China Economic Stimulation Essay Examples & Outline
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China Economic Stimulation
The prospects of another cold war have always been in the wind with the rise of China a tiger and communist based nation. The lessons from the past on cold war and the imminent danger of recurrence have always been a major issue (Brzezinski, 13-14). The country has the second largest economy. It also has the largest army in the world. The equipment of the army is also marched by the technological advancements. This scenario creates a déjà vu feeling owing to the history of the world in relation to the cold war (Brzezinski, 13-14). The rise of the Soviet Union and the events that led to the cold war were mainly the results of the conscious efforts to outdo each other. The Chinese government has led to the same path followed by the former Soviet Union. Heavy investment in the military power and the focus on the development of another world leader creates the tensions that are prerequisites for development of a cold war.
The scenario is relevant in that the developments of another cold war will be taxing on the geopolitical system. The cold war cost the world and the participating nations a lot of potentials. The worst effects of the cold war were the development of constant fear of the world degenerating into a third world war. These questions are still relevant in the event that China and the United States of America reach the point that set off the cold war. The other issues that make it relevant is the international magnitude of the cold war. Given the investments priorities of the nations and strategic alliances, the emergence of the cold war will be difficult to weather since the creation of the nonpartisan nations will be almost impossible.
G-2 Alliance is another proposal for the maintenance of the relations between the two nations. Formation of a G-2 alliance will consolidate the power of the two nations. The influence exerted by the nations will be improved with the formation of the alliance. This alliance could be used for the control of the issues affecting the geopolitical system. However, the successful formation of the alliance will also have negative effects on the rest of the geopolitical system. Major world powers will most likely align their interests to each other creating a second force. Possible alliance of the rest of the G-8 powers will affect the geopolitical systems with the alliance tending towards competition (Fox, 93-98). Competition of the alliances can be positive such that it will have a positive effect on the global performance. However, the alliance may also lead to negative effects depending on the leaders.
Chances of the formation of the G-2 alliance will be highly unlikely given the competitive nature of the relationship between the two nations. China seeks to remove United States from the position of the top economy in the world. United States wishes to cling to the position in abide to influence the geopolitical system along the tenets of democracy and capitalism. Chinese economic model might have changed over the years, but it still has a general orientation towards communism (Bersick, 251- 264). The United States of America has stated that it is not for the adoption of communism. In some cases, leaders of the United States have made several statements about the viability of the model. The departure in ideological orientations makes the possibility of the G-2 alliance less likely. The only interaction that can occur between the nations can only assume the form of trade. Investments between the nations have also been advanced. The formation of the alliance would be less likely to happen but not totally out of the question.
When China rises to the position of the super power in the world, there will be an imposition of limitations on the normal way of functioning in the world. There is high tendency that the nation will lead the world towards the controlled economies with little integration. The adoption of the economic model threatens the actual survival of capitalism (Kissinger, 1).
On the other hand, the nation can rise to power through indirect means whereby it is working towards the development of the influence through implicit means. The country has been pursuing this avenue through its aid assistance to the rest of the nations. It has also assumed a more focused approach to the management of the external affairs whereby it has assumed a direct and participatory approach (Bersick, 251- 264). These changes in the relationship between the nation and the rest of the world are indicative of the renewed interest of the country in the participation in the geopolitical system.
The scenario is important since it affects the entire world. It also covers numerous issues of interest to the United States and the rest of the allies in the G-8 nations. The outcome will lead to a significant shift in the mode of operation of the nation as well as the geopolitical system. When the nation rises into power, there are some aspects of life that might change. The non-confrontational leadership coupled with the lack of interest in democracy will affect the prevalence of the practice in the world (Bersick, 251- 264). There is also a chance of the formation of more dictatorships in the world due to the non-involvement of the nation in the external affairs beyond the economic development.
The attainment of peaceful development is the ultimate goal of the Chinese people. The tradition of the Chinese has always emphasized on a non-confrontational approach to the leadership and development. This idea will affect the world economy by creating new powers due to the mutual benefits. The government of the People’s Republic of China has adopted the policy of peaceful and mutual benefit by collaborating with the developing countries in Africa and other parts of the world. The involvement of the Chinese government in these regions has led to the development of the regions while benefiting the Chinese workers and companies. The approach of peaceful development is ideal on the outlook (Fox, 93-98). However, there are silent gains that the nation will be making regarding the perceptions of the people towards this region. The country will be silently asserting its influence over the regions.
