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(A) Define integration and Black Nationalism.
Integration refers to the process of answering “Yes” to the question on “Can I be both American and African”. They believed that it was possible to achieve justice in America for both races. They argued that Africans arrived in America, worked and paid taxes; therefore, the whites should not mistreat them. The whites should use own religious beliefs to freedom, work and live together with Africans. Nationalism meant that African could not be Americans.
In fact, they should move to Africa or another continent and settle. The whites have killed them, beaten and ignored them. Therefore, no way can whites and Africans agree. The two terms revealed different perceptions within African minds and pertaining to slavery and integration in America.
(B) Discuss the development of the concept of integration before Martin Luther King, Jr. and the modern civil rights movement and Black Nationalism before Malcolm X. The concept of integration grew progressively before Martin King.
Since the foundation of the nation, many prominent church preachers, great abolitionist such as Douglass and various institutions such as National Association of Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) promoted integrations.
They accused the whites of hypocrisy because they should not talk about God; who believes in one people and color. They non-violently opposed some of the slavery bill and thoughts that 8 million Africans can return to Africa. Essentially, they informed the whites that African can be assimilated, integrated within white society, but they can accept returning to Africa. These great men before Martin King proclaimed equality and respect for human rights through churches.
They questioned the white based Christianity on how they can claim to be Christians while on the other hand, holding Africans slaves. Several African churches emerged, and they had classification of radicalized groups of individuals who purposed to rebel against white dominance. Finally, some whites joined African hands for freedom and rose ranks to head some of these freedom based organizations.
On the other hand, Nationalism developed since the first portion of the ninetieth century. Great nationalism advocates such as Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner believed that black are not Americans but Africans. Moreover, they were ready to risk and go back to the homeland. They believed that Africans were not made to become someone slave. The nationalists never relied on Christian basis or churches to condemn slavery and human right violation. Unlike integration, these nationalists before Malcolm relied on connection between race and slavery to hit the whites.
They valued African heritages and this was a key factor in creating a different word-thought between the two groups. The difference rose from nationalist and integrationist pervasive disagreement on freedom and strategies used to fight slavery. The nationalists believed that Africans should move from America and settle in another continent for instance Latin America or Africa. On the other hand, the integrationists oppose the move and supported that African are there to stay. They are ready for assimilation, freedom and adoption. However, the black Americans seemed to be interested in gain equality rather than moving. In 1940s, the nationalists gut declined, and they abandoned emigration-based thoughts. Most of the whites hit back by claiming that nationalism was a loss of hope among blacks until Malcolm arrived.
Therefore, our conclusion has a basis on the thought that before Martin King and Malcolm, integration and nationalism hit grounds for African based freedoms. Although they had different ideas on freedom, both played a key role that martin and Malcolm took over in later years towards justice and equality between Americans whites and blacks.
Explain what Cone says are the origins of each man’s beliefs
Cone indicates that the origin of each man’s belief is embedded on the circumstances that he come across not but not those chosen by themselves. Essentially, the past incidences will also determine what a man beliefs in. We notice that Martin’s beliefs relied on the slavery incidences happening in America. Summarize the development and nature of King’s “dream,” from the Montgomery bus boycott to the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Several bus incidences happened in Montgomery, and Boston, but the most serious one and that triggered a boycott was the Montgomery bus incidence.
The Montgomery city had a characteristic of segregation and abuse of black’s rights. Even though African Americans made over 70 percent of the total passenger population, the drivers were very abusive. They called Africans all sort of names such as black cows etc. In addition to that, the driver could even command all Africans stay in rears or give the white passengers seats. This triggered most of the Africans avoid riding the bus. However, King changed his mind and decided to fight segregation after the incidence in which Claudette Colvin; fifteen years old student went to jail for failing to give a seat to a white man. Though he had not transferred to the city as a pastor, he sat in the committee that addressed bus-seating policies.
