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Television commercials are comprised of two major tasks. One of the tasks entails the creation of the advert through acting, digitization, or animations. The adverts have to be made such that they meet the standards of the media in terms of the language and quality (Altman, 1989). They also have to contain the intended client message, which will make them reach the customers in the right and most expeditious manner (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013).
The timing has to be limited to configure the advert with the cost and the slotted time for commercial breaks (Altman, 1989). The second aspect of advertisement is the placement of the advert in a television media singing a slotted time to reach the customer. This process entails the section of the appropriate time to air the advert (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). For an advert o be run on the mass media, it has to be cleared by the regulators as a means of ascertaining that the advert meets the legal requirements. This is source of assurance that the media house is running an advert that is legal and in agreement with the demands of the industry regulators.
The selection of the company involved in the production of the advert ought to consider the two aspects. It is important if the company that produces the adverts is the very one that airs them. The expertise of the broadcasters and their production standards is a key aspect in the development of acceptance by the majority of the media houses.
Most of the television adverts are accompanied by songs and slogans that are meant to strike the target audience and increase their chances of remembering (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). Carefully coined phrases end up earning a life of their own whereby they end up being used in the different contexts. Most of the advertisements employ humor as a means of attaining the attention of the users. There is connection between the use of humor and power of persuasion in the advertisement.
For the adverts to work there is need for the advert developers to use the popular culture to promote the adverts (Altman, 1989). Adverts run on the audience and viewership targeting in the advertising has become more accurate in the wake of stiff competition between the companies in the sector. The development of network whereby the advertisements will run also calls for additional content that sells.
Content could be differentiated to fit in the needs of the target audience. Most of the target audiences are classed according to the most probable time of viewership. The adverts targeting the children will be slotted for the time after that have come back home from school or weekends the slotting of the adverts focuses on the products that are most appealing to the children (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). The targeting could be slotted for the male audience during events such as the news and the sporting events. Most of the adverts that are relevant to men are slotted in these times since the audience for the adverts will be higher. The female market is targeted during the programs such as telenovelas and fashion shows (Altman, 1989).
Therefore, the trend in the advertising has been pervaded by instances of targeting whereby the main criteria for slotting adverts is the likelihood of the advert meeting reaching the majority of the target audience. Therefore, the slotting of the advert has to be accompanied by a popular culture. The traditional approach of targeting is till used in the current times (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). However, there have been more changes in the advertisement arena that have been developed to conform to the needs of the customers and meet the demands of the organization.
There has been a focus on the increment of the number of adverts broadcasted. Most of the companies have come up with innovative ways of increasing the number of adverts. Some of the new approaches to advertising include cutting of the programs through editing of the parts that are unnecessary to the plot development or fast tracking the program to increase the time allocated for the advertisement (Altman, 1989).
The modern adverts are shorter and more interesting such that the intended customer is captivated and moved. This way the time spent on television viewership is comprised of advertisements. The adverts could be run differently or developed such that each bit of an advert on the same product is designed differently to suit the needs of the customer (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). Therefore, the customer is informed about the same product in different ways.
In the modern day, the advertisement shave assumed the approach whereby every product is presented in a sexualized manner. The advertisers have found ways of sexualizing every product. This was not the case in the previous decades since there was a stricter moral compass that guided the people (Altman, 1989). The use of the sex symbols is appealing to the majority of the target population since the models used are prominent members in the social circles. In the current time, all adverts run on the television are used to portray some element of sexual aspect. This has been the main way used by the television to depict the differences in perceptions that they have permeated the modern viewers.
In the current times, the televisions have employed more use of the music instead of the jingles. Traditionally the adverts were companied by a jingle and a slogan (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). However, in the current times, the music that accompanies the adverts is real, indicative of the real and popular trends. The depiction of the television advertisements in a different light has led to the development of the perspective that the advertisements have been changing.
In the modern world, advertisement is more focused. The majority of the advertisements in the current viewer ships are more focused on the communication of the said message (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). The focused nature of the adverts has led to the differentiation of the modern advertisements from the traditional ones in terms of the time taken by the modern advert to successfully run.
The modern advertisements are shorter since the message being communicated is not permeated with the instances of bulk. If any scene or action in an advert does not meet the needs of the customer does not communicate a message of the product to the potential customers, there is a likelihood that the parts will be scrapped off and the important message only will be left. The advertisement designers have realized that the wasted time can be saved and the shorter advert be run more than once on the same budget (Altman, 1989). Therefore, the modern advertisements are more focused on the costs of the adverts as well as the message.
