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Child development stages can be described as theoretical milestones when it comes to child development. Holistic development often sees a child as an all rounded person and consequently learning about the child in many cases involves the studying of patterns and development of the child. The developmental norms are the ones that are referred to as milestones as they define some recognizable pattern of development in which a certain child of a certain age is expected to follow (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2007). It is of the essence to however note that each child develops in a unique way and the developmental milestones are just norms that often help on the proper understanding of the general patterns that exist in terms of the development of the child (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2007). This paper is going to interview a prominent Child psychologist-Beatrice Marshall in regards to the developmental milestones of a 2-4 year old child. The interview took place in the house office of Beatrice Marshall.
Interviewer: Thank you for taking the time to invite me to your office to talk about this pertinent matter that is developmental milestones for children. Firstly, what should be parents of a two year old baby feel?
Beatrice Marshall: They should be ecstatic; this is because they have been able to survive the most difficult stage which is caring and managing for a one year old baby. Hopefully, they have some energy left to enjoy with their preschooler. The next years are often referred to as magical years after one year. This is because it seems like magic that the child can finally listen to the parent and in fact, the parent at this time has an imagination that runs wild.
Interviewer: What are some of the milestones that a child has when he or she is about 2-4 years old?
Beatrice Marshall: It is of the essence to note that the developmental milestones are divided into several sections, firstly, there are the language milestones, secondly, there are the cognitive milestones, thirdly, there are the movement milestones and lastly there are the emotional as well as social milestones (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2007).
Interviewer: Thank you for correcting me, so what are some of the language milestones that can be expected for a child of around 2-4 years of age.
Barbra Marshall: Most of the time when a child is one year old, he or she is not talkative, however, between the ages of two years and four years, this is likely to change. The child at this time can be able to say his or her name and even at times say his or her age. Psychologists have approximated that a child between the age of two years and four years can be able to speak around 250 words to around 500 words (Cooper, 2006). The child at this stage can also be able to speak in what can be described as simple sentences of around six words and answer simple questions. It is of the essence to understand that a child can be able to tell stories and speak in complete sentences by the age of four.
Interviewer: That is very interesting, what about the development milestones in terms of movements? What can be expected of a child of around two years to four years of age?
Beatrice Marshall: A child of two years starts to be on the move more. The child can be able to move around without support of the wall or anybody. He or she can also be able to walk up and down the stairs and this is often done with alternating feet-one foot per step. The child at this time has been able to master the art of throwing; kicking as well as catching a ball; he or she can be able to climb well (Cooper, 2006). At the advanced age of three to four years old, the child can be able to run more confidently as well as be able to even ride a tricycle. The children when requested can also be able to bend without falling back and can hop and stand easily on one leg for up to ten seconds. It is of the importance to however, note that these are general milestones and consequently not each child in the age of 2-4 years can be able to comfortable do all these things. This is mainly because children often grow differently and consequently, their maturation rate is also different.
Interviewer: Are hand and finger skills considered movement milestones?
Beatrice Marshall: This has been a topic of contention for most psychologists as there are those that put it in a separate field while others put it under movement milestones. I do believe that it is a different field as the child in this case starts to become more nimble (Cooper, 2006). The child who is between the age of two years and four years at this stage can be able to easily handle small objects as well as be able to easily turn a book. At age three, the child should be able to handle in the right way age-appropriate scissors, build a tower with four or even more blocks and finally, by the age of four years the child can be able to screw as well as unscrew jar lids. By the age four, the child can be said to have mastered the hand and finger skills and can be able to do virtually every hand and finger skills with ease.
Interviewer: What about cognitively, what are some of the milestones that a two to four year should have cognitively.
Beatrice Marshall: This is often referred to as the most important milestones, as the child in many cases starts asking a lot of questions. Some of these questions include where did we come from?
Why is the Sky blue?
In this stage there are questions and more questions. There are several parents that find this annoying; however, it is a normal developmental milestone that occurs cognitively in the minds of two to four year olds. In addition to the persistent asking of why each and every time, the child can be able to correctly name familiar colors such as red, black, green, blue and white. The child at this time can also be able to comfortably understand and grasp the idea of different and same, the child can also remember parts of a story, better understand the time, understand the concept of counting and be able to count to around 20, complete puzzles that are appropriate and finally the child can be able to easily recognize as well as identify common objects as well as pictures.
Interviewer: What about the emotional and social milestones?
Beatrice Marshall: A two to four year old at this juncture starts becoming more social. The child at this time might be able to co-operate with his or her friends, and even by the age of four starts to show problem solving skills (Remer, 2006). The child often starts to imitate friends and parents, he or she can also be able to show affection for family and friends and understand the concept of mine and theirs.
Interviewer: Should parents be concerned if their children do not show these developmental milestones?
Beatrice Marshall: It is imperative to understand that all children grow and develop at their own pace. Therefore, a parent should not be worried if a child has not been able to reach all the developmental milestones at time. However, a parent should be able to notice a gradual progression in terms of growth as well as development in the child. If this does not occur, then this might be a sign of a developmental delay and there is a need to talk to the child's doctor (Remer, 2006). It has however been determined that in many cases, there is no problem and it is just a small delay in the development of a child which has no repercussions. The child might at times suffer from a psychosocial crisis in his or her age group and the best way to resolve the crisis is to show the child that he or she is normal. The child should often be encouraged to perform activities that he or she can be able to do and should never be forced to do something that he or she cannot do.
Interviewer: Thank you for the interview, it was very enlightening.
Beatrice Marshall: The pleasure is all mine.
Remer, A. T., & American Academy of Pediatrics. (2006). The wonder years: Helping your baby and young child successfully negotiate the major developmental milestones. New York: Bantam Books.
Cooper, C. (2006). Baby milestones: Stimulate development from 0-3 years. London: Hamlyn.
Kail, R. V., & Cavanaugh, J. C. (2007). Human development: A life-span view. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
The article by Michael F. Hopkins titled Continuing Debate and New Approaches in Cold War History published in the year 2007 by Cambridge University Press. This source is extremely credible as it has been peer reviewed and published in the Historical Journal. His writing can be described as a historiography.
The MMBC should not introduce the light beer. This is because the pros are weightier than the cons. The first advantage is that the light beer will appeal to the ever-growing young crowd. The young crowd prefer light beer and consequently by MMBC introducing light beer, the company will be able to reinvent itself and appeal to this vast market.
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