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Latinos one of the rapidly growing population group in US now forms the largest minority group in the country. Experts anticipate that by 2050, one, out of four American will be a Latino. This paper looks into the cultural perspective of these American individuals, the rapid increase, the diversity, and difficulties faced by Latinos within American soil. Lastly, the paper examines Latino cultural considerations and potential based implications on Latino clients.
Body of Paper
Overview of the Latino population
The Latino refers to those individuals hailing from Hispanic or Latino cultures. It should be noted that the two groups assimilated each other, leading eventually into Latinos language. The two terms have been used inconsistently and interchangeably to mean the same. These individuals come from over 20 states speaking Spanish language through have varying socio-cultural backgrounds.
Knowledge of the population
The Latinos immigrated to America for a variety of reasons such as political instabilities, lack of job opportunities or violence in their countries before assimilated and speak English language.
According to 2000 U.S Census Bureau, out of the 281.4 million residents, in the country, Latino occupies 14.2percent of the entire population. Predictions show that by 2050, the population will be 25 percent of the entire population. This classifies the group into one of the fastest growing communities in US.There was high diversification right after the realization that all the states in US have Latinos.
Difficulties for Latinos
The Latinos suffer from gender discrimination in US. Given that Men immigrated into the country, the only gender valued is female. They are married by Americans men but not the vice-versa. Opportunities are also distributed based on one’s gender, skin color, national origins, first language, socio-economic status, and age and sex orientation. Therefore, unequal opportunities distribution poses a great danger to ethnicity and cultural group of these people.
Aguirre Jr., A. (2004). Profiling Mexican American Identity: Issues and Concerns. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 928-942.
Granados, C. (2000,). “Hispanic Vs Latino.” Hispanic Magazine. Retrieved February 24, 2006,
Davison Aviles, R. M. (1999). Perceptions of Chicano/Latino Students Who Have Dropped Out of School. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77, 465-474.
U.S. Bureau of Census. (2000). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC:U.S. Department of Commerce.
Roncevic, M. (2005). Soccer, Salsa, and Stereotypes. Library Journal, 130, 122-123.
Mastro, D. E. & Behm-Morawitz, E. (2005). Latino Representation on Primetime Television. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82, 110-130.
Galanti & Geri-ann (2003). The Hispanic family and male-female relationships: An overview. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14, 180-185.
The social and cultural texture of a text often refers to the social as well as the cultural nature of a text as a text (Huizing, 2011). It is important to realize that a text is a part of society and culture, by the way, it often views the world through different topics, and by the sharing of the general and social attitudes of a particular time, the norms as well as the modes of interactions that are known to everyone in the society (Tran, 2014). Socio-rhetorical criticism on the other had examines the literature as being focused on the values convictions and beliefs both in the texts that people read and the world that people currently live in.
Therefore, looking at Matthew 20 through the lens of both socio-rhetorical criticism and social-cultural texture one understands why there was the choosing of Zebedee’s sons and its consequent relationship with hierarchy. Robbins would look at the text in the instance of the culture at the time and what it tells us about the practices of the people then (Tran, 2014). Further, the examination of Matthew 20 as a sacred text can bring out a lot of difference as just viewing it as a historical document, this one of the biases that most interpreters make during interpretation.
Wilson on the other hand through social and cultural texture when examining Matthew 20 is most likely to look the text as an item that is a part of a culture and therefore, there can be understanding of the common social and culture topics such as being a servant and a leader in the society then. Further, Wilson is more likely to view the text as either a dominant culture or a repressed one and understand the consequences that come with it.
Does the social and cultural location of a text and reader affect the interpretation?
Tran, B. (2014). The Origin of Servant Leadership.
Huizing L.,(2011) What was Paul Thinking? An Ideological Study of Timothy 1 and 2. Journal of
Biblical Perspectives in Leadership
King James Version. Matthew 20 20-28. Print
Aboriginal culture embraces a network of relationships that span decades and encompasses the use of indigenous perspectives in the implementation of strategies that will improve their lives. Australia schools are culturally diverse but curriculum-wise, there is no cultural diversity in regards to the publication of books or the institution of instructional approaches that embrace the role of aboriginal teachers in teaching Torres Strait Islander students. Indigenous Australian views of knowledge and education call for the institution of native education systems that recognize past atrocities to create programs that improve the social, political and cultural wellbeing of the population. However, the education system continues to neglect the cultural significance of general classes, while the lack of moral responsibility impinges on the health outcomes of aboriginal children and their families.
