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Organizational efficiency can be defined as the efficiency with what any organization gains the ability to fulfill its objectives. It is measured by comparing the net profit of the organization to its targeted profit margins. Some added parameters are accurate information on the growth and the results obtained by criminal justice personnel after successfully conducting a survey. It is to a greater extent more significant in ensuring that the organization’s operations are taking place in a proper manner. An organization's ability and will in achieving wider efficiency, better performance, and higher productivity is very critical. Application of efficiency theories in the management of criminal justice personnel will help establish a better understanding of the relationship between individuals in this department for successful operations and better results. The models of giving priority, getting accurate and honest feedback and maintaining full attention on a specific job is very helpful when controlling an organization.
Organizational effectiveness according to Mihalicz (2012) can be said to be a concept aimed at determining how effective an organization is in completing tasks and in the process achieving the best results. Some short term areas are equally as important as sustainability, corporate culture and the general concern for others in the organization. Leaders and managers are supposed to be at the forefront in demonstrating the strategy and communicate the best ways to achieve more success. Organizational effectiveness gives different meanings to individual organizations that are engaged in building and improving the leadership of the justice department. Additionally, it is accepted globally when effectiveness is described basing on the 21st century survival and competitiveness criteria (Mihalicz, 2012).
In a bid to deal with the changing world that continues to change quickly with technology and digital communications, bodies charged with enforcing the law are required to have robust control mechanisms. The command chain must be strict with the operation in which the organization is engaged. The crude method of the organizational pyramid, with the chief at the peak and other junior officers down below, has to be tilted. The community should sit at the top of the pyramid, followed closely by the police, the supervisors, and finally the chief to build the required functions that the organization is expecting (Mihalicz, 2012). By not preparing well and before, agencies will face many difficulties in dealing with this newly found competition.
Most people in many circumstances are unable to formulate their preferences and general expectations. This result is because preferences and expectations are prone to change over time and different constituency groups hold differing or even contradicting preferences and expectations. A set of methods or criteria may also be unavailable for many organizations. There is need to embrace what is considered rational within most organizations and concentrating more on the scientific aspects of effective management strategies. Some formulated methods for maintaining management effectiveness are a mixture of certain strategies for keeping the focus on specific tasks, getting relevant data from junior staff, placing feedback as a priority and performing the final assessments. An organization has to use multiple methods when trying to provide effectiveness in its justice unit (Mihalicz, 2012).
The methods for exercising complete control in an organizational setting can be approached with Weber’s bureaucratic approach that provides the structure, rationality, predictability, specialization and democracy (Mihalicz, 2012). Taylor described a more scientific approach to science, selecting workers that provide management skills rather than conflicts in the establishment and training the workers. An integration of those two theories with the administrative theory of training, planning, coordinating, organizing and commanding functions can be used. The organization may be able to be productive with the system set forth to achieve performance and goals. The system approach balances out the appropriate and effective functions of the organization linking all the components to achieve the desired goals.
The decision-making process also contributes to setting the organizational goals. There have to be guidelines for establishing performance criteria, defining any issues and classifying them for the development of the criteria resulting to a successful solution. Generating alternatives, comparing alternatives to the criteria, deciding on the correct alternative that will assist implement the correct decision and monitor the decision and provide feedback.
According to Mihalicz (2012) structure in the criminal justice department should be arranged in a tree-like structure, with each branch having a particular duty and power. The allocations should be differentiated on a basis of functionality, and then divided in accordance to specialization. The organization needs to operate according to a system of procedures consisting of formal rules and regulations so that the predictability is not questionable. Hiring and selection of personnel should be impartial in order to have rationality. The responsibility and authority should be recognized by designations and not by persons. This method of exerting control in an organizational setting will help gain balance and provide the organization accomplished tasks to achieve the desired goals. With better control of the n, the management is able to assess and guide the members of staff on critical areas of concern. As there is a control strategy in place, exerting the required control on the staff could result in better performance and more intimate interactions between the staff members.