He organized the famous Montgomery bus boycott in Rosa Park. He became a social activist pastor who could use any congregation to speak against human injustices. In the process, he joined NAACP and preached to blacks in churches about freedom. He declined running for the presidency after a confrontation in 1947. He joined several other organizations such as Alabama council of Human Relations until in 1964 when the civil Human right Act became part of the law. The development and nature of Malcolm X’s “nightmare,” from his release from prison in 1952, to 1963, when he was “silenced” for ninety days by Elijah Muhammad for statements he made about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy
Malcolm X nightmare started in 1952 when he was arrested prosecuted and imprisoned. His failure to integrate religion in the fight against segregation and use of violence led the whites to arrest him. While in prison, he made critics about John F Kennedy‘s assassinations. He linked the Islamic community with the assassinations leading Elijah Muhammad to silence him for three months.
The Elijah Muhammad Nation of Islam believed that Malcolm planned to create more conflict between black Muslims and the whites hence decided to silence him. This took place when Malcolm X visited hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), leading to a split from the Nation of Islam, and founded his own Muslim Organizations.
Discuss Chapter 5, “We Must Love Our White brothers,” and Chapter 6, “White man’s Heaven is a Black Man’s Hell,” concentrate on the “impact” of both men’s religious views.
Martin Luther King used biblical studies to cool the tension between blacks and whites. Through the churches, he influenced the blacks as indicated in chapter five; “We Must Love Our White brothers,” that African Americans must see the whites as their brothers amid of remaining in slavery and segregated in bus stations work places among others. The scriptures waved many, and he gained popularity not only from the African Americans but also from the whites. However, the same chapter’s juxtaposes Malcolm ideas who saw the whites as non-brothers and hence could not recognize them. He termed them as the enemy and therefore ready to fight.
On the other hand, chapter six, “White man’s Heaven is a Black Man’s Hell, “reveals how the war against segregation in America was influenced based on religious beliefs and church preaching.
The chapter reveals that the whites enjoyed living in America while African Americans suffered. The church leaders led by Luther king revealed through churches that soon a dream will come true when will turn out to be heaven.
The preaching influenced the religious men views. They remained with a hope that amid of having subjection to slavery, mistreated, segregated in buses, the whites remained their bothers and soon the American land found to be hell would turn out to be heaven. On the other hand, Malcolm used the Jacob Islamic myths to reveal that whites were evil by nature, and therefore they should face despise. Outline the factors leading to these events and evaluate their significance on Malcolm X’s life and change of ideology regarding his vision for how blacks could receive the justice and dignity they deserved in American society.
The years 1963 and 1964 were Malcolm’s turning points. Malcom made a pilgrimage to Mecca where he preached about Muslim and Islamic religion. He was silenced by Elijah Muhammad to abandon his radicalized preaches, and this led him form own religious organization. Secondly, he mentioned about the death of John F Kennedy and linked it to Islamic religion. In the process, the Christians delineated themselves from his actions. This was almost to shatter down his vision until he started joining martin Luther king. However, they had common idea, fighting segregation and racism.
Discuss events taking place during this period which led King to shift his ideas, not from nonviolence, but to a reevaluation of white America’s commitment to the “the beloved community, as well as fair treatment of all peoples, even those in a country like Vietnam.”
Similar to Malcolm X, King experienced situations during the mid-1960’s which, in some ways, shattered “[his] dreams” of America where whites accepted blacks as equals, and the federal government promoted justice here and abroad. This happened after the country went in war with Vietnam. He watched four Negroes girl murdered in Birmingham, Alabama just few days after he talked of having a dream that the whites and blacks will one day drink under one cup. He revealed how he saw his dreams shattering down to nightmares by few individuals. However, through his influence, he cooled the blacks and eventually realized his dreams. This event and the one of Vietnam invasions where whites were tortured by fellow men saw him shift his ideas from non-violence. The Americans went to war with Vietnam, and many Vietnamese were tortured, killed and injured. He realized that the white Americans were dangerous. Secondly, even the Vietnam people needed a fair human right treatment just like the African Americans.
