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The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder often referred to as ADHD is a psychiatric disorder that involves the neurodevelopment of the person and they often show several significant problems such as attention, acting impulsively which can be described as not being appropriate for the person’s age. The cause of ADHD is generally unknown despite it being one of the most commonly diagnosed diseases among st children. The main feature of the borderline personality disorder can be described as a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationship, self image as well as emotions.
It is of the essence to understand that people with borderline personality disorders are often very impulsive and often at times they might show injurious behaviors. This includes risky sexual behaviors, cutting themselves as well as suicide attempts. The borderline personality disorder often occurs to most people that are in their early adulthood. The avoidant personality disorder can be described as a mental health condition where the person has a long pattern of feeling very shy, and is usually sensitive to rejection. The condition is also referred to as anxious personality disorder as the persons that are afflicted with this disorder for tend to describe themselves as being ease, lonely and isolated from others. They often consider themselves to be socially inept and being personally unappealing.
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is often characterized by a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism as well as an interpersonal control and a need for what can be described as power over the environment. This is often done at the full expense of efficiency, flexibility and openness. It is of the essence to understand that this disorder often results into complete satisfaction after performing these rituals to the point of excluding leisure activities as well as friendships.
The disorder often occurs to about 2-8% of the general population and is most common in men. The dependent personality disorder is often characterized by a long standing need for a person to be taken care of and the fear of being abandoned makes the individual worried. This often leads to the person to engage in what can be described as dependent and submissive behavior that is often designed to elicit care giving tendencies and behaviors amongst other persons. This dependent behavior may at times involves a person being clingy onto others because they fear that their lives cannot be of much importance without other persons in their lives. The individuals with this condition are often involves with pessimism as well as self doubt.
Disorder Description Main symptoms ADHD
The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder often referred to as ADHD is a psychiatric disorder that involves the neurodevelopment of the person and they often show several significant problems such as attention, The cause of ADHD is generally unknown despite it being one of the most commonly diagnosed diseases amongst children. Acting impulsively which can be described as not being appropriate for the person’s age.
Borderline personality disorder
The main feature of the borderline personality disorder can be described as a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationship, self image as well as emotions. The borderline personality disorder often occurs to most people that are in their early adulthood.It is of the essence to understand that people with borderline personality disorders are often very impulsive and often at times they might show injurious behaviors. This includes risky sexual behaviors, cutting themselves as well as suicide attempts.
Avoidant personality disorder The avoidant personality disorder can be described as a mental health condition where the person has a long pattern of feeling very shy, and is usually sensitive to rejection. They often consider themselves to be socially inept and being personally unappealing.The condition is also referred to as anxious personality disorder as the persons that are afflicted with this disorder for tend to describe themselves as being ease, lonely and isolated from others.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is often characterized by a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism as well as an interpersonal control and a need for what can be described as power over the environment. This is often done at the full expense of efficiency, flexibility and openness. The disorder often occurs to about 2-8% of the general population and is most common in men. It is of the essence to understand that this disorder often results into complete satisfaction after performing these rituals to the point of excluding leisure activities as well as friendships.
Dependent Personality Disorder
The dependent personality disorder is often characterized by a long standing need for a person to be taken care of and the fear of being abandoned makes the individual worried. This often leads to the person to engage in what can be described as dependent and submissive behavior that is often designed to elicit care giving tendencies and behaviors amongst other persons.
This dependent behavior may at times involves a person being clingy onto others because they fear that their lives cannot be of much importance without other persons in their lives. The individuals with this condition are often involves with pessimism as well as self doubt.
The author uses multiple theories in order to explain the personality disorder. There are times that he uses the biological approaches that suggest that indeed genetics are the ones that are responsible for personality, there are other times where he uses the behavioral theories arguing that the behavioral theories often suggest that the personality disorder often result from the interaction that exists between the environment and the individual.
