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Technology is an integral part in the development of any business. The advancements in technology have led to the creation of new ways of doing business. Initially, the developments were means of improving the business processes. However, as more methods of using technology were developed, the businesses became entirely dependent on the technology such that in the event that one takes the business technology from the picture all the enablers of business operations will be handicapped. Elimination of technology is a threat to global operations since the majority of the companies that operate on the global scale rely on the business technologies. Technology includes the processes and the hardware used to run the processes. Therefore, business technology goes beyond the common notion of information technology into all aspects that are used to run the organization. All organizations in the world use computers to run their operations. Computer usage applies in the most basic operations and complex ones alike. Therefore, technology is a tool used by the modern business firm to increase performance and efficiency.
Technology can be credited for the development of commerce and trade globally. Business processes have been taking place around the globe since the development of communal living. Development in business has been attributed to the business technology. Since technology is not restricted to communication technology. Business was conducted using the barter trade system whereby there was no development in currency. Introduction of currencies improved the business speed. However, the pace at which trade was conducted was slow. Along the way, the process of conducting business improved due to some advancements in technology. Technology has contributed to the development of business through simplification of communication, management, transport and payment. This paper will focus on how the technological advancement in the aforementioned fields has contributed to speeding up of business.
Traditionally, business enhancement was centered on the transport industry whereby the business people that controlled the best transport systems ended up being successful. Businesses developed along the major transport lines since it was easier for the businesses to control the supply of materials that they used to manufacture products and market the same products.
The developments in transport industry that enabled mass movement of bulky goods led to more production capacity since the businesses could transport their product to new markets. The initial developments in the transport industry included the invention of the wheel. This could be seen as a slight invention but it revolutionized the way the people conducted business. Production capacity of the businesses increased since they could move more goods to other places than when they were using the animal backs to transport the raw materials and finished goods. Invention of the railway mode of transport and the specific developments that increased the capacity of the business also contributed to the development of a more linked mode of transport that was capable of moving more goods over considerably longer distances than the animal drawn carts (Usselman, 2002). Developments in the shipping industry helped businesses overcome the barriers constructed by the mass waterways.
The people could now move their products to other continents. The bulk and cost of doing business decreased dramatically with the development of shipping industry. More advancement in this industry has led to the ease of movement of bulky goods between continents such that the global businesses have been built around this model (Tiffin & Kissling, 2007). Transport and transport technology has led to the creation of other auxiliary businesses that support each industry. Some of the businesses that sprung up from the technological developments include shipbuilding, logistics and good handling, and service industries. The final technological development that has driven up the business development in the world is air transport. Air transport has increased the rate at which the people travel such that there are no longer barriers to movement. As long as a person has a need to move to a certain part of the world, he can get there in less than 24 hours (Tiffin & Kissling, 2007).
The speed that comes with the air travel technology has increased the opportunities that the businesses have. The people can move to other parts of the world and conduct their businesses at those points. Therefore, the technological developments in railroad, air and waterway transport have been important determinants of the rate at which the businesses have developed over the time. Globalization and global organizations depend on the transport industry. The transport industry is also composed of various businesses. Therefore, the development in the transport industry has led to expansion of the possibilities that businesses can engage in through expansion of the reach of the companies.
The best invention that has led to the improvement of the business environment is the computer and computing technology (Davis, 2002). The onset of the technology was deemed unnecessary. Some of the leaders in the computing industry insisted that the innovation was only relevant for the big and specialized businesses. However, the developments in computing have led to the creation of an absolute demand for the computers at both home and the business. Personal computer developments have reduced the issue of time and distance (Robins, 1992). All people connected to a computer have access to information and can communicate in matters of minutes.
Computers and internet connectivity has increased the rate at which people and business handle their communication. Information is a source of power and the future of business is firmly rooted on the rate at which the businesses communicate. Information technology has led to more efficiency in the business communication. The decision can be taken with certainty since the technology allows the business leaders to collect the most accurate information and capitalize on it. The technology also allows the business leaders to compare different sources of information. In some instances, businesses have to deal with the deluge of information that affects them. To come up with the best business management approaches, the firm is forced to employ the best information management technology (Robins, 1992). For communication determines the effectiveness of the communication technology. It is imperative that the business has to ensure that it conducts its communication effectively. Technological developments allow the business to make the most out of the communication strategies that they have in place.
