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Scientific revolution was the period marked by the emergency of the modern science. The development in science mathematics physics and astrology affected the way that the people worked and thought leading to rapid changes in the society. Changes resulting from the revolution affected virtually all aspect of the human living such as the religion, production or even the politics of the day (Cohen, 49). The perspectives of the people on nature and society changed since there was a logical explanation for every aspect of the human existence.
The belief that the superstition of the time was behind the every relationship and the gods could cause something began to lose the rooting in the society. This paper will focus on the effect of scientific revolution on manufacturing, religion and art and music. The paper will cover the revolution in Europe. It will also cover the social movement of enlightenment and the discoveries made in the age of reflection. The paper will cover the scientific revolution according to Baily who was credited for the observation of how the old was replaced with the new in the light of new discovering.
Effect of scientific revolution on religion
Scientific revolution is credited for the abolishment of the ignorance that pervaded the society. The majority of the people were ruled by the belief that the world was under the control of some deity. This belief was the only explanation that the people could come up with for the occurrences that did not appear to be logical to them. Hiding behind the mask of religion was a cover of ignorance. In the event that the people could not understand a certain aspect of life, the best explanation was that the gods had been involved in the creation of the situation.
This was a low expectation period whereby the people did not hope to understand the development of the society. There was little or no interest in the factors that controlled some of the outcomes that the people experiences (Kuhn and Hacking, 187). Because of this perspective, the people were always willing to kill the inventors or the scientists who believed that there was a logical explanation to every occurrence. Most oft eh free thinkers or the enlightened ended up dead from their stances on some matters. As usual, the pious people were against the development of scientific explanations of every occurrence.
Being able to work on a theory and presenting it to the masses was a hard experience such that the discoverers of the new aspects had to hide their discoveries. Due to the practice of constant persecution of the people, the inventors formed various cults that would be used to explain some developments. The trend of religious perceptions overruling discovering by the sincerities continued to rule. However, the enlightenment was increasingly gaining popularity. Some of the enlightened formed some cultic groups enshrined in secrecy such as the illuminati of Bavaria. The illuminati were a network of the most enlightenment member of the society and often wealth one who had some possession of secrets and procedures for production.
The church accused such groups of assuming the devilish approaches and selling their souls to the devil while the one thing that they did was coming up with the most effective methods of production and using them in their daily life (Shapin, 48). Therefore, despite the bids to control the scientific revolution the blind faith in the religion was brought to an end by the scientific revolution.
Eventually the people started looking for logical explanations to all the things that they were experimenting. Suddenly, the belief that the deity was above all occurrences started losing presence in the society. The persecution of the inventors and scientist ceased and all of a sudden, they were respected members of the society that were making significant contributions to the development.
In some instances, some of the religions that persecuted the inventors began respecting them by providing them with the environment for the development (Dascal and Boantza, 45). The rich Roman Catholic Church was responsible for some of the major inventions through its funding process. However, some of the critics of the church’s involvement posit that the involvement was not out of the goodwill but it was to ensure that there were controlled inventions.
The consensus on the scientific revolution effect on the religion is that the advance of the religion debunked various perceptions of the religion (Cohen, 52). The inclination to believe all that was given a religious explanation ceased and the people were willing to look into the logical explanations of the outcome. Eventually, the religious leaders gave in to the pressure to accept the inventions since they would improve the society’s well being. The general effect of the scientific revolution was marked by the massive decline in the number of religious people to less piousness. Gradually, the people were enlightened.
Effect on manufacturing and production
Traditional production systems in Europe were less efficient. The people were accustomed to manual labor. At their best, they had access to crude materials for digging the land. There way of life was by large controlled by rudimentary production systems. Scientific revolutions led to the abandonment of the reliance of artificial circumstances. Gradually, the people accepted the need of research in the society (Ede and Cormack, 54)
The traditional experimentation approaches slowly gained presence in the production n systems. There was a change whereby the emphasis shifted from making deductions and approaching the issues that they faced with an open mind. This was a contrast to the traditional approach, which was based on the deduction. Induction led to the understanding of the major issues that were in play in the society.
The role of the inventor in creating new systems slow gained place. Induction called for more in-depth concentration than deduction, which was based on observation. Inventors were credited with coming up with new ways of doing things. As a result, there was the development of new production systems that worked at improved rates. Suddenly there was an increasing emphasis on the productivity.