This issue is important for the United States when the cooperation between the nation and other parts of the developing world are attained (Goldstein, 89-110). The influence of the Chinese culture on the regions where it operates is evident. There is also a high chance of the development of the liking or inclination of the regions towards the Chinese government and policies (Rosen and Hanemann, 98). Therefore, the involvement of the Chinese government in the development of other regions has more benefit to the government that most would admit. The United States government ought to adopt a better or similar approach in order to retain the influence in the region. Heavy investments by the Chinese government in the regions helps in the attainment of the influence over the regions.
The comeback of the reds is imminent given the close attention that the government pays to the activities of the supporters of the founding father (Kissinger, 1). Mao was a pro-socialist leader that sought to develop a nation that would be able to accommodate the masses. Maoism suggests that the nation has to ensure that the rights of all the people are well-protected and taken into consideration in making all the decisions (Goldstein, 89-110). This assertion augurs well with the members of the neo-Maoism.
However, other issues in play affect the rise of the reds. On one hand, the liberals are of the opinion that the return of the Reds will wash away the gains of the 30 years. The fears are the main driving forces of the government efforts to control the activities of all the Maoism followers. It is indicative that there are two factions in play in the country’s political landscape (Rosen and Hanemann, 94). The main faction is the reds since the government goes to the extent of showing respect to the founder of the nation. The acknowledgment of the Maoism movement is a source of legitimacy for the government (Goldstein, 89-110). The leaders of the day are aware of the power that the neo-Maoists have on the political outcome. In order to reduce the prevalence of the Reds' influence, the government has dedicated censorship programs.
The rise of the Maoists is a threat to the survival of the young and fragile relationships between the nation and the rest of the western world (Goldstein, 89-110). The United States stands to lose more so since the government has funded numerous American businesses to invest in the country. Therefore, the rise of the reds could mark the end of the American interests in the country. The principles of the neo-Maoists are contradictory to the American values and practices (Goldstein, 89-110).
China has proposed the change in the mode of operation such that there will be more inclusion of the Chinese influence in the world beyond the traditional spheres of influence. Rise of China to power and the increasing important of the nation has seen the traversing of the borders that defined its influence. Instead of focusing on the development of influence in the region, it has crossed over to other parts of the world. The more focus of the nation in Africa has led to the rise of interest of the nation. This has aroused the attention of the rest of the world powers since the capture of Africa, and successful exertion of interest in the region will lead to immersive increase in the power of the nation.
The United States government is concerned over the increased spread of the Chinese influence since it washes away the influence that it previously exerted. The ideal approach will be the concession of some ground between the nations. The United States ought not to spread its influence to the rest of the regions in Asia. China also has to reduce spreading its influence to other parts. The silent sharing of the spheres of interest will be significant in the eventual determination of the mode of operation of the two world powers ('White Paper On China's Peaceful Development Road', 215-232). The issue is important since the United States and the rest of the western world nations have interests that they have to safeguard in their respective spheres of influence. The breach into the spheres of influence of each other is a threat to the power and predominance of the nation. Therefore, the battle for the spheres of influence will affect the eventual outcome of the relations between the countries. In a bid to outdo each other, the areas of influence will be the main beneficiaries of the tussle.
The fragility of the Chinese government and the entire nation is the primary threat to the United States. One of the major sources of the issues is the fact that the nation has weak leaders that are in pursuit of the declaration of more influence in the region. The rash nature of their decision-making approaches threatens the balance between the nation and the United States. Reactionary movement that emphasizes on the development of actions that may not be justified may lead to confrontations between the country and the United States. The country is surrounded by allies of the United States such as Japan and Taiwan.
The focus on the assertion of the influence in the relative spheres has led to the arising of issues that will tip the balance between the two nations and the United States. Tipping of this balance could be the right recipe for the development of the third war or a major diplomatic controversy at least. The effects of tipping this balance may bring in other parties all geared towards war. A war involving the two nations is highly undesired since the war will bring in other parties ('White Paper On China's Peaceful Development Road', 224). The escalation of the war will be so high such that it will be the biggest confrontation ever in the history of the world. A world war is undesirable due to the presence of nuclear powers and the temptation to use this power in the war. The outcomes of the fragility can affect the entire world. However, it can be managed.
