chapter six, “White man’s Heaven is a Black Man’s Hell, “reveals how the war against segregation in America was influenced based on religious beliefs and church preaching.
The chapter reveals that the whites enjoyed living in America while African Americans suffered. The church leaders led by Luther king revealed through churches that soon a dream will come true when will turn out to be heaven.

The preaching influenced the religious men views. They remained with a hope that amid of having subjection to slavery, mistreated, segregated in buses, the whites remained their bothers and soon the American land found to be hell would turn out to be heaven. On the other hand, Malcolm used the Jacob Islamic myths to reveal that whites were evil by nature, and therefore they should face despise. Outline the factors leading to these events and evaluate their significance on Malcolm X’s life and change of ideology regarding his vision for how blacks could receive the justice and dignity they deserved in American society.

The years 1963 and 1964 were Malcolm’s turning points. Malcom made a pilgrimage to Mecca where he preached about Muslim and Islamic religion. He was silenced by Elijah Muhammad to abandon his radicalized preaches, and this led him form own religious organization. Secondly, he mentioned about the death of John F Kennedy and linked it to Islamic religion. In the process, the Christians delineated themselves from his actions. This was almost to shatter down his vision until he started joining martin Luther king. However, they had common idea, fighting segregation and racism.

Discuss events taking place during this period which led King to shift his ideas, not from nonviolence, but to a reevaluation of white America’s commitment to the “the beloved community, as well as fair treatment of all peoples, even those in a country like Vietnam.”

Similar to Malcolm X, King experienced situations during the mid-1960’s which, in some ways, shattered “[his] dreams” of America where whites accepted blacks as equals, and the federal government promoted justice here and abroad. This happened after the country went in war with Vietnam. He watched four Negroes girl murdered in Birmingham, Alabama just few days after he talked of having a dream that the whites and blacks will one day drink under one cup. He revealed how he saw his dreams shattering down to nightmares by few individuals. However, through his influence, he cooled the blacks and eventually realized his dreams. This event and the one of Vietnam invasions where whites were tortured by fellow men saw him shift his ideas from non-violence. The Americans went to war with Vietnam, and many Vietnamese were tortured, killed and injured. He realized that the white Americans were dangerous. Secondly, even the Vietnam people needed a fair human right treatment just like the African Americans.

Discuss how the ideas of King and Malcolm X began to somewhat “blend” before their death.

The ideas of unifying the blacks and fighting racism blend well before the death of both Malcolm and King Luther. Although, initially, the Christians thought that Malcolm was violent and therefore should face avoidance, they came to realize that both leaders had a great plan for the blacks. The only difference was that King Luther relied on preaching and other spiritual based guidance.
Other hand, Malcolm saw the whites as evil, and hence he relied on hardcore words to fight them. On several occasion, the two leaders met and especially toward their deaths. Despite their difference approaches, their internationalism played a key role in liberating most of the African states from colonialism. African leaders viewed them as leaders chosen to fight racism and therefore they should do so provided they do not cause violence. However, the martin Luther king ideas outside America were very powerful. Few leaders could understand how he used spiritual words to connect to the people minds before fighting racism. Their ideas inspired many.

Given that Malcolm came from the southern ghettos, his words inspired those around him just like lathers words in churches. They were able to connect to both Christian and non Christian Africans. This was a clear signal that their ideas were likable just after the death.

Which person’s philosophy/ideology (King’s or Malcolm X’s) offered the most realistic or moral solutions to the issues facing blacks in American society during the 1950s and 1960s?

The period 1952 to 1963 saw Malcolm X in jail. Martin Luther king has intensified his preaches and social activities pastoral based programs. People could assemble around him. He preached against violence and racism. The eventual outcome revealed that he offered the most realistic and moral solution to the racial and segregation problem facing the blacks. The Christians feared radicalized Malcolm x and therefore they termed them as less moral.

Conclusion

We can conclude that Malcolm X and Martin Luther king emerged to be the greatest American leaders who dedicated their time towards racial and segregation. Both used different approaches but eventually achieved what they wanted.

References

Cone, James H., and Loy H. Witherspoon. 1993. Martin & Malcolm & America: a dream or a nightmare. [Charlotte]: University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
Ogbar, Jeffrey Ogbonna Green. 2005. Black power: radical politics and African American identity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kaplan, Laura Duhan. 1997. Philosophical perspectives on power and domination: theories and practices. Amsterdam [u.a.]: Rodopi.
Cone, James H. 2002. Martin & Malcolm and America. New York: Orbis.
Barnes, Martin, Malcolm R. Daniel, Benjamin Brecknell Turner, and Mark Haworth-Booth. 2001. Benjamin Brecknell Turner: rural England through a Victorian lens. London: V & A publ.
King, Martin Luther, and Clayborne Carson. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Intellectual Properties Management in association with Warner Books, 1998.