Management assistance packages
Information technology and the related developments have led to the creation of the business model that allows the managers to control the business operations from a single situation. In the event that the business has installed some applications such as the ERP, plans have led to the ease of management ('Business integration expands Crane technology base', 2007). The information management systems can be installed at all levels of the organization leading to more alignment of the business operations. They can also be organized to work for all levels of management. ERP systems are applicable in the development of a seamless management system. Management information systems help in the decision making process (Joshi, 2013). Data can be collected from the systems is accurate and it is collected in real time ('Business integration expands Crane technology base', 2007). The data can be used for the development of the business models and solutions to the problems that will solve the issues. In the event that the issues are systemic, the company has the capacity to assess the effect of the systemic issue on the business operations (Joshi, 2013).
One of the major development that improved the business development over the time was the invention of currency. Currency and currency management led to the ease of conducting business since it abolished the limiting factors associated with barter system of trade. Technological development has improved on the initial concept of currency by inventing innovative means of conducting business. Payments can be made instantaneously over the internet. The innovative payment systems that have been developed from technology have led to the development of the business environment in the global context.
However, in as much as the business technologies have led to new ways of conducting business, there are negative effects that have arisen due to the technological development. The information age has led to new ways of fraud that businesses have been forced to deal with. In some cases, the fraudsters have managed to run with the money since some of them are based in some of the remotest parts of the world that do not have the security measures and legal framework to prosecute internet based fraud. As a result, the businesses have been forced to bear the cost of the fraud.
Business integration expands Crane technology base. (2007). Sealing Technology, 2007(2)
Davis, M. (2002). The impact of technology on services. Bradford, England: Emerald Group Pub.
Joshi, G. (2013). Management information systems. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Robins, K. (1992). Understanding information. London: Belhaven Press.
Tiffin, J., & Kissling, C. (2007). Transport communications. London: Kogan Page.
Usselman, S. (2002). Regulating railroad innovation. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Define the different approaches to logistics
There are several approaches to logistics management. Logistics can be described as the management of the flow of different goods from their point of origin to the point of their consumption in a bid to be able to meet some requirements. Defense logistics can be described as the science of planning and carrying out the movement as well as maintenance of the forces. The first approach is procurement logistics which consists of supplier management, order controlling and ordering. The main aim of this approach is able to maximize efficiency by the concentration on core competencies. Distribution logistics often involves the delivery of finished products to the battle field or where it is needed. It often consists of order processing, transportation and warehousing. The distribution logistics is important and necessary because it helps distribute the goods in a timely manner and, therefore, ensure full utility of the products. These approaches are important as they help the military increase its proficiency in different government structures. Explain the current approach to logistics
Unlike other standard supply chain management practices, some major concepts are often not supported in the military domain. For example, Just in Time model often emphasizes on the holding of less inventory. However, this is not the case when it comes to military supply chains. This is because of the high costs of stock-out( and this potentially places lives of soldiers in danger) keeping huge inventory can be described as a more satisfactory practice. Some of these examples include oil depot and ammunition dump Department of Defense Acquisition Logistics Guide. The procurement process can be described as having different criteria for more than the normal business procurement process. The military calls for extreme reliability and supply peace and war, as compared to technology and price factors. The supply management approach deals with several variables such as predicting cost, future demand, consumption and deterioration. This approach is often used to ensure that there the supply classification is developed in such a way that the different categories of supply with several consumption variables and are grouped together with several planning purposes.
This approach is often important in instances of peacetime consumption of ammunition as well as fuel in order to considerably take less than wartime consumption of different items, where other classes of supply such as subsistence and clothing which are relatively consistent consumption rate whether there is peace or war. The different approaches often take geographical distance that is a key factor in several military affairs. In fact, in the military, the shorter the distance, the greater the ease that the force can be brought in order to bear upon an opponent. This is for the reason that it is often easier to undertake the different supply of logistics in order to force on the ground as well as the different stages in engage in bombardment. The importance of distance is often showed by the loss of strength gradient that is devised by Boulding. This often shows that there is an advantage of supply which is forward based. Describe how and why logistics integrates with system engineering
There is a need to integrate systems engineering with logistics in order to ensure that there is an organization of the purchase, storage, distribution and warehousing of materials as finished goods. The logistics should often be updated in order to ensure that each military installation is conceived as being a decentralization retail center that can be able to be connected to a centralized hub or even a major distribution center that can be able to distribute supplies. Systems engineering often gives birth to missions and are able to turn initial ideas into full systems description. This often includes necessary elements that are often integrated and completed as a whole. The military logistics systems introduces a complex system where engineering and science are combined in order to introduce several technological innovations to planning and development stages of the system. The application of systems engineering early in the process of successful acquisitions has been described as being a key enabler of the entire acquisition process. Systems engineering is important in logistics as it helps focus on the different critical systems engineering activities and the role that they have in the provision of technical foundation for a different program decisions.
