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The city of Detroit is a city that has witnessed a drastic metamorphosis over the last 50 to 60 years. This metamorphosis has seen the city of Detroit change from a central industrial hub to a city that is on the verge of filing for bankruptcy. This drastic economic change has had a detrimental effect on the society of Detroit and the composition of this society. This has affected all the scopes of Detroit city and the Detroit society at large (Farley, Danziger, Holzer, 2002).
The effects of this drastic change had left many Detroiters poorer than they were before the collapse of the industrial system that many cities in the United States of America envied. The race and ethnicity of the city of Detroit is largely influenced by the economic state of the Detroiters and the city at large. The city of Detroit’s race and ethnicity composition varies greatly from the city to the suburbs, as well (Zenk, 2004).
The city of Detroit has always been marred by a barrage of racial discrimination challenges. In the past, Detroit was a city in which people lived in apartheid-like conditions. The inhabitants of Detroit were not allowed to mingle and live freely, in spite of the racial diversity that the city had. The city of Detroit was always separated, leaving the white community and the black community leading completely different lives. Many of the whites that lived in Detroit lived in the suburbs, where they enjoyed good housing and proper amenities that catered to their needs.
On the other hand, many black inhabitants of Detroit lived miserable lives in run-down neighborhoods where even the basic needs were considered luxuries. The racial disparity of Detroit was so much that housing developers were not allowed to put up housing projects (intended for the white community) in proximity to black neighborhoods that were considered unsafe and unfit for human inhabitation. One of the highlights that confirmed this racial disparity between the whites and the blacks of Detroit is the erection of a half-a-mile-long wall by a housing developer in the 1940s. This wall was erected to separate a black neighborhood from a potentially white neighborhood.
At the time, the city of Detroit was largely African-American with the white community based in the suburbs (Zenk, 2004). The blacks were mainly involved in doing menial work such as being maids, construction workers, as well as factory workers. The booming factory business in the city of Detroit was responsible for the large racial disparity between whites and blacks. The many blacks formed the majority of the casual laborers at the factories while the few whites formed the management staff at the factories, with very few being casual laborers (Farley, Danziger, Holzer, 2002).
This left the white community richer than the black community hence it was able to afford good housing in the suburbs. The black community lived in poverty and was forced to reside in the run-down areas of Detroit. The movement of factories form the core of the urban areas to the suburbs provided an opportunity for the white community to follow, but the black community was restricted from moving to the suburbs and ended up remaining in the urban core of Detroit. This played a central role in the segregation and disparity witnessed between the black and white communities in the following years, culminating in the 1967 Detroit riot that was also called the 12th street riot.
The city of Detroit has also realized change in its composition over the years. It was common place to have the white community living in the suburbs and the black community living in the urban core, but this practice is shifting. Over the past few years, Detroit has been a center of change with the white community moving into the urban core of Detroit whilst the black community moves more into the suburbs. A survey of the population census of 2010 shows that more black households are moving into the suburbs and the white community is moving into the city (Quickfacts.census.gov, 2013).
This change is evidence of the changing attitudes of both the black and white communities in Detroit. The city of Detroit is largely black and experiences very high levels of poverty. Ironically, north of the city of Detroit is the county of Oakland, that is largely white and, the richest county in the state. These two neighborhoods contrast the economic status of Detroit and that of Oakland.
The city of Detroit has also evolved from a city that comprised white and black communities to one that also comprises the Hispanic community, the Native American and Alaskan community, as well as the Asian community. The black population forms 81% of the city of Detroit while the white population forms a meager 10% of the city of Detroit inhabitants (Quickfacts.census.gov, 2013). The Hispanic community claims 7% of the population and the remaining communities comprise a meager 2% (Quickfacts.census.gov, 2013). The diversity of Detroit continues to grow with each passing day as testament to the changes that Detroit continues to witness in its political, social and economic landscapes.
The city of Detroit is a diverse city that houses many races. The racial divide of Detroit skews in favor of the African –American community, although there are a number of other races in the city of Detroit (Farley, Danziger, Holzer, 2002). The city of Detroit has the white community forming the vast majority of the professional body. Many of the white inhabitants of Detroit are well educated and take up managerial positions in most of the companies in Detroit.