Democracy from below is an ultimate threat to the United States and the relationships with the government. Democracy from below means that the people are the primary sources of the drive towards democracy. The United States and the ruler-ship in China have agreements that facilitate the investments in the country. They also have explicit agreements on how to conduct the business. However, with the an advent of the democratic movements from below the leaders that the US relies on to protect its interests in the countries will most likely be removed from office. The neo-Maoists could be the main driving forces behind the democracy from below. Therefore, it is important that the effecting of democracy occur from another source a direction. Reliance on the new leaders to protect the democracy in the region is highly uncertain. In order for the government to control its interest in the country and the region at large, the democracy ought to be effected by the liberal leaders that have support for the United States involvement. Radical forces are most likely to be the main drivers of democracy from below. Therefore, democracy has to come from above
The issue is important to the United States and the government for various reasons. The immediate reason is the investments that the United States has in the nation as well as the region. These interests are the main drivers of action. The investments in the region will be under the threat in the event that the democracy comes from below. The relationship between China and the United States will also be inevitably threatened by the democratic movement arising from below.
The development of the democracy from above is necessary for the United States. The hope of a continued relationship between the United States and chin rests in the ability of the leaders to work together towards the attainement of an ordinary goal. The economic regimes may not agree, but the political ideologies have to be coordinated. The liberal leaders that are currently in office are better forces of imparting democratic principles in the people. The leaders have the power to implement the democratic changes while protecting the interests of the United States government in the region. Focus of the leaders ought to be on the development of the internationally accepted standards of democracy. The democracy from above might receive some resistance from the locals who are currently disillusioned by the performance of their government. This could be a major challenge. However, it is better to handle the problem as opposed to deal with the radical leaders who may want to enforce their versions of democracy. Being able to implement justice requires that the enforcers be powerful or influential.
Bersick, Sebastian. 'Strategic Considerations In The USâ€“China Relationship And The Role Of European Soft Power'. AEJ 4.2 (2006): 251-264. Web.
Brzezinski, Zbigniew. 'Avoiding A New Cold War With China.' New Perspectives Quarterly 18.3 (2001): 13-15. Web.
Fox, Roger. 'CHINA: FRAGILE SUPERPOWER - By Susan L. Shirk.' Economic Affairs 28.4 (2008): 92-93. Web.
Goldstein, Lyle J. 'Resetting The USâ€“China Security Relationship.' Survival 53.2 (2011): 89-116. Web.
Kissinger, Henry. 'Avoiding A U.S. - China Cold War'. Washington Post 2011: 1. Print.
Rosen, Daniel H., and Thilo Hanemann. 'The Changing USâ€“China Investment Relationship.' China Economic Journal 7.1 (2014): 84-102. Web.
'White Paper On China's Peaceful Development Road. ' China Report 42.2 (2006): 215-232. Web.
China Economic Stimulation
The economic growth depicted by China has been unique and amazing. Most of the people have been awed by the rate of economic growth that the country has been posting such that they have proceeded to predict a scenario whereby the country will overtake the United States as the leading economic power (Kissinger, 2011). The main basis of the assertions is that the country will continue experiencing the exponential growth. However, various issues at play in the determination of the leading economic power have been neglected. On one hand, the country is relatively new in the global market systems since the onset of liberalization started 30 years ago. The United States economy has been growing for a very long time as a steady economy (Fox, 2008).
It means that the United States economy has been past the level that China is at hence the plateau nature of the national economic growth (Kissinger, 2011). China is approaching the plateau stage. Therefore, the deceleration of the economic growth is a factor in the assessment of the United States economy that has never been given the required attention. The outcome of the economic performance of China relies almost entirely on the ability and strategies implemented by the country’s leadership in the management of the decelerating economic growth.
Management of the decelerated economic growth will demand more involvement of the management than ever before, there will be an increased need for the creation of the best approach towards the decelerated growth that chick capitalize on the stability of the economy. This paper will evaluate the efficacy of the government policies on sustainability. It will also offer recommendations on the best approaches accompanied with the recommended changes in approach (Brzezinski, 2001).