The behavioral theorists often study observable as well as measurable behaviors. Lastly, there is also the use of the trait theories as an approach to the personality disorders by the author. According to him, there at times that personality is made up of a number of large and broad traits. However, in general it can be argued that the author tends to lean on the side of behavioral theories arguing that indeed the internal thoughts of a person does not have an effect on the personality but rather it is the interaction of the individual with the environment that leads to one’s personality and consequently the personality disorders arise because of this interaction with the environment.
The author argues that in order to manage ADHD, there is a need for a combination of counseling, medications, and lifestyle changes. He however, refutes the use of medications but only argues that this can be done in severe cases or in cases where there is failure to improve with counseling. In regards to borderline personality disorder, the author argues that there is a need to give this personality disorder a new name as the borderline personality disorder does not fit with the description of the symptoms.
He argues that in order to treat this disorder there is a need for psychotherapy in order to treat this problem. He argues that while medications can often help cure some symptoms of the disorder, they cannot help the patient to learn several different and new coping skills such as emotion regulation and other important changes that should occur in the person’s lifestyle. The author emphasizes that there is a need for suicide to be carefully assessed as well as monitored through the entire session of treatment. When the suicidal tendencies and feelings are considered severe, the medication and hospitalization should be seriously considered.
The author contends that indeed borderline personality disorder is one of the disorders that are intrinsically difficult to treat. In regards to the treatment of avoid-ant personality disorder, the author argues that there is a need to use various techniques and this range from social skills training, cognitive therapy as well as exposure treatment that leads to a gradual increase in social contacts. He argues that a key component in treating the avoid-ant personality disorder is the gaining as well as keeping the patient trust because if not the persons that have the avoidant personality disorder often start to avoid treatment sessions.
This often happens when they distrust or even fear the rejection of the therapist. Obsessive compulsive disorder can be treated using cognitive behavioral therapy where there is a change in obsessive disorder. The author argues that there is a need to take care of the person in a way that will show him or her that the obsession with doing something is harming his or her life. It is only through this therapy that the person can be able to leave the obsession. Further, aversion can also be important in curing the obsession as the person will receive a negative feedback that will classically condition him or her to leave the behavior.
As it can be seen above, there are many treatment methods, however, the main treatment method is the use of therapy. The author believes that therapy and gaining trust with the patient is one of the key elements that can be used when it comes to the treatment of the disorders. However, there are other treatment methods that are recommended by the author. Treatment using medication seems to be the least favorite treatment method among st the author and he believes that indeed this method should only be used as a last resort but should never be used as the first line of treatment.
Social awareness is another treatment approach that should be explored when treating the personality disorders, this is because it plays an important role in showing the patients that the deep seated feelings that they have of inferiority complex as well as significant social fear are just but patterns that do not change dramatically. Therefore, they tend to raise their self-esteem and this can be described as the first step towards recovery and is extremely important to any patient.
The use of medication can also be explored in severe cases, and the use of antidepressants can be used to improve the moods of the persons that might later lead to increasing feelings of self-awareness, self-respect and self-esteem. Decluttering the author argues can be an important treatment and he recommends it for personality disorders.
I agree with the author’s treatment approaches, I think that he has structured his arguments for the treatments in a clear and concise way. He has given reasons as to why a person might decide to ensure that indeed he or she uses therapy instead of medication. Therefore, I do agree with him in regards to the different treatment methods and perspectives that he has regarding how the personality disorders should be treated in an efficient and effective manner.
London R., (2008)“Approaches, perspectives on ADHD. ’Borderline’ label needs a new name” Treating avoidant personality disorder Helping OCPD patients break free” “Treating the dependent personality “Is decluttering a form of therapy?”