However, many of the black inhabitants form the basis of many companies in terms of labor (Quickfacts.census.gov, 2013). They occupy a vast majority of the lower employment levels such s janitors, cleaners, parking meter attendants and community workers. They share these opportunities with the Hispanic and Native American communities. The Asian community is primarily engaged in business, with many Asians being self-employed (Quickfacts.census.gov, 2013).
The social standing of the inhabitants of Detroit is a replica of the financial status of the city of Detroit. However, this social standing is directly proportional to the living conditions of the inhabitants of Detroit. Many individuals living in the suburbs of Detroit form the middle class of the city of Detroit (Zenk, 2004). The inhabitants of the urban core of Detroit form the lower classes of Detroit. This is evident in the living condition that these two groups of individuals experience. The professions that many of these individuals hold also contribute to the social levels that these individuals have. It is also noteworthy that the jobs that many of these individuals hold may have been influenced by their race and ethnicity, making Detroit a discriminate city.
The city of Detroit continues to face a web of challenges in its quest to re-define itself and re-establish itself as an industrial powerhouse (Farley, Danziger, Holzer, 2002). It is very sad that the challenge of racial and ethnic division is still a challenge that looks the city of Detroit right in the face.
Farley, R., Danziger, S., & Holzer, H. J. (2002). Detroit divided. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Zenk, S. N. (2004). Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and food access in metropolitan Detroit: Geographic information systems and spatial analysis.
Quickfacts.census.gov (2013). Detroit (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau.
The race-conflict approach is a theory that is meant at achieving equality between individuals of different races and ethnical categories, without raising conflict. The human race is comprised of individuals of different racial and ethnical backgrounds. The diversity in people often causes there to be conflicts and inequality within the different groups. Human relations have been based on the difference between diverse groups. Therefore, the differences between the groups cause some individuals to classify themselves as different from others. The result of such actions is that some certain groups feel superior and such groups despise other groups. The difference between an ethnic community and a race is that a race consists of individuals with the same physical characteristics. An ethnic group, on the other hand, refers to individuals with the same cultural traits.
Multiculturalism, on the other hand, refers to the collection of different cultures in a unified society. A multicultural society comprises of cultures from all the ethnic groups in the society, without one culture being dominant than the other. Multiculturalism is aimed at preserving the cultures of the different ethnic groups, in order for each group to have a culture they can relate to. Multiculturalism also aims at teaching the different ethnic groups to learn, respect, accept and understand the cultures of other groups. A multicultural society focuses on making the different groups embrace interaction and communication. The focus on interaction and communication brings about understanding, peace and harmony in the society.
The United States culture is a combination of different cultures that have been borrowed or assimilated from different ethnic groups present in the nation. The United States culture is in most cases referred to as the Western culture, due to the geographical position of the nation. Western culture is a combination of many ethnic divides, with strong Latin and African influences and some part of Asian influence. Western culture is the result of the ethnic diversity caused by the mass immigration of individuals in the late 19th and 20th century. The Western culture is often viewed as a strong religious group, with major Christianity traits. However, Christianity is not the only religion popular in the States and the diversity in culture makes the nation one of the most religious nations.
One of the major American values is individuality, and children are encouraged to depend on themselves from an early age. Americans also respect their privacy and tend to prefer spending time alone. Another American value is that no one is superior to the other; therefore, individuals have the same rights. Americans are encouraged to use their time wisely, and a waste of time is considered as losing money. Another value of American culture is informality, and this is why it is not a big deal for a student to go to school dressed in casual wear. There is also the belief that for one to achieve their goals and ambitions in the future, they have to change to make it possible. One admiring value about the American culture is that individuals are encouraged to solve their problems without the need of a mediator.
Social-conflict approach shows that conflict is the result of inequality among different individuals in the groups. Therefore, the inequality brings about tension, which results in conflict and change. In most cases, the people who cause conflict and change in the society are those who feel that they are being despised or avoided because they do not have wealth or certain traits. Therefore, such individuals or groups feel despised and as minors in the society; the groups might decide to violent activities and conflict. Counterculture refers to a culture that has norms of beliefs that differs from those of the mainstream society. Counterculture is meant to bring out ideas that are not agreed upon by the mainstream society and may cause changes in the culture.