Applying equity and general fairness will prevail in the organization. Stability and tenure of personnel job improve performance within any organization which will encourage and stimulate an employee if initiatives are provided. The interest of the organization should not become subservient to individual interest because this can result to chaos and the organization not being able to thrive and function as needed. Communication is vital for any organization to exert control and effective coordination. Maintaining balance in different sections of the system will assist in keeping the relationship structure inside the organization.
Communication within the organization goes a long way when maintaining balance within the organization. Decisions that are considered are a large part of the linking process that the organization approaches and works together to be productive. Decision-making skills are important for all parties in the group to demonstrate. These skills can be shared as people have different views on certain matters that affect the whole organization. The attitude of the individual reflects the success of the organization and the demands that are needed to operate and function in the laid out system for better effectiveness. (Mihalicz, 2012).
Dramatic changes and increase in product demand globally, enhanced technology and stiff completion between different companies and nations is contributing to a dynamic global business environment. Currently, the society is experiencing stiff changes resulting from the economic changes and the rise of a knowledge-based society. Globalization, the process of increasing mobility of capital, labor, technology and cultural influences across different nations, is among the significant trends in the 21st century. Information technology industry is manifesting globalization through globalization of teams and IT work, distribution of information systems and as well collaboration of outsource research and development projects based on different nations (Riley, 2011).
During the globalization process, teams located in different nations and regions often experience cultural influences. Knowledge sharing between both physical teams and virtual teams faces challenges and complicates due to the rise of cross-cultural teams. Information sharing between information technology teams requires member interaction. Interaction patterns between members often experiences influence from their structures and as well their culture. Thus, culture is a significant factor that affect global IT teams (Riley, 2011).
On the other hand, continuous use of information and communication technology teams in a multicultural environment, which is increasing member participation, it altering the nature of cultural cooperation developed by these teams. Similarly, globalized organizations and teams experience challenges while coordinating members and workers. Conversely, it as well influences the overall success and performance of these organizations. Apparently, team leaders and managers have trouble due to the increased cultural complexity resulting from the existing differences in the cross-cultural working environment (Sohrabi, 2011).
The paper objects at examining the influences of culture and technology on distributed teams and organizations. Similarly, the paper will highlight on the effects of these factors on the performance of diversified teams and organizations. The paper will later formulate a recommendation to managers and team leaders on the best approach aiming at creating conducive environments at workplace that promote success (Curlee, 2011).
Literature review: culture and technology influences on distributed team and organizational performance
a. Influence of culture on globalized teams
Research reveals culture as a complex and multidimensional aspect studied on different levels. Culture has a wide variety of effects to individuals (Riley, 2011). Common influences may include; ethnic, organizational and as well national influences. Globalized organizations and teams experience influences from cultural diversities. Researchers define cultural diversity as heterogeneity of national cultures of workers and team members. Apparently, culture refers to the collective common factors shared by society members that distinguish members of a group or category from others. Culture as a social factor that influences people’s communication and decision-making. Additionally, it has an influence on people’s use of both verbal and non-verbal communication styles. Through the common shared success and struggles by a community in a society (culture), groups living together often develop and create a set of values unique form others in the society (Zofi, 2011).
In the research paper, values and practices adopted by people in different regions appear as the building blocks for culture. Research describes these practices as symbols and ritual defining a group of people. On the other hand, research reveals values as people’s preferences used while making both task-related and communication-related decisions (Riley, 2011).
Globalized teams, also called virtual teams, comprise of culture-diversified members. These teams are prone to cultural influences such as task engagement, work behavior and accountability. Besides influencing individual behavior, similarly, culture affects communication among the team members and organizational workers. As proposed by Curlee, each culture has its unique communication style. An example in communication style adopted by individuals from different cultures is Eastern cultures and Western cultures (Curlee, 2011).