Efficiency took center stage whereby the people focused on the best way of doing things. Production was no longer a matter of output. Instead, there was sharp focus on the process of production. Improvement on the methods of production was a key aspect whereby there was a belief that every production system could be tweaked to work in a better way than it was currently (Burns, 157).
Due to this perception, there was no longer a set way of production or manufacturing. Empirical observation of the phenomenon was important (Shapin, 45-150). All production decisions were arrived at empirically through the observation of the systems. Beliefs and hunches no longer mattered. As a result, the cost of production went down sharply leading to cheaper products. The requirement that the people stay in the farmland providing labor no longer held any logic. Migration to the industrial centers was evidenced.
Effect of scientific revolution on art
The effect of the scientific revolution on art was most notably seen in the optic field. The laws governing the intensity of light were used by some of the greatest artists in the production of their masterpieces (Cohen, 189). The principles laid in the law of intensity of light are used currently in the development of better artistic tools. The scientific revolution also led to the development of more people that were willing to enjoy art.
Art ceased from being a hobby to a mainstream career whereby there were many people willing to pay for good production. As result, theaters sprung up in most of the industrial cities. Theater groups were formed and the common village joker became a great performer. Some of the inventions led to the development of better tools of art. There were innovations on the instruments of music such as the harp that gradually led to the development of the piano. Constant improvement on the artistic tools led to the development new ways of performing art.
The audience also dictated the art. People that were more willing to think focused on the issues of the day. Some of the productions questioned the logic of religion. These artistic productions mirrored the developments that were being experienced in the real life. Therefore, scientific revolution affected art by increasing the number of artistic options. It also manifested itself in the art hence scientific revolution influenced artistic content.
Burns, William E. The Scientific Revolution: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2001. Print.
Cohen, H F. The Scientific Revolution: A Historiographical Inquiry. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1994. Print.
Dascal, Marcelo, and Victor D. Boantza. Controversies Within the Scientific Revolution. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co, 2011. Print.
Duran, Angelica. The Age of Milton and the Scientific Revolution. Pittsburgh: Duquesne UP, 2007. Print.
Ede, Andrew, and Lesley B. Cormack. A History of Science in Society: Vol. 2. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2012. Print.
Kuhn, Thomas S, and Ian Hacking. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: The U of Chicago P, 2012. Print.
Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Revolution. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996. Print.
Machines cannot be eradicated from the manufacturing and business industry; instead people should work hand in hand with them to ensure maximum productivity.
(1) Machines increase the performance when it comes to production
(2) It helps in countries that have decreased labor capital such as Norway and Japan.
(3) They are capable of performing super-human tasks.
(4) Modern development such as Robotic surgery has helped save lives
Machines and Human Beings
Robotics continues to play an important role in manufacturing with many companies worldwide embracing them and incorporating them in their day to day activities. The boundaries of what the robots in industries can do continue to be stretched with such tasks as in the machine learning, being socially intelligent and tactile sensing (Milios 82). It is thus likely that in the near future robots will be working alongside human, and it is even possible that they maybe even learn from them how to perform more numbers of tasks in manufacturing. The numbers of robots in industries continue to grow every year with an estimate that their earth’s population could exceed 1.1 million. Machines cannot be eradicated from the manufacturing and business industry; instead people should work hand in hand with them to ensure maximum productivity.
Use of robots in manufacturing is occasioned by several factors including a population growth that is negative in some countries. The industrial robots are thus an advantage to these countries as they will fill the factory jobs that are unwanted and will create positions that are technical and that are dedicated to the upkeep of these robots. Robotics requires that there are technicians and technical staff that are responsible for the robots upkeep and their functionality to avoid failure.
Robots in manufacturing can increase the productivity of the firm dramatically. Robots are just automatons and human beings program them to perform a task, and they will repeat that task and will continue to perform the task over and again unless programmed to perform another task. However, those tasks that will require a decision to be made, creativity, on-the-job learning, and adaptation will be performed by human beings as robots incapable of doing so. Robots are a welcomed addition to manufacturing (Milios, 73).
In general, it is possible to break down robotics to subfields and include different functions and fields where they are used ranging from behavioral science to artificial intelligence and from Nanoengineering to biomechanics. Over the years, robots have undergone improvements and since their early innovation days, they have come a very long way to where they are now, and they can only continue to improve in the future.