The American Society itself is a society that comprises of both social-conflict approach and counterculture. For a long time, the American Society has been curved as a society that favors the white race as a superior race compared to other races in the nation. The culture has resulted in the discrimination of African-Americans or whites, Asians, and Latinos. However, over the years the culture has been developed to accept people of other races and treat them in the same way Whites are treated. It is quite sad that in this century, there are still some individuals that treat Blacks and other races as minorities in the society. Therefore, with such conditions being set in the society, Blacks and the other races feel obliged to prove that they are not a minority in the society.
Structural function focuses on the use of idealism and a culture to promote stability and solidarity. The approach of structural function is aimed at looking at the organization of the society as a whole, and the involvement of the society and its cultures. The structural function approach looks at the society from the view of social functions and social structure. Structural function also looks into elements in the society like norms, traditions, customs and institutions. Structural-function approach is compared the members of the society to body organs. Therefore, members of the society just like body parts are supposed to make sure the body, society is functioning as a whole. Members of the society are supposed to be responsible for their actions for they have an impact on the whole community.
In a way, the structural function approach has a positive impact on the operation of the society as a whole. The cooperation of all the members of the society ensures that the society runs like one organization with a common goal. The structural function approach can be compared to giving members of a company or organization different goals according to their abilities. However, all the workers despite the different goals need to be aware of the common goal of the organization and put it into consideration. The structural function approach focuses broadly on social structures, and this defines the society as a whole.
Currently in the world, gender differences exist in almost every arena of social interaction. From the beginning of the life of a human being, birth, gender differences are in existence up to the death of an individual. In some cases, gender expectation may begin even before birth, with the parents buying clothes of a certain color, expecting a certain gender of the child. There is a difference between sex and gender, and most people seem to have no idea of the difference. Sex refers to the biological identity of an individual while gender refers the socially acquired expectations that come with being either male or female. The media has not avoided being caught up in the gender issues in their communication (Wharton, 2011, 215). The media has been the victim of trying to portray one message, but instead the reception is the exact opposite. The cultural origin of gender is very apparent when one is looking at the other cultures. For example, the American Society and the Western culture in overall, individuals tend to think of femininity and masculinity in dichotomous terms. In other cultures, this idea is challenged, and individuals seem to have less distinct views of femininity and masculinity.
There are a couple of sociological theories of gender that the media can use to deliver their message in a clear way without bringing confusion. Feminist theories address issues in gender, and there is the belief that every individual should be free to grow their talents and develop their personal interests. Therefore, the society needs to remove the barriers that avoid the individuals from growing their talents. There are a couple of gender issues that have been going on in the societies in the world, without leaving out the American society. One of the issues is the oppression and objectification of women. Women have been the subject of oppression for decades now, despite the trend reducing. Women are denied some job positions because there is a culture that such jobs are only befitting for males. The objectification of women is another issue that has been in the open for quite long (Wharton, 2011, 229). The United States media is a representation of the society and how it favors gender inequality. This is evident through printing, television, music and advertisements. The mainstream media is at the top of promoting gender inequality, with the idea of hetero-masculinity showing that men are dominant over women.
For example, examples of such films are superhero films, in which most of the superheroes are male. There are very few superheroes who are women, showing that men are the dominant culture. The media teaches that men are ultra-masculine by depicting them as physically strong and violent. Beer commercials are an example of advertisements that show men are an ultra-masculine gender. Therefore, it is common for men to oppress other men in case they fail to conform to the idea of men being ultra-masculine (Wharton, 2011, 200). The media is also an instrument of the objectification of women, and it is common to be compared with objects that can be owned. Research shows that the objectification of women in the media has some serious repercussions on the society as a whole. The context of advertisements is the perfect example that the media facilitates gender inequality. The image created by the media is not advisable especially because of the image it portrays on the young. When a child is about the age of five years, they already know that the man is the dominant sex while the woman is the lesser sex.
Wharton, Amy S. The Sociology of Gender: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.
The histories of the White and Black races of the United States reveal some fundamental differences and similarities and which will form the substance of this discussion. To the undiscerning minds, whites and blacks are diverse racial groups that have very little in common, but anthropologists have made proved that in spite of the perceived differences mostly in physical characteristics, the White and Black races share more in common than has earlier been anticipated. This article thus aims to highlight the notable similarities and differences between these two racial groups with regards to population, social status, social functions such as weddings and marriages, and inheritance.