Conversely, as highlighted earlier, culture contributes to the difference among individual thinking and thus influences the perception of punishment and motivation of workers. Research indicate that the impact of punishment on workers depends on their culture. Some cultures such as Chinese have a high fear of facing punishments, and thus, workers and team members from these cultures undertake their tasks effectively due to the fear of punishments. In contrast, workers and team members from the Western culture have a high disregard of punishments. Thus, these members require close and active supervision in order to undertake their tasks effectively (Sohrabi, 2011).
In an organization, a working team refers to a group or people actively interacting with each other and have a psychological feeling of working with each other as a group aiming at realizing the set goals of the organization (Blumberg, 2011). Just like individual performance, team members have an urge of meeting their requirements and as well fulfilling organizational expectations. Company’s improvement and success in a competitive global economy depends on the team’s performance. In some companies, team’s success reveals as the team’s success indicator (Riley, 2011).
Aiming at realizing the set goals and effective results of then working teams, members share tasks among themselves. Team leaders and managers often coordinate these tasks and focus on maintaining favorable conditions for their members. In a diversified team, existence of different opinions and views from members is a vital aspect of success. It creates effective solutions to challenges facing the team. More so, diversified opinions give managers a creative strategic approach towards undertaking the underlying tasks. Opinion diversity has a direct interrelation with cultural diversity. Thus, as a positive aspect towards performance, diversified teams and organizations have opportunities of realizing their goals based on their cultural diversified aspect of the members (Curlee, 2011).
Communication and information sharing are important aspects of successful teams. Cultural diversity has a negative impact on the nature of the association between members. It increases complexity, conflicts and confusion due to ambiguity during communication. As a result, members and leaders face complex challenges leading to cases of low levels of integration and cohesion between members. Failure of discrete channels of sharing ideas and mental models increases misunderstanding between members. Additionally, it contributes to inaccuracy during communication and slow speech due to translational processes adopted during the communication process. In the end, it may lead to false assumption errors due to lack of mutual understanding between members (Zofi, 2011).
Apparently, additional aspects of culture influence the overall performance of team members and organizations. Research carried out on the effect of employee satisfaction on performance indicates that poor satisfaction of team members and reduces their commitment to the organization’s tasks (Riley, 2011). Apparently, employee satisfaction depends on organizational culture. Conversely, as a negative impact on employee satisfaction and commitment to their tasks, evidence indicates that both individual and organizational culture is significant in influencing commitment and satisfaction of members (Sohrabi, 2011).
Lastly, culturally diversified team attributes to increased creativeness of a team. Similarly, it diversifies knowledge and skills within the team. As a positive influence of culture, it enhances an increased outcome during decision-making. In addition, it promotes the development of global products by the organization based on ideas shared by different cultures. Therefore, it increases performance and decision-making outcomes of these teams (Blumberg, 2011).
b. Effects of technology on distributed organizations
Global virtual teams face a challenge on effective communication and coordination of their tasks on dispersed location. In comparison with face-to-face communication utilized by localized teams, virtual teams often rely on technology-related media for communication. IT media of communication grants these teams channels for knowledge and information technology and negotiations with the leaders (Milhauser, 2011).
Researchers stipulate that lack of a shared informal personal exchange between leaders and their members often limits virtual teams an opportunity of achieving shared understanding and cohesion. Conversely, these teams face issues related to late information sharing and access, late responses from their leaders and as well lack of personal contacts with the leaders. These challenges affect the process of the awareness maintenance in virtual teams. Apparently, it attributes to increased conflicts between leaders and their members thus reducing trust. In the end, it contributes to poor performance of virtual teams (Zofi, 2011).
On the other hand, technology grants leaders opportunities of communicating directly with their members despite their differences in language styles. Formal communication, facilitated by technology-based channels enhances non-verbal communication that aids in reducing challenges related to the language barrier. Teleconferencing, a common method used by virtual team leaders, promotes fast responses between members and using the same language. Despite telecommunication enhancing a face-to-face communication in a virtual team, it as well faces a variety of arguments from the target group. Similarly, native language require translators for decoding the message relayed by the leaders and thus the overall process becomes slow (Milhauser, 2011).