The advertisements have also been permeated with instances of contradictory goals. In the current time, there have instances when the companies seem to be making advertisements of the products or practices that would be detrimental to their business (Bellman, Schweda & Varan, 2010). For instance, Coca Cola was forced to make an advert on the healthy living while there are obvious signs that continued use of the product leads to the detrimental effect.
Dove was forced to change its approach to advertisements by using real women as opposed to the models while the assumption of the attained beauty was one of the main reason that the women bought the product (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). Therefore, the modern advertisements have been permeated with instances of the inclusion of the new perspective such as corporate social responsibility while promoting the use of a given product.
The modern advertisement has been an affected by the different technologies that are developing. For instance, there is a rapid effect on the modern advertisement from the continued exposure to the modern technology such as internet (Bellman, Schweda & Varan, 2010). The introduction of the interment has been a major threat to the development of the viable campaign. Therefore, the modern portrayal of advertisements has led to the battle between the television and the internet.
More people are using the internet as the medium of communication and reception of new information. Therefore, the use of the internet has been developed over the years. How the people relate to the new development has proven to be a major source of impediments to the modern advertising (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). There are instances of concerns over the role of the new development in the traditional advertisement. For instance, the websites that offer new can also offer some other entertaining aspects (Wilbur, 2008). Therefore, the customers are more likely to use the internet for their daily entertainment news compared to the television.
Additionally, the television programs that used of are the main source of attraction of the people to the television can be recorded or purchased differently. Therefore, the bait is no longer working to increases the captivation of the audience to the television (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). Therefore, there have been proposals that his advertisements will be greatly affected. The reduced viewership of the mode of advertisement using that uses the television will be a major game changer in the development of the new advertisement (Hsu & Barker, 2013). There will be more shifts towards the uses of the interment as the main mode of advertisement.
The introduction of the internet as a mode of advertisement has led to the development of more liking of the platform since compared to the television, the users of the internet have the ability of using the platform quietly without having to watch disruptive commercials. The commercials in the case of the internet channels such as YouTube are only scheduled for a mere five seconds regardless of how big the video content is (Bellman, Schweda & Varan, 2010). This aspect has led to the development of more liking of the internet as a mode of viewership compared to the traditional mode of advertisement using the television.
Another aspect that has made the internet advertising more viable and appealing to the companies and the viewers if the fact that the interment advertisement has a better way of targeting people (Hsu & Barker, 2013). In the internet marketing, search engine optimization and the recording of the search patterns of a user helps the internet companies come up with the best adverts that are relevant for the target customer (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). There are two significant effects of increased accuracy in targeting.
One of the effect is the increased amount of the flow to the company’s website. The targeted customers may be interested in the company tight it being advertised and visit it for more information (Hsu & Barker, 2013). Therefore, the company has a more opportunity of one on one marketing whereby the information disseminated will be used for the developed of the desired output only.
The customers also stand to gain from the internet marketing. One of the main disruptions of the conventional commercial breaks is no longer present (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). For instance, a person will only get disruptions that inform him of the relevant products to his life as opposed of the breaks that are meant for the general market.
The intent marketing will change the approach used by the major advertisement companies in the development of the commercials. The commercials of the modern day will have to be more focused on the development of the desired output (Bellman, Schweda & Varan, 2010). It will also have to be inclusive of the main needs of the customers hence the more tolerance towards the mode of advertisement (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). Another important feature with the new development is that the customer has more choice when it comes to the determination of whether to continue viewing the content or not (Wilbur, 2008).
This is a different aspect in advertising compared to the conventional advertisement that focuses on the promotion of a product to the general customer base without creating the need elimination criteria (Hsu & Barker, 2013). In the internet-based marketing, the person has the power of removing the commercial from his careen after some time (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). Therefore, there is no need of sitting through a commercial that is irrelevant to the needs of the person.
The future of the advertisement is hinged on the ability of the companies to take up different modes of marketing (Wilbur, 2008). The new frontier in advertisement will be determined by the rate at which the companies implement digital marketing. The unbundling of the television will be the main change in the modern advertising (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). The development of the full digital approach to advertising will determine the outcome of the advertisement.
Digital advertising will be the new shaping element in the television advertising (Wilbur, 2008). The current approach to the advertisement creation entails the development of the digital content that meets the needs of the customers. The design of the content is based on the reproduction of the material that used to be run in the past.