Whites comprise the largest racial group in the United States while Blacks are the biggest minority group. The population of the country, according to a census bureau report of 2018, is 327,589,916 and out of this, whites constitute 76.9 percent of the population while blacks make up 13.3 percent. Whether this distinct difference in population sizes has played a role in elevating the social status of whites is unclear, but this group has over the years been regarded as the true representatives of Americanism. On the other hand, blacks have always been considered as the antithesis of social status and have endured century-long discrimination at the hands of the dominant white group. The low social status of blacks can perhaps be attributed to their history in slavery when power and authority were vested in the white race while servant hood and submission in the black race. Early American thinkers like Thomas Jefferson believed in the “inferiority” of the African American race and was one of the proponents of scientific racism.
There are also practices that seem to indicate some unity in diversity between whites and blacks. For example, while it is evident that both groups carry out elaborate social functions such as weddings, funerals, and etcetera, the context and concept of these functions are characteristically different. For instance, white marriages and weddings are noted to be mostly private affairs involving immediate family members of the groom and the bride. In some cases, members of the extended families can also be invited, but the primary duties are carried out by immediate family members. Black weddings and marriages, on the other hand, are communal affairs open to every person related to the groom and the bride. There are ordinarily large gatherings of people, a lot of merrymaking and good cheer. Anthropologists argue that this trend borrows heavily from a traditional African culture that celebrated the coming together of two families. Thus from an African point of view, marriage was not just about the couples but also about the inter-family bonds that were created as a result of the marriage.
In terms of inheritance, there are striking differences in how these two racial groups transfer wealth from older generations to younger generations. For example, whereas inheritance is a highly elaborate affair among the whites, blacks abide by a system informed by cultural values and norms. When white parents are about to die they write wills in which they dictate how their property will be shared and in most cases, all the children are given a share of the property irrespective of whether they are male or female. The white race believes in gender equality and strives to instill similar sentiments to their younger generations. However, blacks also share their properties among their children, but more emphasis is placed on the male children. This practice can also be traced to their African heritage where the male child was treated better than the female child because the former was believed to be responsible for continuing a family lineage and hence was allocated more resources to be capable of bringing up a family and adequately providing for them. Girls, on the other hand, were treated as “guests” in the sense that when they grew up, they got married to other families where they would acquire the wealth of their husband. Besides, girls were only tasked with rearing children; the duty of providing for the children was placed on the father who also naturally, inherited property from their side. However, in the modern era, most black families are increasingly adopting the position of white people and are promoting the sharing of wealth equally among children, but there is a sense that the male children are more likely to receive a larger share of their parents’ properties relative to the girls. Nevertheless, interracial marriages have seen cultural practices regarded as redundant being dropped for those that are seen to be progressive like the sharing of property equally among children. This can be viewed as a similarity between these two racial groups.
Even on the face of it, most observers might see the white and black races as being fundamentally different; anthropological studies continue to prove that the perceived differences are merely variations in how representatives of these two racial groups undertake various roles in perpetuating universal ideals. In other words, these differences are a testament to the reality of cultural relativity – the idea that every society has its unique ways of promoting a universal ideal and that no one approach can be regarded as the being the best or the worst. Thus, in this article, we have highlighted some of the differences between Whites and Blacks and also, some similarities that these two groups share.
Race and racism are still some of the most divisive issues that characterize the American society. Many sociologists have studied these two issues and have presented theories and concepts based on their understanding of these issues. One such sociologist was W.E.B. Du Bois who developed several theories and concepts that highlighted what he believed was a white man instigated fallacy about black inferiority. Later on Karl Marx developed the social conflict theory to explain the excesses of capitalism. This article examines the similarities between these two ideas from the past and present and how they have been used to address an emotive topic in American society.
Keywords: race, racism, double consciousness, the veil, social conflict theory.
DuBois Then and Now
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (or just W.E.B. Du Bois) was an American sociologist who amazed the academic world with his understanding of the issue of race and racism in the American society. This deep understanding of issues that were highly divisive in the society – race, and racism made DuBois develop concepts and theories that to this day continue to influence the science of sociology both in practice and in principle. It is instructive to note that W.E.B. Du Bois was of mixed parentage, but in a racial society where the line between white and black allows for no middle grounds, he was considered black. Growing up in a white-dominated society meant that Du Bois experienced the reality of racism which spurred him to use his intellectual prowess to fight the vice. Along the way, he developed theories, concepts, and treatise which highlighted the need for the wider American society to devalue race and racism and embrace racial inclusivity. In one of his books, The Souls of Black Folk, Du Bois centers the theme of the book on race by these famous sentence – “the problem of the 20th century is the problem of the color line.” (Aptheker, 1989, p. 211).