Overview of the economic performance of China
The rate of economic growth in the country will also be invariably affected by the developments in the global economy. The country was among the worst affected by the economic crisis of 2008. The effective continuation of economic growth of the country at double digits will be unprecedented. Some of the causes of the decelerated growth are universal in that they affect all the countries in the global economy ('White Paper on China's Peaceful Development Road', 2006). However, with the increased development of the nation the possibility of the nation to increase its production capabilities will be dependent on many factors making it difficult or impossible for one to predict accurately the rate of development and subsequent viability of the economy in the competitive world (Kissinger, 2011).
Effects of country-specific factors
The country has also adopted new approaches to the production that have in turn increased all productivity gains. The employment sector and its associated contribution to the productivity of the nation have been greatly reduced mostly due to the adoption of new technology (Deng, 2009). Therefore, the main reliance on the labor market as the main source of competitive advantage for the country has waned due to the factors mentioned above in the paper. It has also reduced due to the inclusion of the new technologies in the production processes (Bersick, 2006). The reliance on the labor for the production has reduced with the technical staff remaining.
The country has also witnessed shifts in the labor market whereby the majority of the people are now employed in the higher productivity firms such as manufacturing. This issue is related to the contribution of the entire plan of the government to strengthen the manufacturing and shift the focus from agriculture into the production of processed goods (Kissinger, 2011). The tertiary sectors have also received much focus with the majority of the people focusing on the provision of technical services. The shifts indicate that the economy has been growing over the years.
However, the gains mentioned above have some limitations too. The extent of the contribution of the above factor to the overall development of the economy is also limited. The investments in the sector have led to the developments (Deng, 2009). However, the investments are no longer as sustainable as the government envisioned before. Therefore, the investments will have to be reduced eventually hence the reduction in the development levels.
The only aspect that will sustain the sectors is the customer demand. The increase in the living standards will prove to be another source of the challenges on the productivity gains. The increase in the capital stock also calls for the shift of focus on the investments to the replacement (Deng, 2009). The government of China has not changed its focus to reflect these issues.
The labor sector has focused mainly on the investments in the primary sector despite the shifts towards the secondary sector. China has a higher output in the primary sector compared to the rest of the nations ('White Paper on China's Peaceful Development Road', 2006). There is more focus on the development of the secondary sector. The primary sector will be the main source of the resources that will be anticipated to shift to the secondary sector (Goldstein, 2011). Therefore, the strength of the primary sector will be the main source of the driving power for the economy of the country (Deng, 2009).
The secondary sector of the country is higher than the rest of the countries in the same production bracket. Therefore, the developments of the secondary sector will be reduced owing to the high rate of overinvestment in the sector (Kissinger, 2011). The tertiary sector of the nation is also reduced with the majority of the production processes centered on the secondary sector. The growth of the tertiary sector is important in the development of the production capability of the nation. The secondary sector is highly likely to indicate signs of shrinking with the increased development of the economy. The migration of the country will be from the primary sector to the secondary sector.
The country will attain a stagnated growth rate just like the other leading economies such as Japan. The development trend has indicated that the nation will witness high reductions in the production as well as employment. It is predicted that the employment level in the country will reduce by 10 percent in the coming 20years. This aspect means that the nation will be having an annual deceleration in employment of 0.5 percent per year. This reduction is commensurate with the rest of the developed countries. Stagnation is also imminent unless the nation comes up with plans to shield some of the issues identified (Goldstein, 2011).
Changes in the labor market
Most of the causes of the economic growth entail increased productivity levels. The growth rate of the nation has been reducing with the unmatched increase in the employable members of the society. The employment rate of the nation will be greatly hampered by some of the policies that it implemented such as the one-child policy. Failure of the one child policy to create the required labor market to sustain the economy is one of the issues of the nation that was never envisioned (Goldstein, 2011). The families that have the one child often have the two working parents.
These parents may retire or continue working at reduced productivity level for some time before they are incapable of performing. Being able to produce with the labor constraints will be difficult. What was once the main source of the country’s competitive advantage may not be significant in the next decade? Therefore, the effective management of the labor pools will determine the sustainability of the growth rate of the economy (Goldstein, 2011). When the old parents retire, the younger people that are supposed to take up their production roles will be fewer by half. Therefore, the country is most likely going to undergo a process of reduced workforce in the next years.
It is arguable that the reduced labor needed will be matched by the increased technological improvements. However, the labor and the associated costs have been the main bargaining chips for the country. The majority of the people have focused on the development of the nation and accorded its rationale to the labor market.