The new landscape of television advertising will entail audience buying. Audience buying will change the real approach to the content purchase (Bellman, Schweda & Varan, 2010). Instead of buying the content as a proxy, the television companies will be able to buy the demographics and the behavioral data (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). This data will be used in the design of the television advertisements.
The connection of the television adverts to the social media has been the main aspect of the traffic driving (Harris, Sarda, Schwartz & Brownell, 2013). However, the new platform will lead to the situation whereby the information or the calls for action will be geared towards the more real and engaging aspects such as online purchases. Therefore, instead of mere sift of the publicity. The new advertisement front will be the determinant of the buying behavior (Bellman, Schweda & Varan, 2010). Therefore, the digital platform will offer more insights on the development of the television advertisements.
Altman, K. (1989). Television as Gendered Technology: Advertising the American Television Set. Journal Of Popular Film And Television, 17(2), 46-56.
Bellman, S., Schweda, A., & Varan, D. (2010). The Residual Impact of Avoided Television Advertising. Journal Of Advertising, 39(1), 67-82.
Harris, J., Sarda, V., Schwartz, M., & Brownell, K. (2013). Redefining â€œChild-Directed Advertisingâ€ to Reduce Unhealthy Television Food Advertising. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 44(4), 358-364.
Hsu, S., & Barker, G. (2013). Individualism and collectivism in Chinese and American television advertising. International Communication Gazette, 75(8), 695-714.
Wilbur, K. (2008). How the Digital Video Recorder (DVR) Changes Traditional Television Advertising. Journal Of Advertising, 37(1), 143-149.
A television advertisement is a span of programming on television that is produced and paid for by an organization intending to convey a message. The message is typically to market a service or a product that is produced by the organization. Most privately owned television networks get a significant amount of revenue from advertising. The advertisements or commercials in the television networks usually run from a few seconds to several minutes depending on the message that is intended to be passed to the audience. Such advertisements have been used to promote a wide variety of ideas, goods and services since the start of television.
The first television advertisement that was paid and the official was broadcast in the United States of America on July 1, 1941. It was broadcast over the New York Station WNBT (currently WNBC). It was aired before a baseball game between the Philadelphia Phillies and the Brooklyn Dodgers. The announcement was for Bulova watches. The company paid anywhere from four to nine dollars according to various reports. The first television advertisement in the United Kingdom was on 22nd September 1955 on ITV, advertising the toothpaste brand Gibbs SR. The first television broadcast in Asia was on August 28, 1953 on Nippon Television and advertised Seikosha (now Seiko) which displayed a clock with the current time.
Since the first television advertisement was aired, a lot has changed. For instance, some of the products that could be advertised then cannot be advertised now, for instance, the advertisement of cigarettes was banned in the 1970s in the United States. The cost of production of an advertisement has also increased with the most expensive advertisements being aired during shows such as The Super Bowl American game.
Today, there is regulation that controls the advertisements placed on television. Such regulation did not exist at the onset of television advertising. The process of television advertising mainly involves two main tasks; that is; creation of an advertisement that satisfies broadcast standards and placement of the advertisement on the television network to reach the targeted media. The accomplishment of the first step means different things depending on the regulation in place in the particular part of the world.
For instance, in the United Kingdom, before the advertisement is aired, clearance must be given by the body Clearcast. The clearance gives a guarantee to the broadcaster that the advertisement meets certain legal guidelines. Due to this, special extended clearance usually applies to gambling ads as well as medical and food products.
These days there are advertising agencies that will aid you in the process of creating an advertisement. When you want to advertise, it is important that you choose an advertising agency as well as a television production company with expertise in these two arenas. It is preferable to choose that accomplishes the tasks of producing advertisements as well as placing airtime in television channels.
It is important to note that broadcast quality of the production as well as meeting of the broadcast standards is important before the advertisement is accepted by the television networks. Due to the emergence of cheap cameras as well as video software, there are numerous individuals who are offering the services of production of advertisements on the internet. However, for people who do not regularly place ads in television networks, their productions are often rejected due to failure to meet standards due to inexperience with creating broadcast-ready content.
Currently, numerous advertisements usually feature songs or melodies and even slogans that are designed to be striking and memorable. These slogans are designed to remain in the minds of the viewers long after the advertising campaign. This catch phrases and ad jingles may eventually take on lives of their own, spawning gags that appear in television shows, films, comics, literature and magazines. These advertising elements that are long lasting even end up taking a place in the pop culture history in the particular area where they appear. A good example is the phrase " Winston tastes good like a cigarette should".