Du Bois held that capitalism was the cause of racism and this made him sympathetic to socialism which he believed catered for the interests of the larger community, unlike capitalism which encouraged individualism and mass exploitation of the disadvantaged. Seeing the plight that people of color all over the world drove him to champion for the independence of African colonies from their colonial masters and was even regarded as a pan-Africanist. His trips to several states within and outside of the United States further opened his eyes to the widespread discrimination and prejudice that people of color were subjected to hence his commitment to using education and employment as tools for the emancipation of the oppressed.
The concept of double consciousness
One of the fundamental concepts Du Bois came up with is his sustained criticism of race/racism is the double consciousness – a term he used to describe the internal conflicts experienced by minority and marginalized groups in a white-dominated society. He first used this term in his autoethnographic work titled The Souls of Black Folk, where he referred to the psychological challenge that black people faced of always looking at themselves through the eyes of racist white society. He added that African Americans and people of color by extension measured themselves “by means of a nation that looked back in contempt.” (Du Bois, 1994, p. 221). Du Bois felt that this peculiarity obligated Black people to have a sense of two-ness – of being two people at the same time, i.e., a negro and an American and always being in a state of unreconciled strivings.
The double consciousness also referred to the warring ideals that inhabited one dark body; a situation brought about by black people simultaneously being inside and outside a white society. He noted that by trying to preserve their racial identity and at the same time trying to fit in a white community, blacks got into conflict with their ideals and values. Nevertheless, he was of the opinion that black awareness was concerned with advancing pan-Negroism - the belief that the culture of black people could be used to temper the selfish pursuits of profit and which became his basis for black people to unite. All along, Du Bois maintained that discrimination was stifling the development of equal but separate facilities and that this created tension between the states of being black and American at the same time. He asserted that the signs that this system was destroying the fabric of society were in the pathologies manifested within the people from the black community (Moore, 2005).
The veil and double consciousness were ideals that went hand-in-hand in the sense that one could not exist without the other. In presenting the Veil, Du Bois conceptualized it as a twofold imaginary barrier that separated white from blacks which was the color line (Brodwin, 1972). In the American society, the veil is symbolical of how peoples’ access to opportunities for education, employment, and even social interactions were defined. This veil is what compels white people into structuring the society based on racist logic as a way of building and policing others who are non-white. According to Du Bois, the Veil prevented Whites from seeing Blacks as fellow Americans and hence the need to treat them as fellow humans too.
On the other hand, he also believed that the veil prevented Blacks from having an accurate sense of who they truly were outside the negative black vision they had grown accustomed to. Du Bois considered the veil as being always present but not always felt. He argues that children don’t know about the veil until they reach a certain age when they become aware of it. He also uses an example of John Jones who only notices the existence of the veil after he has left rural Georgia, to pass the message that racial inequality is less felt by people who grow up in segregated black communities. Much as he lived a more privileged life compared to ordinary black Americans, Du Bois talks of instances where he felt that the color of his skin was used to discriminate him. For example, when he was invited to dinner at the commissioner’s house, he was for a while happy until he realized that he could only eat after the white people had eaten.
During his lifetime, Du Bois strived to educate people on the fallacy of race and racism and had this in mind when he wrote that, “the economic foundation of the modern world was based on the recognition and preservation of so-called racial discrimination.” (Green & Smith, 1983, p. 264).
The Social Conflict Theory
A modern theory which would compare with Du Bois’ concepts is the social conflict theory which was developed by Karl Max and posits that most societies are perpetually in a state of conflict because its members are competing for limited resources. This theory argues that in such a case, social order is maintained through power and domination rather than conformity and consensus and that the people with wealth and power hold on to it through any possible means – primarily by oppressing the powerless and the poor (Bystrova & Gottschalk, 2015). In the modern world, class conflicts are the reasons for rising crimes in the society, and therefore those in power have created laws by which they seek to protect themselves and their rights.