Background of the study
Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT is a verbose therapy that helps one to manage their problems by changing the way one thinks and behaves. The cognitive behavioral therapy is commonly used to treat anxiety and depression, and can at times be useful when it comes to the treatment of different physical health problems. The treatment often focuses on the examination of the relationships that exists between thoughts, feelings, as well as behaviors. The cognitive behavioral therapy often involves the exploration of patterns of thinking that often leads to self-destructive actions and beliefs that often direct these thoughts. With cognitive behavioral therapy, a person that has panic attacks can often be conditioned to be goal directed in addressing the challenging symptoms of the condition.
A panic attack is like a sudden surge of overwhelming fear and anxiety. When the panic attacks are left untreated, the panic attacks can often lead to panic disorders as well as other problems. The panic attacks might at times cause one to withdraw from normal activities.. It is of the essence to recognize that cognitive behavioral therapy can help reduce panic attacks.
Statement of the problem
Scientific studies of cognitive behavioral therapy have often demonstrated the usefulness of a wide variety of mental illness that often include anxiety disorders, substance abuse disorders and panic attack disorders (Wolf & Goldfried, 2014). The patients that often experience persistent panic attacks are often encouraged to test out beliefs that are related to the attacks, and they often include specific fears that are related to the different bodily sensations. Mostly, panic attacks often strike out of the blue, and they come out without warning (Carleton, Fetzner, Hackl & McEvoy, 2013). At times, there are no goals for the panic attack and it may even occur when one is relaxed or even when one is asleep. There is the need to treat panic attacks, and cognitive behavioral therapy is often important when it comes to the treatment of these panic attacks.
1. Does cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) influence those who suffer from panic attacks?
Panic attack at times might happen at any time and, for this reason, it is extremely important to be prepared. The mental behaviors are often seen to be the opposite of what the society expects from an individual when relating to other people. Personality is the unique feature, pattern and behavior that contribute to a character. Things such as feelings, attitude, and beliefs contribute to an individual’s personality.
Cognitive behavioral therapy employs explicit and goal-oriented behavioral patterns in addressing maladaptive and cognitive issues that tend to cause relapses on moral virtues and self-esteem among adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy is well thought and carefully deliberated, within a short period, and aims at ensuring that youths can shun negativity. It offers a combination of behavioral and therapeutic approach to reducing major depressive disorders among the adolescent population. Cognitive behavioral treatment works on the assumption that it is intricate to eliminate stress using rationally thought approach.
As such, it uses a contingency approach, where each stress and disorder among adolescents is unique (Carleton, Fetzner, Hackl & McEvoy, 2013). For this reason, it lays its diagnosis on solving the unique problem leading to stress and depression disorders. While it focuses on the stress inducing patterns, CBT incorporates and action-based and systemic oriented approach in eliminating the problem. This combinational approach offers diversity in the applicability of CBT in psychological studies. This is because CBT treats anxiety, substance abuse, maladaptive behaviors, and the compromised self-esteem, among other stress inducers. These are characteristics of stresses bound to appear among adolescents, which makes CBT a vibrant psychotherapeutic treatment approach.
According to Craske et al., (2005), contrary to popular misconception, anxiety is not a character flaw or even a bad habit but rather it is changeable mental health problem which calls for proper psychiatric care. Taylor argues that CBT can help patients that have anxiety problems. This is because they are often taught to identify and change inaccurate as well as unhealthy thoughts. This in turn often reduces anxiety and consequently panic attacks.
Craske et al. (2005)argue that CBT is effective when it comes to panic attacks because it encourages an active participation from both the therapist as well as the client. The emphasis on action often enables CBT patients to achieve better and faster results with the appropriate participation from both parties.
In the application of cognitive behavioral therapy, clinicians and psychologist believe in behavioral modification of the patient. The assumption is that a behavioral change would amount to an alteration in the behavior and sociological interaction of the patient. This is the reason as to why personalities with panic attacks can be able to change in terms of behavior. Contemporary development of CBT seeks to advocate changes in the aspect of maladaptive thinking as opposed to a change in the cognitive process of an individual. It is through an alteration of the maladaptive thinking that major depression disorders do not occur among adolescents.