This phrase was from the advertising campaign for Winston Cigarettes that lasted for eighteen years from the 1950s to the 1970s. Variations of this catchy phrase as well as direct quotations continued to appear long after the advertising campaign had ended. Advertising agencies often use humor as a tool in their creative marketing campaigns. This is because the use of humor resonates with many audiences. The audience will be more persuaded if they end up laughing. The message in the advertisement will remain longer in the minds of the audience due to the use of humor. In fact, many psychological studies have been conducted in an attempt to demonstrate the effects of humor and the relationship between the use of humor and empowering advertising persuasion.
Another feature that is also often used in advertisements is animation. The pictures that are presented may vary from the animation that has been hand drawn to computer animation. The use of animated characters enables the advertisement to have a certain appeal that is difficult to have with mere product displays or actors. The use of animation also enables spoofing of the advertisement from changes in fashion that would enable dating it. Due to this reason, an advertisement using animation can be very long-running, spanning several decades in many instances. Some good examples are the series of advertisements for Crackle and Pop, starring snap and also Tony the Tiger. The animation is usually combined with real actors.
Other ad campaigns that are long running catch people by surprise. Some even trick the viewer, such as the Energizer Bunny ad series. It commenced in the late 1980s as a simple comparison advertisement. It featured a room full of bunnies that were operated by batteries. The bunnies were seen pounding their drums. All of them gradually slowed down, except the bunny with the Energizer battery. Some years later, there was a revised version of this original advertisement which featured the Energizer bunny escaping the stage and moving on (the announcer described the bunny as he "keeps going and going and going…).
This advertisement was followed by what appeared to be another advertisement: viewers did not know that the advertisement that followed was a parody of other well-known advertisements. This is until the Energizer bunny suddenly intrudes into the situation. While this is happening the announcer says, "still going.." This was the Energizer's company's way of saying that their battery lasts longer than that of other leading batteries. This advertisement campaign lasted for around fifteen years. It has itself been imitated by others such as Coors Light Beer advertisement, in motion pictures and current ads by GEICO Insurance.
Over the years, there has emerged rating systems that measure television viewership by audiences in various nations. The Nielsen rating system in the United States measures the viewership of television programs by audiences. It provides a means for the television broadcasters to find out how popular their shows are among the American audience. With this information, they can be able to determine what to charge advertisers for airtime.
Currently, advertisements take up a fairly consistent proportion of time for each hour in a broadcast day. The time allocated for commercial breaks has become longer. Back in the sixties, a typical hour-long American show would run for fifty-one minutes with the exclusion of advertisements. Currently, a similar show would run for 42 minutes long, excluding advertisements.
In the United States today, a typical thirty-minute block of time includes eight minutes of advertisements- two minutes for local and six minutes for national advertising, Which leaves only 22 minutes for actual programming. For instance, a broadcast today of The Wizard of Oz which is a 101-minute film would last two hours and fifteen minutes including advertisements. However, in the 1960s, the same film would last for two hours with the advertisements.
Put another way, over the course of ten hours, American television viewers would be shown around three full hours of advertisements. This is twice what they would have been exposed to in the 1960s. it also means that if a 1960s show is rerun today, the content would have to be edited by nine minutes to make room for the extra advertisements that are shown today. The extra time that is given to advertisements sometimes does not go down well with some television viewers as the advertisements interrupt the program that they are watching. It also increases the time taken to watch a certain program on television.
Important to note is that in the 1950s and the 1960s, the average length of advertisements was one minute. However, as time went by, the average length shrank to about 30 seconds. Sometimes there are advertisements that are 10 seconds long. However, more advertisements are shown during the break today. This has mainly happened due to the increase in the number of firms or individuals wishing to advertise their products or services on television. Previously, television advertisements were coded via an ISCI code for identification by broadcasters. However, the Ad- ID has been recommended as the standard method of identification as of March 2014.
The television advertisement is considered the most effective advertising format for the mass market in the United States. This was not the case in the early years of the twentieth century. Increased uptake of the television by American households has spurred this growth. This is reflected by the high prices that these television networks charge for broadcasting airtime especially during popular television events. For instance, the annual Super Bowl football game show on television networks generates a lot of commercial advertisements that are highly priced. The average cost of one 30 - second television spot in the course of the game has reached 4.5 million US dollars. This is because of the large viewership that the game commands (estimated to be about 100 million viewers).