For example, banks enact anti-fraud laws to protect themselves from bank fraud just as big companies come up with anti-embezzlement laws to protect themselves from employees who might want to embezzle company finances. However, from the point of view of conflict theory, one can argue that if banks have systems that can prevent fraud, then it would not need anti-fraud laws and the same applies to corporate organizations. These powerful institutions use law enforcement agencies to protect themselves, and according to social conflict theory, law enforcement is used by the dominant groups in society to reduce the threats that they feel they are exposed to by dangerous elements (Bystrova & Gottschalk, 2015). This theory holds that the justice system is in itself biased and is designed to protect the powerful and wealthy. When Karl Marx develop the conflict theory, he had in mind the opportunistic precedence set by capitalism which allowed people to privately own the factors of production and control these for their own profit. On the contrary, he viewed communism as a system that embraced cooperative enterprises, state, and collective ownership. A system that transcended social classes and equally distributed the means of production in a structured manner.
The United States where Du Bois earned his reputation critiquing a system that he believed intentionally oppressed people from the black community is fundamentally capitalist, and according to Marxist criminology, capitalist states eventually create social classes which are also unequal. These theorists assert that capitalist countries equate resources with power and therefore the ascendant class’s supreme goal is to maintain an economically stratified order and thereby dictate the legal and social order. Due to the competitive nature of capitalism, conflicts between in-groups are common, and thus the dominant group will resort to criminal punishment and social control to reduce the threat posed by the other groups.
This theory does seem to mirror the claims of W.E.B. Du Bois that the veil is a creation by a white racist society to keep the black man way from opportunities (economic resources). When Africans were being transported to the Americas as slaves in the early 16th century, power and wealth were already in the hands of the majority white racial group. When President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Declaration in 1863, reality must have hit the white man that a free black man was a real threat to the state of equilibrium that had been established through years of entrenched slavery. It dawned on the white ruling class that an economically empowered black community would endanger their position as the elite and subsequently they devised mechanisms which they believed were vital towards keeping the black man grounded. In the book The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity in the United States (2000), Joan Ferrante argues that race has predominantly been the most effective tool used by the white majority to alienate people of color not only from economic empowerment but also from other opportunities of social development.
Race and racism have typically been used as instruments of oppression and to justify the excesses of the white dominant class in society. The ultimate achievement that the white man accomplished was to convince the black man that his skin color was inferior to all other skin colors and therefore he was also inferior. When a black man is humiliated, denied employment, prevented from accessing basic services in public institutions, it is essentially the white man still trying to burn the narrative of color in the psyche of the black man that his color is inferior…that he is still not worthy of competing with the white man for unlimited resources.
The competition for resources should not be viewed only from an economic point of view but from a holistic perspective that defines resources as anything of value that can improve someone’s standard of life. During the Jim Crow era, blacks and whites were separated at all levels – socially, economically, and even geographically (Jim Crow Laws, 2017). This was a time when discrimination was legalized, and blacks and whites were prevented from associating in the full sense of the word. This type of segregation did not aim to undermine people from the black community economically; it purposed to completely disenfranchise the black man and drive him further towards the periphery of society.
W.E.B. Du Bois committed his life to fighting racism and developed theories and concepts which he used to expose the fallacy that surrounded racist ideologies. Most importantly, he noted that race was a creation of the white society to stifle the growth of the black people. One cannot miss the underlying motive of using race to control the black man. The social conflict theory also expounds on how competition for limited resources leads to societal vices such as racism and discrimination and cites capitalism as the system that is most positioned to embrace race and racism as tools of social control.
Aptheker, H. (1989). The literary legacy of W. E. B. Du Bois. New York, NY: Kraus International Publications.
Brodwin, S. (1972). The Veil Transcended: Form and Meaning in W. E. B. DuBois' "The Souls of Black Folk". Journal of Black Studies, 2(3), 303-321.
Bystrova, E. G., & Gottschalk, P. (2015). Social Conflict Theory and White-collar Criminals: Why Does the Ruling Class Punish their Own? Pakistan Journal of Criminology, 7(1), 1 -15.
Du Bois, W. E. (1994). The Souls of Black Folk. Avenel, NJ: Gramercy Books.
Ferrante, J. (2000). The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity in the United States. London: Pearson.
Green, D. S., & Smith, E. (1983). W.E.B. DuBois and the Concepts of Race and Class. Phylon, 44(4), 262-272.
Jim Crow Laws. (2017). Retrieved February 25, 2018, from PBS: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/freedom-riders-jim-c...
Moore, T. O. (2005). A Fanonian Perspective on Double Consciousness. Journal of Black Studies, 35(6), 751–762.
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