Discuss how the ideas of King and Malcolm X began to somewhat “blend” before their death.
The ideas of unifying the blacks and fighting racism blend well before the death of both Malcolm and King Luther. Although, initially, the Christians thought that Malcolm was violent and therefore should face avoidance, they came to realize that both leaders had a great plan for the blacks. The only difference was that King Luther relied on preaching and other spiritual based guidance.
Other hand, Malcolm saw the whites as evil, and hence he relied on hardcore words to fight them. On several occasion, the two leaders met and especially toward their deaths. Despite their difference approaches, their internationalism played a key role in liberating most of the African states from colonialism. African leaders viewed them as leaders chosen to fight racism and therefore they should do so provided they do not cause violence. However, the martin Luther king ideas outside America were very powerful. Few leaders could understand how he used spiritual words to connect to the people minds before fighting racism. Their ideas inspired many.
Given that Malcolm came from the southern ghettos, his words inspired those around him just like lathers words in churches. They were able to connect to both Christian and non Christian Africans. This was a clear signal that their ideas were likable just after the death.
Which person’s philosophy/ideology (King’s or Malcolm X’s) offered the most realistic or moral solutions to the issues facing blacks in American society during the 1950s and 1960s?
The period 1952 to 1963 saw Malcolm X in jail. Martin Luther king has intensified his preaches and social activities pastoral based programs. People could assemble around him. He preached against violence and racism. The eventual outcome revealed that he offered the most realistic and moral solution to the racial and segregation problem facing the blacks. The Christians feared radicalized Malcolm x and therefore they termed them as less moral.
We can conclude that Malcolm X and Martin Luther king emerged to be the greatest American leaders who dedicated their time towards racial and segregation. Both used different approaches but eventually achieved what they wanted.
Cone, James H., and Loy H. Witherspoon. 1993. Martin & Malcolm & America: a dream or a nightmare. [Charlotte]: University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
Ogbar, Jeffrey Ogbonna Green. 2005. Black power: radical politics and African American identity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kaplan, Laura Duhan. 1997. Philosophical perspectives on power and domination: theories and practices. Amsterdam [u.a.]: Rodopi.
Cone, James H. 2002. Martin & Malcolm and America. New York: Orbis.
Barnes, Martin, Malcolm R. Daniel, Benjamin Brecknell Turner, and Mark Haworth-Booth. 2001. Benjamin Brecknell Turner: rural England through a Victorian lens. London: V & A publ.
King, Martin Luther, and Clayborne Carson. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Intellectual Properties Management in association with Warner Books, 1998.
In 1860, slavery in the southern cities was disintegrating this is according to Wade. Initially, during 1820, slavery in the Southern Cities seemed stable. On the other hand, it was spreading to other regions at a high rate and proportionally. In different cities, it was disappearing and some slaves were getting back their freedom from their plantation owners. According to the growth of slavery in the South Cities, there are three-step pattern used to explain it clearly. Initially, slavery grew proportionally to the growth of the cities.
On the other hand, at 1840, there was a change in slavery in these cities, as it began stabilized as the white people continued to grow. Later, it followed that slavery in the cities started falling by 1860. By 1860, there was a population of over 8000 within the thirty southern cities. According to Wade, he states that the trend followed by the growth of slavery in the Southern Cities was because of the growth of the black neighborhoods and black institutions within in the cities. The paper will focus on slavery in the urban environment to the Negros living in the bondage in the cities.
In 1800, most of the American worked on farms. On the other hand, there were different factories operating during this time. Factories such as cotton textiles began in New England within the early 1800s and spread to different parts. During this time of industrialization, different activities developed and as well social interaction between people changed. There was the introduction of machinery, used in these factories and as well slave trade increased within the region. On the other hand, there was an improvement of transportation within the areas near factories.