The advertisers have also begun to consider various demographic characteristics when producing their advertisements. There is a suggestion that television executives believe that the advertisers usually consider the 18-49 age demographic in their advertisements. Older viewers are of nearly no interest to advertisers. This is because they do not watch television as frequently as their younger companions and their unwillingness to change their buying habits. The products that are intended for the older generation of consumers are advertised during the time that there are programs that appeal to these older adults.
The number of viewers in the audience within the target demographic is more important to ad revenues than the total number of viewers. Advertising Age states that during the 2007-08 season, the show Grey's Anatomy charged 490,000 dollars for a single advertisement. This compared to only 248,000 dollars per advertisement during the airing of CSI despite the show CSI having around five million more viewers. Also, due to the demographic strength of Friends, it was able to charge three times as much for ads as Murder, she wrote, even though both series had almost equal total viewer numbers during the seasons they were aired together.
Television Broadcast networks are concerned by the increase in the use of DVRs by young viewers. This has resulted in the live viewing audience consisting of the older viewers and consequently, this has led to lower ad rates. Television advertisers may target certain viewers in the population such as certain income levels, races and gender. In recent years, studies have shown that shows that target younger women are more profitable than those that target younger men. This is because younger women tend to spend more time viewing the television than younger men. Also, younger women tend to be more easily influenced into buying different goods that are advertised.
Television advertising in the UK is considerably cheaper than in the Unites States. The current record for an advertisement slot on British television is 250,000 pound for a 30 – second slot. This was during the airing of the series Britain's Got Talent in 2010. It should, however, be noted that while advertising in British television is cheaper, this is due to the lower population in the United Kingdom as compared to the United States of America.
Television advertisement production companies currently spend a lot of time and money in trying to come up with one single thirty- second television spot. This is because a single television advertisement can be repeatedly broadcast over the course of several weeks, months or even years. Therefore, the advertisement needs to be persuasive enough to enable the target market buy the advertised goods or services. It needs to pass the intended message within the thirty seconds that it is expected to run.
This vast expenditure has led to a number of high-quality advertisements with high production values and with the latest special effects technology, the best music and the most popular personalities. Some of the television commercials are so elaborately produced that they can be considered as miniature thirty-second movies. In fact, some movie directors have participated in the production of some of these advertisements. For instance, film director Ridley Scott's directed a television advertisement for the Apple Macintosh computer that was broadcast in 1984. It was one of his most famous cinematic moments.
Despite the popularity of the advertisements, many people consider them to be an annoyance. This is due to a number of objects. One of the reasons is that the sound volume of the advertisements tends to be higher than that of regular programs. Other annoyance factors are the increasing number of advertisements that are played as well as the overplaying of the same advertisement.
The playing of the numerous advertisements has also resulted into longer commercial breaks. This is because of the use of the television as the main medium to advertise leading to ad campaigns by everyone from fast food restaurants, political campaigns, cell phone companies and small businesses, to name but just a few. The core reason that people find advertisements to be annoying is that they might not be interested in what the advertisement has to offer that moment. However, is the ad strikes a chord with the viewer or has an entertainment value in addition to the message, the viewer will tend to stay with the ad, perhaps even looking forward to viewing it once again.
There are some restrictions that have been placed on advertisements. For instance, from the year 1971 on wards, ads that featured cigarettes were banned from televisions in America Advertisements for alcohol products are allowed, however, the use of an alcohol product is not allowed in a TV advertisement. The Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade commission have laid out regulations for TV advertising, giving an outline of restrictions on certain content, products and claims and mandating minimum technical standards that should be observed. Additional content standards are decided upon by individual television broadcast entities to accommodate community standards, local laws, and their particular audience demographic.
Downey, K (2008-07-07). DVRs giving broadcast more gray hairs. Media Life Magazine.
Plasser, F., & Plasser, G. (2002). Global political campaigning: A worldwide analysis of campaign professionals and their practices. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Santiago, R (2007). For Advertising Purposes, 'Grey's Anatomy' May Well be Colored Green. BuddyTV.
Stewart R. W, (July 6, 1941), Imagery For Profit, New York Times,
Storey.M, (2009), THE TV COLUMN: Not in 18-49 age group? TV execs write you off, Arkansas Democrat Gazette.
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