Explain the need for early identification of logistics requirements
The military is extremely sensitive and therefore, comprehensive logistics supportability and sustainment planning is important for the various combat systems and equipment in an investment in order to ensure that the soldiers are able to receive several war supplies that are reliable, affordable and maintainable. The early identification of logistics requirement are important as they help the operating forces that are on the ground to generate as well as sustain combat power (Department of Defense Acquisition Logistics Guide). This is because the logistics requirement are important as they often help one to understand the different needs that are needed in the logistics and supply them to the field. There is a need for the early requirements to be spotted early as they often help make sense of the benefits that exists in increased manpower and reliable arrival of supplies. With this fulfillment, the soldiers on the ground can be able to receive, maintainable, sustainable, and the affordable war fighting systems that are capable of out-performing the different sections of the battle field.
Describe how Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) relates to Logistics
The integrated product and process development (IPPD) can be described a management process which integrates different activities from concept of the new defense system through an entire life cycle, and uses multidisciplinary teams that are referred to as integrated product teams. The IPPD should be integrated with logistics as they provide several important things such as proactive risk management, customer focus as well as early and continuous life cycle planning. In this process, there is an equal emphasis on process and product development, and there is a focus on the robust design and using the logistical approach there is an improved process capability empowerment. The greater integration of several technologies, as well as methods, often provide a complete new dimension when it comes to the product design process. This process is important as it starts with the definition of several requirements of products that are based on the feedback of the consumers and sometimes this includes the design layout and several constraints.
The use of modern technologies when it comes to implementation logical steps in a different production design, and there is an actual production that is likely to come down and for this reason it reduces the product delivery time. If the logistical process is used in conjunction with Integrated product and process development (IPPD) is often greatly dependent on the different agreements that exist on the end objective. All the stakeholders in the defense management system should be aligned to the same objective in order to ensure that there is maximum optimal achievement.
Explain the purpose of logistics planning and who prepares it.
Logistics planning is extremely crucial when it comes to the delivery of crucial goods to the required destinations. Effective logistics planning is important as it helps one understand several advantages, for example, with logistics planning the concepts of flexible response, follow on force attack and forward defense can be easily utilized (Department of Defense Acquisition Logistics Guide). This is because the logistical planning that exists is strong and can be able to withstand the three stages that exist in response to aggression that are direct defense that involves defeating the enemy attack when it occurs. The second process is deliberate escalation, and this is the escalation of the level of warfare, and finally, there is general response to the conflict. With effective logistical planning, this process is possible and, therefore, during wartime, the military that has a superior logistical planning have an ability of increasing their chances on the battlefield. The total logistical process is often viewed as being necessary in order to support the military environment. The military wing of transport is often pegged with the preparation of the logistics of the military. It is the transport department that controls things such as co-operation, foresight and flexibility within the logistics of the military.
Describe the process for establishing readiness and supportability requirements and their relationship to logistics.
The process of establishing supportability and readiness requirements is important in the defense forces. This is because it enables the military forces to go into battle, and it often meet the demands of several national military strategies. Established supportability and readiness requirements is basic to the performance of the military. It is of importance to understand that for a military to fight effectively the forces needed to be manned, equipped as well as trained in dangerous, uncertain, austere and complex situation often with no warning. Readiness and supportability can be compared to a three-legged stool (Wasson, 2006). The personnel, training and equipment, are the legs of the tool, and there is a need for them to be balanced and also they should be in sync in order to support the load that exist. The defense forces need support in terms of war in supplies and other basic amenities. This can often be achieved if there is a counter-cross of the readiness, supportability and logistical support. Proper logistical support will help the military achieve superiority in the battle field as they would have regular and scheduled supplies from weapons to food supplies. This will in turn enhance the readiness and supportability of the military, and it will be able to effectively support the military strategies.