Working conditions of the workers involved as slaves in these plantations and as well, those working in the factories were worse. There was an increase in working hours of workers within the factories as their owners wanted their workers to work for longer hours aiming at producing more goods. There was a surprise increase in the working hours for slaves working in the factories to 11.4 hours a day. Resulting from the increase in the working hours in the factories, on-the-job accidents increased and as well, workday grew longer.
While working in these factories (located in the cities), workers had an exposure to dangerous conditions such as long leather belts connecting the machines to the factory’s water powered driveshaft. Despite the exposure to the risks, workers did not have protective shields while operating the machines. As a result, they experienced injuries such loss of fingers and broken bones. These unpleasant conditions remained prevalent in the cities and mostly affected slaves working in the Southern city factories.
In America, cities rose because of the economic activities involved. On the other hand, immigrants played a role to the rise of these factories, as some were willing to work under harsh conditions at low pay. By 1850, southern people experienced a change. Its people spread into the states of Deep
South. Similar with other regions, most slaves in the South Cities were African Americans. These slaves faced hardships while working in the plantations. This was due to the fear of their lives and as well their social interaction with their relatives. Unlike in other regions, Wade states that slaves in the cities often faced separation with their relatives and their loved ones when sold to other planters and as well when transferred to other factories in other cities.
Despite the fear of separation with their loved ones, slaves in the South Cities also experienced other harsh conditions in their cabins. Wade describes the cabins as made of small logs and two or three families lived in the cabin despite of its small size. More so, their beds were in the form of straw and old rags thrown at the corners of the cabin. Owners of the slaves in the South allowed their slaves to have a single blanket despite the rain and snow flowing at the cracks of the cabins. This demonstrates the harsh conditions the slaves and their families faced while working in the factories.
On the other hand, slaves experienced a harsh treat during punishment. Punishment of the slaves was through beatings using heavy iron leg shackles. On the other hand, there was much discrimination of slaves in terms of property ownership. Enslaved people in the cities had a characteristic of having few personal possessions. In addition, the law discriminated them in terms of protection from danger. The constitution in America during 1800s did not recognize marriages of the enslaved people. Education, which is another fundamental factor, was not available to the slaves in the south. These hardships grew as the population of the African Americans in the south and as immigrants to the South Cities increased.
As slavery continued in the urban areas, Negros in these regions began a network of relatives, families and friends that made their extended families. The enslaved people in the urban areas withheld their cultures and customs where they taught their children. Between 1850 and 1860, many slaves working in cotton factories and plantations started rebelling to their owners through pretending that they were sick and as well, some working slowly. These rebellions were important to the slaves as they helped them endure their lives by striking back to their masters.
This led to a reduction in slavery by 1860 as their rebellion network had spread to different cities in the south.
Concluding the essay, the growth and falling of slavery in the Southern Cities was not because of the experiences that the slaves had while under their masters but was due to their associational life they had through the relative network they had with others in other cities. Slavery in the South required a high degree of order as demonstrated by the association the slaves had with their free relatives and friends.
Wade, Richard C. 1967. Slavery in the cities the South, 1820-1860. London: Oxford University Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10087155.
Wade, Richard C. n.d. Slavery in the cities: the South 1820-1860. S.l: s.n.
Shenton, James Patrick. 1965. "Slavery in the Cities: The South, 1820-1860 (review)". Civil War History. 11 (3): 287-289\
Wade, Richard Clement. 1964. Slavery in the cities: the South 1820-1860. Richard C. Wade. New York: Oxford university press.
Shenton, James P. 1965. "Slavery in the Cities: The South, 1820-1860 (review)". Civil War History. 11 (3): 287-289.
Wade, Richard C. 1980. Slavery in cities: the South 1820-1860.
WADE, Richard Clement. 1964. Slavery in the Cities. The South, 1820-1860. Pp. x. 340. Oxford University Press: New York.
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