Today, we have robots in our homes, in the workplace, and they are also found on the international space station. With advancements in technology, the future of robots is very bright, and robots will probably be able to evolve on their own or act and think as well as act on their own. Robots can be reprogrammed to perform different tasks, and this is one of the characteristics that distinguishes them from automation.
They are capable of performing tasks as long as they are programmed for it. The robots are however programmed to perform tasks that they are assigned at a time. Once task specifications change, robots are reprogrammed to fit the specifications. The ability to reprogram robots makes them devices that are flexible. The goal of robotics was building of machines like humans but over the years, the goal has become more than that (Milios 64). We have not achieved the human-like machines as anticipated in the beginning, but the development of technologies of robotics are becoming useful in such ways that no one would have imagined. The robotics is impacting the world broadly, and their advancement and research that is being carried out to improve them will only make them better and more useful to human beings in the everyday life.
The use of machines and robots is the future. Modern developments of surgery include the use of robots in surgical operation referred to as robotic surgery (Harris 37). Robotic surgery is still new method of surgery that is still under development. Use of robots to perform surgical operations has an enormous advantage to medicine. Currently, robots are used in manufacturing industries, space exploration, to perform activities hazardous to humans and more. The use of robots is surgery minimal. This is attributed to the complexities of operations involved and the cost of equipment used in the process.
Robotic surgery began in mid-1980 with the use of the first robot PUMA to perform neurosurgery. From then, use of robots in surgical operation has been common. Robots have been used to perform general, cardiothoracic, gastrointestinal, neuron and vascular surgery among others. One of the most famous robotic tools is the da Vinci surgical system named after Leonardo da Vinci.
This is a surgical system developed to perform complex surgical operations via a minimally invasive method. The da Vinci made up of three important components; vision cart for lighting and camera support, console for the surgeon to sit on and a portable cart that holds the instruments. The da Vinci is convenient in performing surgery as it offers the surgeon greater vision, accuracy, and comfort. To date, there are over 200, 000 da Vinci surgical systems worldwide.
Increasingly, machines are providing not only the traditional brawn but the brains too, and this has raised the question of where humans fit into this picture (Harris 92). This era has been referred to as the second machine age, and it has just began.
It in the process of relieving and ultimately replacing firstly the human physical power in his work then his intellectual labor (Marshall 18). This trend will be a threat to the brain workers such as stock market traders and accountants. Further, the check-out clerks at supermarkets will also be a thing of the past as they would have been replaced by machines.
However, on the other hand, it can be said that there should be a limit to artificial intelligence. This is because machines and robots are replacing human workers. The automated teller machines for example replaced millions of tellers worldwide (Marshall 33). Machines are doing work in a more efficient and easier way as compared to humans. However, there is a need for employment and, therefore, advocacy to the extent by which machines can replace humans.
There cannot be a set limit on the number of machines and, therefore, as robotic hardware, artificial intelligence, and automated software and connected networks are only going to get more powerful and capable in the future and they have an even bigger impacts on jobs, the economy and the skills (Harris 28). The message that can be given to people in business can only be summed up by one quote from Abraham Lincoln second address to Congress, “as our case is new, so we must think anew and act anew”.
There are ethical considerations to be looked at when looking at this issue. There is a need to note that indeed there will be loss of jobs where machines come in. Therefore, in doing the calculations there is a need to take this issue into possession.
Therefore, there is a need for the displaced workers to acquire the necessary skills for the new tasks. Therefore, there is a need to ensure that persons and machines work hand in hand in order to ensure that there is optimum production in the companies. It is difficult to set a limit, but companies should be considerate in the way they use machines vis a vis persons.
In conclusion, machines are growing in a rapid way in their artificial intelligence and unlike in the past where they replaced human beings in terms of brawns, currently, they are replacing humans in terms of cognitive functions. Therefore, it is important to understand that there is a need to ensure that there is a balance that exists between the machines and human beings because there is no limit that can be set on the number of machines.
Harris, Michael C.. Artificial intelligence. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. 2011. Print
Marshall, Patrick. Artificial intelligence can "smart" machines replace humans? [Washington, D.C.]: CQ Press
Milios, John, DimitriDimoulis, and George Economakis. Karl Marx and the classics: an essay on value, crises and the capitalist mode of production. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. 2002. Print.
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