Explain how supportability analysis contributes to the process of defining a system’s support.
Supportability analysis is an important tool that often looks at the structured approach in a bid to increase efficiency of several maintenance equipment. In turn, it often reduces cost of providing the entire support by proper pre-planning of all aspects that exist in the integral logistics support. The system's support often includes planning, acquiring, developing as well as sustaining a well defined and performance based product support strategies which are able to meet the requirements of the soldiers. The supportability analysis look at the different sectors that should be supported and the amount of support that is needed in each of them. This process is important as it enables one to understand the different factors that are need to support a certain program and the extent to which a program can be supported. Eventually, the supportability analysis gives firmness to structure of the system support.
State how reliability and maintainability fit the overall picture
As stated earlier, the military is extremely sensitive when it comes to reliability. If the supplies intended to reach a certain battle zone do not arrive at time, this might be the factor that separates the two conflicting military. Therefore, precision when it comes to logistical support is extremely necessary for the military, and there is, therefore, a need to ensure that it is extremely reliable. On the other hand, maintainability plays a crucial role in that it ensures that the different sectors of the logistical support are well maintained in order to serve their respective purposes. All the departments involved in the logistical support system should always be ready for anything and therefore, the maintenance of the different transport factions and systems is of the essence if everything is to work as required when the time is right.
State the areas of risk that can occur during a logistics development effort
There are many risks that can occur during a logistic development effort. The most eminent risk is that there is an error in the planning stage and for some reason the supplies do not reach the intended destination at time. There is time when this might be acceptable, however; there are also times that this mistake can be catastrophic to several platoons that dearly needed the supplies. Another risk that can occur during the logistics development effort is the lack of proper analysis on the quantities and places to be supplied with the ammunition, food or even equipment. Again, this process has catastrophic results to the people that were supposed to have the supplies delivered to them.
Explain the major issues in implementing logistics
The major issues in implementing logistics often include increased costs when it comes to implementing solutions. The costs in the implementing the solutions in the military have shot up over the past few years, and the department of defense has started to outsource these services to civilians. This is because of the excessive costs that are associated with logistical support in the military (Wasson, 2006). Another issue is wrongful planning; there have been concerns regarding several plans that have gone wrong in the development of logistical support and have eventually caused catastrophic results. Therefore, this is another sector that needs to be looked into keenly as it is a major issue when it comes to implementing logistics. Bureaucracy is another factor; it takes a lot of time to effectively implement logistics because of increased bureaucracy in the military.
Describe the challenges involved in the deployment and who is involved in the deployment working group
The first challenge is uncertainties and difficult adjustments. The deployed soldiers have to face the challenge of a new life in an uncertain environment where they are not sure whether they will live or die. The soldiers often walk into the sea that they do not know and expect to survive. This is often the biggest challenge when it comes to deployments. The stress of service is another challenge, persons feel emotionally drained and physically tired after being deployed. Therefore,
Department of Defense Acquisition Logistics Guide, Third Edition Rev. 57. https://acc.dau.mil/log
Wasson, C. S. (2006). System analysis, design, and development: Concepts, principles, and practices. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Interscience.
There was a time in where the concept of innovation and creativity was associated with painters, musicians, writers as well as similar people in artistic professions. However, with the ever-increasing necessity of being able to cultivate a unique brand of personality, there has been the introduction of innovation in the common workplace.
In the past, many organizations were able to survive even with very little and limited amounts of innovation. They focused on the provision of quality products and simply maintaining a quality that was acceptable in the market. However, recently, there has been different trends that have emerged that drive innovation.
More organizations need more than good products in order to survive, they require efficiency as well as effectiveness. They, therefore, require innovative processes as well as management that can drive down costs as well as improve the general productivity. There is a need for a new and unique outlook on things in order to decrease the competition and get the competitive advantage against others.
It is vital to comprehend that indeed innovation can be said to be the driver of the recent 21st century technological boom. Innovation plays a big role in business, and this paper is going to explore the role of innovation in today’s business and its importance.