The loss of these aspects is highly eminent. One aspect of the labor market in China is that it is non-replicable in the neighboring countries or even in the developing countries. In the developing countries, the issue of decelerated population has been in the discussion for decades. Therefore, China will be entering the same domain of issues with the rest of the nations in the developed world. Non-replicable nature of the labor market aspects such as the cost of labor and cost of the associated labor will be lost gradually over the coming years.
Even if the country will still be capable of maintaining a certain upper hand over the rest of the investment destinations in the region, the eventual sustainability of the labor market lies in the ability of the nation to address the issues of labor and match up the lost labor with the adequate technological planning (Kissinger, 2011). It means that the nation will have to focus on the development of the capacity of the people to produce more at the same costs that their parents used to produce at ('White Paper on China's Peaceful Development Road', 2006). Technological advancements ought to be implemented with the issue in mind.
Government backing and its effects
The growth and development of the Chinese economy have been based on the commitment of excessive government backing in the investment. The government focused on the investment such that it has been committing more than half of its gross domestic product (GDP) to the expansion of the sector (Rosen & Hanemann, 2014). This means that the nation has been working on the improvement of the productivity. The incessant government investment has led to the development of the economy on the outside. However, the actual sustainability of the industries comes into question when one looks at their projected performance in the event that they are made to compete in the marketplace. Therefore, this aspect of the economic planning of the nation has been brought into question. The viability of the manufacturing sector of the nation is questionable in the event that the government was to let the country work on the full principles of a free market.
The enactment of a free market system in the nation has been highly hailed as a direct improvement in the nation and its production capability. The planned economy has been a major hiding site for the inefficiencies in production (Goldstein, 2011). Therefore, the proponents of the free market have seen the move as the litmus test of the manufacturing sector. It has led to issues of the sustainability of the products in a competitive market (Kissinger, 2011). Removal of governmental protection will essentially lead to two results. On one hand, the governmental protection hides the companies against the litigation for patent infringement.
Industrial practices in relation to the global practices
Arguably, it encourages the infringement of the patents of the companies located in the country. With the removal of the protective system of production, the efficacy of the entire economy comes into sharp focus. The viability of the nation in the manufacturing sector globally will be tested. Will the country be capable of playing well with the rest of the players in the market or will it be more of a loss situation for the nation? Will it adhere to the tenets of goodwill in manufacturing or will it be forced to adhere to the draconian production system whereby all that matters is the financial might of the country from which the countries come from? The issues noted above will determine the eventual efficacy of the nation and sustainability of growth
Patent infringements in the open market space will be reduced. There is also a risk of the nation losing out to its neighbors such as the tiger nations in the event that it increases the infringement of the patents owned by the foreign countries (Rosen & Hanemann, 2014). Losing out of the investments will assume different forms. The viability of the labor market advantage will also contribute to the shift ('White Paper on China's Peaceful Development Road', 2006). Foreign companies located in the country will eventually shop out of the country into the countries that have some semblance of the protection of the intellectual property used in the entire production process. The eventual move will be the determinant of the sustainability ('White Paper on China's Peaceful Development Road', 2006). Infringement of the patents has also led to another issue that has been neglected over the years. One of the main things that the customers look for in the product is the authenticity. With the increased focus on the ability of the products to performance and their credibility in the market, the efficacy of the Chinese products will be greatly affected.
Over-reliance on the external market
The nation that has for a long time depended on the export market will be facing more issues relating to the development of the sustainable exports when the perceptions of the market are skewed against the products. Therefore, the nation that the products made by the Chinese companies are inferior will eventually determine the ability of the companies to come up with a sustainable business model for the exportation. The reduced acceptance of the products will affect the eventual performance of the economy. Therefore, the patent infringement culture will affect the selection process for the production sites.
The inability of the government to see this issue and predict the imminent ramifications will affect the ability of the country to sustain the growth and development status. Simple issues such as the infringements have been the premises on which the economy of the country has been built. The infringement of the patents, low labor costs and an unwavering support from the government has made it possible for the nation to attain increased economic development. It has also increased the propensity of the nation to create value for the people.