Lastly, while focusing on technology and its impacts on distributed teams, it is vitally important acknowledging certain platforms such as corporate emails (Blumberg, 2011). Emails grants team members the chance of accessing information related to their tasks. In addition, despite communication through emails being passive, it reduces miscommunication due to the language barrier. Similarly, through team rooms, shared electronic team workspace, there is a reduction in communication distortion between members of diversified teams. Apparently, it contributes to increased feeling of inclusion and satisfaction among team members thus increasing the overall performance of the team (Curlee, 2011).
Learning team analysis of influence of culture and technology
The study used a collaborative and interpretative approach aiming at expanding the understanding elements of cultural diversity and technology that influence diversified team’s performance. Random individuals from different nations engaged in an online interview. Interviews were through questionnaires targeting inter organizational virtual teams. The questionnaires had open questions based on the literature review. The research had a limit of 40 participants from United Nations teams (Curlee, 2011).
Cultural diversity and technology have both negative and positive impacts on the performance of a virtual team. Participants from the study developed that common negative effects of culture originated from intercultural communication. On the other hand, they highlighted that the sole positive impact of culture was improved decision-making.
Participants revealed that cultural diversity contributed to miscommunication. In addition, it jeopardized trust and cohesion between team members. These outcomes attribute to increased complexities within the team that limited their performance and cohesiveness.
Cultural differences contributing to the complexities originated from the contextual and personal styles borrowed from the culture. These aspects contributed to failure and unwillingness of team members adopting to a common language. They felt like they would maintain their social structure exhibited through language (Sohrabi, 2011).
Conversely, participants revealed that through their diversified teams, there was an improved decision-making. This, on the other hand, enabled the use of different points of views and increased the overall ability of increasing knowledge and skill availability contributing to constructive disagreements between members (Milhauser, 2011).
Lastly, the research revealed that communication based on technology platforms aided in curbing challenges posed by cultural diversity. However, some channels such as teleconferencing still experienced additional challenges while writing summaries and transcribing orders from the leaders. However, email and team rooms promoted effective knowledge and idea sharing among the team members.
In conclusion, there is a need for future study on effects of technology and culture on distributed team performance. The limited population sample does not meet the requirement of research participants and thus there is a need of carrying out future research involving participants from different organizations and more diversified cultures (Milhauser, 2011).
As seen from the paper, it is quite clear that culture and technology have great impacts on the overall performance of distributed teams and organizations. Findings from the research indicate that cultural diversity plays a role in choosing the media of communication. Apparently, language differences and cultural styles influence the overall effectiveness of the team. Lastly, it is vivid that emails, due to its ability to adopt a variety of languages, is the most commonly used platform for communication in a multinational organization.
Curlee, W., & Gordon, R. L. (2011). Complexity theory and project management. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Sohrabi, B., Gholipour, A., & Amiri, B. (April 01, 2011). The Influence of Information Technology on Organizational Behavior: Study of Identity Challenges in Virtual Teams. International Journal of E-Collaboration, 7, 2, 19-34.
Zofi, Y. S. (2011). A manager's guide to virtual teams. New York, NY: American Management Association.
Milhauser, K. L. (2011). Distributed team collaboration in organizations: Emerging tools and practices. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.
Blumberg, H., Kent, M. V., & Hare, A. P. (2011). Small Group Research. Dordrecht: Springer.
Riley, R. L. (2011). Understanding the team dynamics of an executive virtual team. College Station, Tex: Texas A&M University.
Team leadership can be described as the management of several people who are brought together by coincidence or design in order to achieve a certain goal. The leadership as a team often involves the assigning of different roles to the supporting members and therefore increasing their responsibilities. I have participated in a committee to plan a seminar about awareness of breast cancer and therefore, I have been in a team. Team leadership means keeping track of different projects and taking responsibility of the whole situation and being flexible enough to ensure that one can easily change gears when one is needed to. I believe that a team leader should be adaptable as well as flexible to change if the original plan is not working out (Burke & Stagl et al. 2006). The Committee on organizing a seminar on Breast cancer awareness was formed by design. The leadership included persons that were well conversant with the subject of breast cancer and had managerial skills. The members also chose the leaders by their capabilities in handling themselves responsibly and being eloquent speakers.