Aboriginals – Historical Perspective
The history of the aboriginals spans decades and continues to shape the political, social, economic and cultural viewpoints in Australia. Concerns over mounting abuse, discrimination, and racism directed towards the aboriginal cannot withstand the test of time owing to a combination of political, cultural and economic factors that affect the socio-economic dynamics of aboriginals. Broom (2010) revisits the history of the aboriginal community arguing that Australian aboriginals have faced discrimination since pre-European colonial times. The Sydney tribes were the first to fall in the late 1790s owing to new diseases brought by an influx of strangers, with over 750,000 aboriginal inhabitants In the Island continent being displaced from the terra nullius lands, or what is commonly referred to as “no one’s land’ (Australian Human Rights Commission, n.d.). The European invaders were critical of the aboriginals and their way of life, referring to them as primitive creatures with no sense of time or space (Broom, 2010; AHRC, n.d.).
Incredibly, the aboriginals were able to stay clear of the diseases that had disseminated the majority of Europe and Asia, but with the invasion, aboriginals were considered akin to kangaroos, and this exposed them to various conditions. The aboriginals, alongside their Torres Strait Islander counterparts, shared a social-cultural way of life that was territorially defined by language, with the majority of them being bilingual or multilingual (Presland, 2010). Group identity was crucial for the aboriginals as it indicated membership to a particular political or economic entity, meaning that the conscious of shared identity was lost for them (Broom, 2010). The aboriginals have long since taken pride in their cultural and social status where reliance on kinship and an emphasis on cultural diffusion created a network of relationships that strengthened marriage alliances and religious activities. However, with European invasion, aboriginals and Islanders were considered too primitive for their liking. Fast forward to the contemporary world, Australian aboriginals continue to face discrimination, with the Australian government plays a role in limiting the involvement of the group on socioeconomic, political and cultural activities.
Aboriginal Children and Education in Australia; A Eurocentric-Indigenous Approach
Education is Australia is a critical component of the economic, political and social goals with Early Childhood curriculum calling for the integration of cultural aspects of aboriginals and Islanders (Miller, 2011; Harrison, 2008). From an indigenous perspective, the first language is vital in the establishment of policies and strategies in the education system. Llyod, Lewthwaite, Osborne, and Boon (2015) investigate the theory of universal grammar and argue that institutions of learning must build on an individual’s mother-tongue to help establish a framework of integrated education in the classroom. On the contrary, a Eurocentric approach calls for an early childhood curriculum that is blind to the cultural perspective of communities, mostly minorities. Studies by Anning, Cullen, and Fleer (2009) acknowledge the role that non-indigenous people play in upholding the cultural dynamics of natives, but from with the invasion of the Europeans, the Australian education has been cultural irresponsible to the needs of the aboriginals and islanders. There are significant deficits in the educational experience of the Aboriginals owing to a curriculum modeled to recognize western values, meaning that bureaucracies in the Australian system continue to fail indigenous students and their communities (Lloyd et al., 2015). Native Australian views of knowledge and education call for the institution of aboriginal education systems that recognize past atrocities, but currently, the education system creates discomfort, while the lack of moral responsibility is a deviation from the principles of cultural maintenance and survival.
Factors Affecting the Education Settings of Aboriginal Children
Evidence exists on the failure by non-aboriginal education systems in Australia to recognize the needs of the aboriginal people (Broom, 2010; State Government of Victoria, 2018; Harrison, 2008; Miller, 2011). While there have international calls to establish standards that facilitate educational equity, accountability, and standards-based assessments, the education systems continue to overlook the social and cultural needs of Aboriginal children in Australia (Anning et al., 2009). It is no surprise that Australia is labeled as a “high quality-low equity” country owing to educational deficits that fail to appreciate the social background, achievements and participation of aboriginals in post-compulsory schooling. Lloyd et al. (2015) suggest that the decline in comparative achievement data among indigenous Australian children arises from the isolation of teaching practices from the student’s cultural and social context. Ideally, from a native viewpoint, education systems must interact with home and community backgrounds to ensure inclusion and equitable schooling, but the lack of priorities on how to incorporate teaching practices in line with aboriginal culture continues to impinge on the educational outcomes of indigenous children.
