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Apart from baseball, football is the most played sports in the United States making it common among the males. In the United States, 30 million people participate in the sport. A considerable percentage of the youths within the age bracket of 5-14 years are already participating in the American Football (Delaney et al 234-237). The sport involves fast movements that are intense in the some context. Like rugby, there is blocking of the opponents and breaking the defense.
There are other tackles that are only specific to the sport. Football related injuries are sustained in the long run, and the adverse effects remain elusive. The intense activity in the sport lead to 1.2 million people suffering from head, hip, bone fractures and dislocating joints. Among those injuries, of prime concern is the head injuries. Acceleration of the players lead to the increased intensity of the head injuries and thus the seriousness.
Though uncommon, head injuries may result to serious cases of concussions. There has been a move to increase head injury prevention methods with the NFL taking it as the topmost agenda. There are bouts of fear that failure to act quickly will lead to business loss due to the never-ending chains of lawsuits (Delaney et al 234-237). The past data on the transgressions indicate that there are 4500 retired players who have filed lawsuits to the league for not doing enough to prevent head injuries. Limiting the number of these concussions should remain the main priority for the league.
Head injuries present a major problem since they remain asymptomatic. Of the major injuries associated with the sport, 5 % accounts for concussions with 40% accounting for strains and sprains. In many cases head injuries are present as a myriad of symptoms such as confusion, dizziness, slurred speech and emotional disturbances. Studies indicate a strong link of head injuries to neurological problems. The game demand the use of hips, knees and the back, therefore, head injuries receive little attention.
Progress in the prevention of injuries, as well as sustainable solution, should aim at improving the design of the safety guards such as the helmets, hip guard, knee pads and the mouth guards. Other prevention techniques should focus on other ways that would help in educating the player and research based policies. Such policies will ensure the change of the game rules especially those that heightens the progression towards head injuries. This paper explains in detail about head injuries and the policy based approaches that are used in the intervention.
Head injuries are common in American football and account 22% of all injuries. Concussions form a significant percentage of these injuries. Concussion are described as the states of neural dysfunctions that result from head trauma. In the concussive states there are possibilities of headache, dementia, consciousness loss, nausea and lack of coordination. Most of the football players are students in major colleges.
Studies have shown a decline in cognitive functioning among the players. For instance, a study that was carried out in Erasmus University, in the Netherlands showed that there are poor tests result from the evaluation based on their attention levels and the visual perception. Most injuries in sports contribute to fatalities, however, head related injuries can be a major cause of death among the football players.
Traumatic Brain Injury is the most severe head related injury. A simple definition of a medical condition refers to a blow to the head. TBI arises in the instances when the head suddenly hits an object or when same object pierces the skull to affect the brain tissue. The symptoms of TBI vary from mild, moderate to severe depending on the extent and the nature of the damage. In the mild cases of the injury, there is an altered state of consciousness while the most severe case contributes to coma, unconsciousness or even death. A concussion can be used as an indicator to the extent of brain damage among the football players (Benson et al 321-326).
A retrospect carried out by Cleveland Clinic reveals a twisting trend of truth where football players may experience long-term changes in their brain even if they have never been diagnosed with concussions. The study involved use of brain scans and blood tests where in the blood the researchers were interested with the S100B. S100B is a protein in the body that is associated with regulatory functions of nerve growth.
In diseases such as Alzheimer’s, epilepsy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and certain cancers in the body the protein plays a significant role. Increased hits to the head lead to the release of S100B protein in the blood and thus, the elevated levels. Morbidity and the mortality levels associated with the head injuries have received little attention compared to other related sports injuries (Benson et al 321-326). Repeated concussion for an individual previously diagnosed with the condition can lead to serious consequences.
Diagnosis of head injuries
In the recent past, diagnosing head injuries has started to receive huge attention among the football bodies (Rowson et al 147-151). The high prevalence rate of head injuries is necessitating early diagnosis and detection. Diagnosing of head injury has received huge attention due to the immense of research showing the increasing prevalence of head related injuries. Despite the huge attention in the diagnostic measures, Concussions are difficult to diagnose due to the costly brain scans and furthermore they rely on the symptoms of the player.
The sporting culture brings huge discouragement among the players who fear watching from the sidelines, and yet they desire to participate in the game. The dangers and the long-lasting effect of head injuries are prompting doctors, and the player alike to take the dangers posed seriously. There are studies showing that football players have huge changes in the protective matter of the brain even though they have never been diagnosed with head concussions (Rowson et al 147-151).
Other objective tests could be carried out, for instance, blood tests that are inexpensive. The benefits of this test is that they are inexpensive and can be carried out in the stadiums thus eliminating the need of a player from going to the hospital. The persons at risk of head concussion include the national league players, player who form the collegiate athletic association and the young high school players.