This team was highly efficient; there were several things that stood out. There cohesion in the team in that each person in the team was keen to hear what was going on and what other persons in the team had to say in regards to several things (Yammarino & Atwater et al. 2004). Everybody was given a chance to express themselves and finally a consensus on how to do things on the material seminar day was laid out. The leaders in the committee including me were able to accomplish the goal by ensuring that the team worked together efficiently and effectively. The team members were supported by the leadership in order to fulfill their roles in the team. Leaders should be supportive and also enable their members a say in the running of the team.
Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Klein, C., Goodwin, G. F., Salas, E., & Halpin, S. M. (2006). What type of leadership behaviors are functional in teams? A meta-analysis. T Dionne, S. D.,
Yammarino, F. J., Atwater, L. E., & Spangler, W. D. (2004). Transformational leadership and team performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 177–193. he Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 288–307
Mission statement and culture
The mission statement often guides the culture of the organization. The culture of the organization is often built upon this strategy. The mission statement gives a direction to the company in terms of what should be done and what is needed in order for the company to achieve its mission and vision. The culture of an organization is the way the employees are indoctrinated to do things and perform certain duties. They are often taught several values that in many cases are often in line with the strategic mission statement (Winkler, 2010). The culture of the organization often reflects the values by which the employees believe in. For example, in the Peace Corps, the mission statement is to promote world peace and friendship by providing volunteers and trained manpower to deal with emergency situations.
Therefore, in the culture of the organization self-sacrifice is one of the values that are inculcated into the culture. This is because in the Peace Corps one has to take over large responsibilities in order to ensure that everybody in an emergency situations is rescued (Derr, 2002). In order for one to do this, one often needs self-sacrifice. Therefore, it can be seen that indeed there are several values that exist in the culture of an organization that are there mainly because of the strategic mission of the company.
As a leader, I have learned that I should be able to ensure that the culture of the organization as well as its mission is clearly understood to all the employees (Lim, 2008). This will undoubtedly reduce the friction that exists within the employees and the managers in order to get a strategic bearing on the organization. The leader should lead by example to illustrate the culture of the organization.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories: Enhancing the understanding of the complexity, subjectivity and dynamic of leadership. Berlin: Springer.
Derr, C. B., Roussillon, S., & Bournois, F. (2002). Cross-cultural approaches to leadership development. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
Lim, N., Cho, M., & Curry, K. (2008). Planning for diversity: Options and recommendations for DoD leaders. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Values form the important part of organizational culture. The values shared among employees of a particular organization can be drawn from several aspects of the organization. In most organizations, values of the founder are the most dominant. Organizations tend to stick to the values established by the starter of the company. New employees also borrow some values from the old ones and carry them forward through generations. Ceremonies and rites also constitute of the values of the organization (Chapter, 2014). Values in an organization can be put into two broad categories; terminal and instrumental values. This paper focuses on the differences and similarities between terminal values and instrumental values.
Both terminal and instrumental values are of great importance to the management. The instrumental values help an organization of choose an employee who is both productive and coherent with the others. Again the terminal values determine what kind of a person the employee will be in the future.
Both terminal and instrumental values are viewed as a personal understanding about how a person should be. A person adopts sincerity because he/she believes that sincerity is an acceptable behavior. Similarly, a person aspire to be successful in his/her profession since he/she believes that it is a valuable thing to succeed in once career (Chapter, 2014).
Instrumental values refer preferable behavior in a person. The values include sincerity, independence, obedience, competitiveness, and imaginative. On the other hand, terminal values are the desirable qualities such as happiness, family security, professional excellence and freedom.
While instrumental values are practiced during the daily interactions that a person engages in, terminal values are aspirations or objectives that a person intends to acquire within a given period (Chapter, 2014).
Chapter 3. (2014). Values, attitudes, emotions and culture: the manager as a person. JPG File.
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