Therefore, the nation ought to focus on the enactment of better and stricter laws governing such issues in order to ensure that the products are competitive enough. It also has to ensure that it enhances the power of the products to bargain in the market by according the users ideal and unique products. Being able to produce the unique output will determine the competitiveness of the exports in the external market (Rosen & Hanemann, 2014). Goodwill and improved business practices tend to develop the industries along the quality lines.
Perceived quality of exports
Quality management of the production system will be dependent on the ability of the government to enforce rules relating to the production whereby the focus ought to be on the production of quality (Rosen & Hanemann, 2014). When the nation will be capable of producing the excellent products, there is a likelihood that the level of market penetration will be higher and better. Therefore, the nation ought to ensure that it has the required laws and production capabilities to reach the international market and satisfy the gamut of needs. Failure of the products to attend to the needs of the people will translate into losses for the companies and the economy.
Role of the domestic market
The other issue is how the government has been approaching the population. It is ironical that the rest of the world looks at the country as the largest market for the products made from the country ('White Paper on China's Peaceful Development Road', 2006). This issue has been espoused as the main source of the development process of the nation. However, the government has for a long time focused on the population as the source of cheap labor and not the largest market for the products made by the companies.
The emphasis of the government ought to be the enhancement of the purchasing power of the common citizens. However, when one looks at the level of poverty in the nation, there is no capacity development of the population to form the market for the finished products made by the Chinese companies. All the people ought to be empowered to buy the products.
The government and the economic policy has always supposed that the economic improvements will lead to the improvement of the society. However, corruption and unfair labor relations have led to the development of issues that have negated the possibility of the government increasing the capacity of the local citizens to purchase own products. The hidden side of the Chinese population is comprised of poor people trying to survive. The government has exploited the one side of the population by seeking the most affordable labor source.
The neglect on the other viability provided by the population affects the ability of the nation to increase the value of output of the nation (Rosen & Hanemann, 2014). It also increases the chances of the population being averse to the improvement attempts on the governance. Address to this issue will affect the ability of the nation to compete. The capitalization on this frontier will also increase the possibilities of the nation sustaining the economic growth and avoiding further deceleration. Therefore, the nation ought to focus on the development of a paradigm shift in terms of the focus. The focus ought to be inwards since the competition for the foreign markets is increasing ('White Paper on China's Peaceful Development Road', 2006). Internal market can be developed and enhanced with the proper laws and governmental policies.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In as much as the growth and development of the Chinese economy has outdone the performance projections of the experts, there are sufficient reasons to predict that the economic growth of the nation will not be sustained into the near future or indefinitely. The reduction in the employment means that the increases in the gross domestic product of the country will be reliant on the increases in the overall productivity in the country.
The gains will be dependent on increases in the labor to capital ratio. The ration depends on the continued investment by the government in the improvement of economic performance. However, the government is already investment almost half of its budget on the investment. At this level, the policy of investing will be unsustainable since the productivity of the investment is becoming highly unattainable with the soaring of the capital to labor ratio. As a result, there will be more downward pressure on the country’s economic growth. A shift in policy ought to be implemented in order for the nation to sustain its growth or at least hedge against more deceleration in the growth rate.
There is also a high chance that the secondary sector, which forms the bulk of Chinese economy, will shrink. The sector will shrink as the country moves away from the reliance on the export markets to the domestic market (Rosen & Hanemann, 2014). In as much as the market will need manufactured goods. There is chance that the market will assume the trend depicted in the rest of the market of demanding more services than produced goods. The shifts currently are contribution to the productivity gains. However, the contribution of the shifts will reduce or even be negative.
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Brzezinski, Z. (2001). Avoiding a New Cold War With China. New Perspectives Quarterly, 18(3), 13-15. Doi:10.1111/0893-7850.00411
Deng, Z. (2009). China's economy. Singapore: World Scientific.
Fox, R. (2008). CHINA: FRAGILE SUPERPOWER - By Susan L. Shirk. Economic Affairs, 28(4), 92-93. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0270.2008.864_7.x
Goldstein, L. (2011). Resetting the USâ€“China Security Relationship. Survival, 53(2), 89-116. Doi:10.1080/00396338.2011.571014
Kissinger, H. (2011). Avoiding a U.S. - China Cold War. Washington Post, p. 1.
Rosen, D., & Hanemann, T. (2014). The changing USâ€“China investment relationship. China Economic Journal, 7(1), 84-102. Doi:10.1080/17538963.2013.874071