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Political beliefs are common vies that people hold concerning politics, government or even economics. The political beliefs unite us and they commonly comprise of freedom, equality, capitalism and consent of the governed. Political ideologies on the other hand can be defined as a set of fundamental beliefs regarding cultural, social, economic and political affairs that the majority of people in the society have. Political socialization is described as the process through which individuals develop their ideas regarding politics.
Political socialization is link to political beliefs because it is a lifelong development of the political beliefs of an individual. Even though a huge percentage of political socialization takes place during childhood, individuals continue to arrange their political beliefs throughout their lives. As pointed out in the introduction, political ideologies is a set of fundamental beliefs regarding cultural, social, economic and political affairs that the majority of people in the society have, hence it is link to political socialization because it is through this process that people acquire politically pertinent patterns of behaviors, attitudes and knowledge.
One example of a political ideology that I would like to elaborate is knows as the populists. Populists group favors the interventions of the government to promote traditional values and behaviors and to develop and maintain an ordered liberty. Populist largely supports the actions of the government. For example special privileges for none and equal rights for all, which needs the government intervention. The most significant economic concern for this group includes money, transportation and land. This group has very minimal tolerance to individual choices and diversity in morality matters.
A number of facts influence a person's political socialization. Personal elements like your family, social and economic all influence your political values. Some general aspects, like the mass media and key world events, can also influence your political values. The example I am going to look into is the family influence.
Typically, family is the most significant political influence in our childhood lives. Have you ever heard someone refer to herself as a 'lifelong Democrat' or 'lifelong Republican'? How can that be? Can small children have a political party affiliation, and identification with a particular political party?
Political ideologies is a set of fundamental beliefs regarding cultural, social, economic and political affairs that the majority of people in the society have, hence it is link to political socialization because it is through this process that people acquire politically pertinent patterns of behaviors, attitudes and knowledge.
My family has never really influenced my ideas to side with a political party. My father believes everyone is just as useless as the last. My mother, I know nothing of.
Alan, R. Gitelson et al. American Government. Myths and Realities. Election Edition.
Oxford University Press. 2014. Pres
International trade laws are a set of regulations that are meant to provide the right and customs and rules for engaging trade between nations. With many nations being a part of the World Trade Organization and the increase in international trade between various nations, there was a need to create rules to manage trade between different nations. International trade laws are also supposed to regulate international organizations and their activities in the different nations that they operate. The definition of international law has, however, been redefined to include relations between states and individuals (Williams, 45). International law considers the difference in rights between several nations and the citizens of other nations, and how they can relate in the best way.
International law includes classical and basic concepts of law in national legal systems, with comparison to a number of nations. International organizations can be affected by either public or private international trade laws, depending on the state of the organization. However, there is the fact that different nations have different laws when it comes to engaging in business in their jurisdiction. The challenge of different laws is one that greatly affects most international organizations. Therefore, international organizations need to come up with solutions to the problems by having to adjust to the difference in laws and regulations. For example, a fast food outlet that sells pork as one of their delicacies might experience problems if it decides to venture into a market dominated by Muslims. The consumption of pork is prohibited among Muslims, therefore; the fast food outlet will have no option but to scrap pork off the menu in such a market. Most international organizations are forced to change their marketing strategies, study the new market, and learn customer buying habits.
Political instability is among the risks that international organizations have to consider when venturing into a new market. Even in already existing markets, global companies need to be on the look for political stability so that it does not threaten its business. The global company, before venturing into the new market needs to ensure that it has studied the market to avoid adopting marketing strategy. Adopting a wrong marketing strategy is an operational risk that the companies need to be aware of if the organization is interested in making any profits. Global companies are also aware of the risk of their operations being shut down by the government of the host nation (Williams, 123). Therefore, the organizations need to ensure that all their operations are in accordance with the rules set by the ruling government.
The organizations are also cautious about any changes in the economy that could put them out of business. Political and economic risks play a great role in influencing the decisions of multinational managers and their operations. The managers need to ensure that they have a complete idea of the situation in the country where there are operating. The managers need to have any new information, from the political sagas going on to the small economic decisions that the government makes. The vast knowledge is significant to ensure that the company is not caught off-guard and suffers from either the political or economic risk taking place. Therefore, before making any major decisions, the managers need to collect the right information and seek professional help to access the possible risks.
Multinational companies are encountered with the challenge of political risks in their different ventures in different nations. A political risk refers to any risk that arises as a result of the host country making political decisions. The political risk has to have a connection to goals, profits or activities of the multinational company. Political risks can range from massive destruction to small effects like peaceful protests and demonstrations. However, the international organizations need to ensure that they are aware of the political risks and what to do if they occur. Political risks are divided into two major categories; macro risk and micro risk. Macro political risks involve most of the international organizations in the host nations incurring massive losses, expropriation, and insurrection. Example of macro political risk includes the overthrowing of the government, end of a democracy and the beginning of a dictatorship regime and the involvement of militia in trying to overthrow the government.
In such cases of the occurrence of a micro risk, most businesses in the country do not function since the nation is usually experiencing political unrest. International organizations may end up being affected by such political unrest especially if the domestic organizations know how to handle such situations. The lack of experience in the international organizations might cost the companies major losses (Williams, 234). Micro political risks, on the other hand, only affect certain sectors of the economy or industry. Therefore, some international organizations can be affected by micro risks while others end up not being affected at all. Micro political risks include corruption scandals in some sectors of the economy, removal of incentives, an increase in production or operation costs or public unrest in an industry. Therefore, multinational managers need to come up with ways that they can use to solve micro political risks if the companies are affected. The main purpose of solving the problem should be straightening the problem that is causing the company losses.
Regional trading blocs refer to associations created by different nations at a governmental level to promote trade activities within the bloc. Regional trade blocs are created to prevent its members from global competition and try to create a platform where the nations can help each other achieve economic growth. Trade blocs avoid global competition by establishing tariffs on goods produced by their members, government subsidies, import quotas, and non-tariff barriers. Due to trade not being considered as an isolated activity, the members of the trade blocs try to operate in a political, secure, economic, and social environment that favors all the members. Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEA) was established on August 8, in Bangkok and Thailand. The member states include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Brunei Darussalam. The European Union is another trading block that has the largest number of members, twenty-eight.
The member nations in the trading bloc include Belgium, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Croatia, Denmark, France, Finland, Estonia, Greece, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Italy, and Lithuania. The remaining members are Lithuania, Luxembourg, Poland, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia, Romania, Spain, Slovakia, Sweden, Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) comprises of Mexico, Canada, and the United States of America (Williams, 340). The three trading blocs have a number of similarities and differences. The countries in the regional blocs belong to the same regions, for example, the members of the European Union are all nations in Europe. All the trading blocs ensure that their member nations are protected from global competition through establishing tariffs on goods produced by their members, government subsidies, and import quotas.
Williams, Chuck. Management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
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