Engineering innovations have been proposed as a way of controlling the increasing rates of head concussion. There are two designs that are in use, and they include: VSR4 and Revolution helmet. When the two are compared there is 53.9% of reduction of concussion risks from Revolution Helmet when in comparison to the VSR4 helmet. The purpose of helmets is to modulate energy transfer during impacts. There are other recommended interventions associated with head injuries. They entail medical examination and provision of medical history to all participants.
Personnel who are associated with training should ensure that there is proper physical conditioning during the training periods (Cantu et al 846-848). Presence of the physician is necessary during both training and the game. Physical measures should be enhanced in consistent with the weather. Athletes who show positive symptoms should have recommended medical examination and treatment. The team should be prepared in the case of catastrophic head injuries with parents and athletes receiving basic training on the associated symptoms and signs.
Diagnosing of head injuries and the associated intervention measures find the derivation from the seriousness of the situation that can lead to damage to the brain and the central nervous system. Some of these injuries may contribute to incomplete recovery from the conditions. In obtaining a measure to the rising trend of head concussions, there are state laws and other action policies meant at decreasing the rising cases.
A good example of this law is Zackery Lystedt passed in 2009. Proposed action plans include limiting contact during training, as well as playing. Rule changes can also happen during the game that limit use of certain techniques. Sports equipment should be in good nature before and after use.
There are associated impediments to the control of head concussion. Some of these impediments entail mild symptoms of concussive states that normally go undetected. Some of the symptoms are experienced in relapses especially in an on-and-off manner (Cantu et al 846-848). This makes it difficult to diagnose and recommends the best medication available. The persistence nature of the problem may be on the decline thus, complicating the chosen medication and control. The bodies that are involved in the control of Head concussion and other head injuries include the American College of Sports Medicine, National Football League (NFL), National Collegiate Athletic Association and Centers for Disease Control that helps in tool kit provision.
Benson BW, Mcintosh AS, Maddocks D, Herring SA, Dvorak J. What are the most effective risk-reduction strategies in sport concussion?. Br Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013 Apr;47(5):321-6
Cantu, RC, Mueller, FO. Brain injury-related fatalities in America football,1945-1999. Journal Of Naurosurgery.2003 Apr;52(4):846-52
Delaney S, Lacroix V, Gagne C, Antonious J. Concussions among University Football and Soccer Players: A Pilot Study. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine. 2001;11 (4):234-240.
Rowson s, Duma SM, Greenwald RM, Beckwit JG et al. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football. Journal of Naurosurgeon. 2014 Jan 31.
The roaring twenties were the name given to the decade. 1920s witnessed many developments that made it stand out among the other decades of the century. In this decade, many spheres of the human life evolved. The possible cause for the rapid changes witnessed in the decade was the moment of world peace that was prevailing at that time. The other angel of looking at the success of the decade was from the massive economic developments that were evident. The decade followed a decade of war. The people that had fought in the wars had earned enough money to enable them start their businesses (Davies, 2007). The government spending in the employment of the young soldier and manufacture of weapons had spurred the economic development. The people were willing to spend, and they now had the time and peace. The two factors could be the main reason behind the developments witnessed in the decade.
The ability of the citizenry to spend in other activities of leisure was the aspect of the people that caught the promoters' attention. The promoters sought any business that they would sponsor. All the businesses were taken, and anybody could establish a company and build it to the level of success by the definition of success at the time. The promoters had to look for a new production approach, which would be able to attract the people and maintain a regular flow of the clientele (Davies, 2007).
The promoters of the time sought to develop the sports. Prior to the bold move of the promoters to put their financial might behind sports, the general view of the people towards sport was that they were an amateur affair (Davies, 2007). The sports were not played at a competitive level, but they were played with the view of self-entertainment.
In fact, the people were always playing the sports for reasons that would look unconventional to the modern people. However, the entrance of promoters in the sports was a significant moment of change in the mode of operation. The promoters of the roaring twenties were the main driving forces behind the conversion of the sporting activities from small amateur affairs into large competitive sporting. The attainment of the change in the attitude to sporting only needed the direction of the finances by the promoters to the event and people would come and form staunch followers of the game.
Some of the sports that gained popularity in the time were because of the constant exposure that they received in the media. The media had established itself such that the people were exposed to information. The selection of the mass media as the channel that the promoters used to advance their support for a certain sporting event was a major determinant of the success of the sporting promotion of the 20s. Many people started flocking to the playing fields seeking to be part of the new sporting fad (Davies, 2007).
The people were able to come out since they could afford the fees. The popularity gained in sporting led to the development of enough finances such that the participators witnessed a steady rise in salaries. The sportsmen started gaining popularity and people started taking the idea of sporting seriously. In the same decade, the best sportsmen of all time were created. In the current times, ninety years after the roaring twenties there are conscious efforts to break records or emulate the sportsmen and women of 1920's.
Davies, R. O. (2007). Sports in american life. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.
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