Consumer expectations can be said to be a key driver when it comes to innovation in the market. Customers are used to products that improve in a continuous manner. It is vital to note that in the 21st century, customers are more informed, and they have more options in terms of what they want to buy and who they feel they want to buy it from. Essentially, it is vital to comprehend that in this time and era, customers would not in any way accept mediocrity because they know and understand that they can always go somewhere else.
Innovation can be said to have an impact on the competitive advantage of a company. It increases the unique brand of the company. This is because it gives the company an edge over the others. For example, an organization through innovation might discover a certain important factor when it comes to the production chain. This factor, that was discovered through the process of innovation makes the company or organization to have a better chance at optimal production as compared to other companies.
Therefore, for this reason, it can be argued that innovation has indeed given the company a competitive advantage against other companies. This is an important thing to have in the 21st century; there is a need for the company to know that they are the market leader when it comes to innovation and progression (Håkansson, 2007). This in turn increases customer satisfaction, loyalty and consequently retention. As expected this leads to increased profits for the company.
Another importance of innovation is employee motivation and retention. The 21st century work routine has been monotonous and consequently, when employees are given the chance to grow by innovation they take the challenge seriously. In fact, it has been seen that employees that have led innovation in companies are often highly motivated after the innovation and are more likely to stay at the company.
This is because they start believing that indeed they are a part of the huge family that is the company. Further, when other employees see the hand of innovation in the workplace and the rewards that come with it, most of them are often motivated, and they want to contribute further to the innovation in the company. The concept of innovation has been able to permeate the business industry and is now being used by companies for retention as well as motivation of employees.
In the broader sense, it can be argued that innovation is an important to the advancement of society around the world, and this, therefore, means that new and innovative products can be able to increase the standard of living and provide people with opportunities to improve their lives.
Breakthroughs in medicine as well as in technology have been able to significantly improve the living standards of people around the world. Innovation can also be said to have lead to significant improvements when it comes to the way businesses operate, and it has also been able to close the gap that exists between different markets.
Innovation can help the organization to discover what opportunities exist at the moment, and the ones that are most likely to emerge in the future. Successful businesses can not only respond to the current organizational and customer needs but also they can anticipate future trends and develop an idea, product and even service that allows them to meet this future demand rapidly as well as in an effective manner. Innovation, therefore, in a company will help the company to stay ahead when it comes to technology, markets as well as trends shift.
There is no organization that can argue that there is no room for innovation in their company (Shavinina, 2004). This is because innovation exists everywhere, and there is a need to ensure that indeed one can capture the moment and move the company forward. Innovation can be in terms of the design of the product, the marketing procedures, and the management structure and so on.
Therefore, it just requires persons to think out of the proverbial box and to have a different perspective and eye as compared to everyone else (National Academy of Engineering, 1995). It is this creativity and innovation that will lead the company or organization to become market leaders in whatever they do. Therefore, companies should encourage the hiring of employees that are known to be good innovators as this will be an added advantage for the company.
Therefore, innovation should be one of the key things that employers should be looking at when it comes to the hiring of employees, this will automatically help the company in achieving its innovation targets and help it move forward in terms of what it can be able to do in order to increase the effectiveness of the production chain (Håkansson & Waluszewski, 2007).
Therefore, Organizations in the past were able to survive without innovation. However, this is unheard in the 21st century; there is a need to focus on the informed consumer who understands the market and the products. They, therefore, continually want to see the products improve in quality in order to make their lives easier. Customers in the 21st century cannot accept mediocrity in terms of the products being produced by a company.
Innovation is important as it increases the competitive advantage of a company; it gives a company more vigor, and ability to face others in the market. This is because they have something that other companies in the market do not have (National Academy of Engineering, 1995). It also helps when it comes to employee retention and motivation. This indeed shows the importance of innovation to the organization as well as to the market place → marketplace as a whole. It has increased standards in the market place and therefore, improved the quality of products.
National Academy of Engineering. (1995). Risk & innovation: The role and importance of small high-tech companies in the U.S. economy. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.
Mowery, D. C., & Rosenberg, N. (1998). Paths of innovation: Technological change in 20th-century America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Håkansson, H., & Waluszewski, A. (2007). Knowledge and innovation in business and industry: The importance of using others. London: Routledge.
Shavinina, L. V. (2004). Silicon Valley North: A high-tech cluster of innovation and entrepreneurship. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
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