The Australian government continues to rely on non-evidence based approaches to institute a national education curriculum leading to an opinionated approach that suggests no practical suggestions on how to involve indigenous voice. The aim here is to facilitate an evidence-based approach that creates room for individualized progress that enables collectiveness in program evaluation. Harrison (2008) states that the lack of political goodwill to recognize the special cultural and social parameters of the aboriginals is at the center of non-evidence based approaches in establishing an inclusive curriculum. The families of aboriginal children have also been left out of any policy incentives geared towards improving education outcomes, more so the issue of ineffective mainstream programs that inhibit the establishment of a culturally competent approach that facilitates indigenous ownership of programs and community support (Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency, 2006). More chilling is the isolationist approach in implementing such support programs that eliminate the recognition of past, present and future racism concerns, leading to declines in the social and emotional wellbeing of indigenous families and their children.
Practical Strategies for Working with Indigenous Children and their Families
The decision by Dandenong High School to introduce a school program that institutes the use of culturally diverse books offers hope for many indigenous children. Anning et al. (2009) argue that early childhood education must recognize the needs of monolingual minorities as this is the first step in enhancing bilinguals, multilingualism, and inclusion in the political, social, cultural and economic segments of a nation. The State Government of Victoria (2018) advices learning institutions to introduce culturally different books and promote book reading competitions to encourage cultural acceptance. Arguably, this is the first step that ECD teachers and policymakers must embrace in Australia as it offers children the opportunity to experience and understand variations in cultures and beliefs and hence harmonize children from all walks of life.
Llyod et al. (2015) support this argument but add that the recruitment of aboriginal teachers and publication of books that support monolinguals creates a culturally localized segment in the education system. Harrison and Sellwood (2016) knowledge that it is sometimes difficult to gauge the effectiveness of such programs and instead, the Australian government should focus on promoting programs that embrace the culture of indigenous children and their families, more so programs geared towards their social and emotional wellbeing. Racism and incidences of domestic violence among aboriginals continue to affect family relations, which in turn adversely affect the social, emotional and educational well-being of family members and children (VACCA, 2006). A best practice that can help tackle this vice is the creation of partnerships between government structures involving the Aboriginal Services Plan and government protocols. The government, through the health and education ministry, must work in close collaboration with aboriginal agencies such as the Victorian Indigenous Peak Agency to enable programs that preach cultural diversity in health promotion (VACCA, 2006). Government and community collaboration will ensure the concerns of indigenous populations and their children are instituted in a legal protocol that takes care after their health, cultural needs and creates education inclusion at all levels.
A close examination of the Australian education and social system displays shocking exclusionist trends aid at aboriginals. The knowledge and social network in Australia continue to ignore the importance of culturally responsive programs that masks and fail to acknowledge the history and cultural significance of the indigenous society. The Australian government must work with relevant aboriginal communities to improve social and political justice while also respect the human rights of the Islander populations, more so the right to education and health.
Anning, A., Cullen, J., & Fleer, M. (2009). Early childhood education: society and culture. London: Sage.
Australian Human Rights Commission. (2015). [Track the History Timeline:The Stolen Generation] | Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved from https://www.humanrights.gov.au/track-history-timeline-stolen-generations
Broom, R., (2010). Aboriginal Australians: A History Since 1788. 4th ed. Crows Nest, NSWL Allen & Unwin.
Department of Human Services. (2006). Building better partnerships: working with Aboriginal communities and organisations; a communication guide for the department of humans services. State of Victoria Department of Human Services.
Harrison, N. (2008). Teaching and learning in indigenous education. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press
Harrison, N. E., & Sellwood, J. (2016). Learning and teaching in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education. South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.
Henderson, G., Robson, C., Cox, L., Dukes, C., Tsey, K., & Haswell, M. (2007). Social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people within the broader context of the social determinants of health. In Beyond bandaids: exploring the underlying social determinants of Aboriginal Health (pp. 136-164). Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health.
Lloyd, N. J., Lewthwaite, B. E., Osborne, B., & Boon, H. J. (2015). Effective teaching practices for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students: A review of the literature. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 40(11), 1.
Miller, M. (2011). Embedding Indigenous perspectives into the Early Childhood Curriculum. Educating Young Children - Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years. (17) 4 pp, 37- 39.
Presland, G. (2010). First people: the eastern Kulin of Melbourne, Port Phillip & Central victoria, Melbourne, Australia: Museum Victoria.
State Government of Victoria. (2018). Culturally diverse books in the Premiers' Reading Challenge. Retrieved from https://www.education.vic.gov.au/about/news/Pages/stories/2018/stories_P...
Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency. (2006). Working with Aboriginal children and families: a guide for child protection and child and family welfare workers. Brunswick, Victoria: VACCA.
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