Falsetti (2005) argues that a rigorous application of CBT in assisting persons with Panic attacks involves assisting the patient to replace maladaptive thinking approaches with reduced negativity, optimized positivity, and elimination of over generalizing. CBT lays focus on a cognitive process, which include; imagination, thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes held dear by an individual. The period of applicability of cognitive behavioral therapy is short-lived, with treatment lasting for the maximum of seven months.
Falsetti (2005) states the inception of CBT resulted from patients having an internal dialogue. Patients would conceive and partake in internal dialogues during therapeutic sessions. This observation implied that stressed patients would attempt to have a conversation with their self. Perhaps, it is an aim of trying to correlate the suggestion of behavioral modification patterns and their role in it (Hinton et al., 2005). This internal dialogue approach made CBT an effective means of reducing stress and significant reduction in panic attacks. The duty lay in ensuring panic attacks can be reduced by one taking control of one’s mind and coming into actuality that there is a problem with maladaptive thinking, which tends to steer their choices towards negativity and sometimes leads to panic attacks.
This realization occurs through an internal dialogue, by that, making the patient ponder on ways to eliminate the maladaptive thinking that leads to panic attacks. Ultimately, the patients end up conjuring behavioral modifications (Hinton, Safren, Pollack & Tran, 2006). However, this process may not proceed effectively without the willingness of the adolescent patients to accept that their thinking is maladaptive, and at best, self-destructive.
Falsetti, Resnick & Davis (2008) argues that CBT assists persons suffering attacks in understanding that the events within their surrounding affect their behavioral patterns. However, it is the magnitude and weightiness in meaning offered to events that appear to be self-destructive and detrimental. This often develop an automated thought approach while under the diagnosis of therapists. They reflect on the weight and magnitude in meaning offered to events. In so doing, the persons with panic attacks can come to terms with maladaptive thinking. Slowly the patients understand that offering meaning and importance to events that are negative leads to the development of disconfirm and stress that eventually leads to panic attacks (Hinton et al., 2005). In doing so, the patients become victims of believing that events around them are true, and, therefore; capable of shaping their destiny.
This assumption leads to the creation of major depression disorders and stress patterns evident through maladaptive and negative morals and virtues that increases the incidence of panic attacks (Marchand et al., 2013). In order for patients to eliminate that perception, the therapist guides them using a CBT approach. Eventually, the patients are capable of developing a habit where less emphasis is laid on negative events than on positive events. Ideally, they develop habits that tend to promote behavioral modification and attitude change. This assumption is dependent on the fact that CBT offers a correlation between thoughts and feelings.
The thoughts of an individual, whether maladaptive or constructive, manifest themselves in the feelings and emotions of an individual. In the end, the outcome of the feelings and emotions amount to stress and depression disorders among the patient that leads to increased panic attacks (Wolf & Goldfried, 2014). According to Henton (2006), this occurs when the patients perceive themselves as of little worth and minimal importance to others. The aspect of superiority and inferiority complex creeps in because of the manifested feelings at times and has been continually attributed to panic attacks.
The execution of CBT is in six phases, which elevate its significance as a vital tool for healing stress and disorders among adolescents (Tompkins, 2014). They include; assessment, re-conceptualization, acquisition of skills, consolidation of skills, generalization and post treatment. The first phase is perhaps the most important aspect in assisting adolescents to cope with stress inducers. The assessment process may take different forms, both of which work towards improving the condition of a patient (Marchand et al., 2013).
argues that the first approach may focus on developing a behavioral approach where the patient can conduct a self-assessment of their behavior. Based on the self-assessment, the adolescent patients can easily isolate the maladaptive thinking and respond to behavioral modification patterns. The therapists assist the patient through the self-assessment process. This is what makes CBT vital processes that can act reduce stress. Rather than making the entire process a dialogue that is monopolized by the therapist, the patients have a chance of carrying a self-assessment. This approach makes CBT differ from other therapy approaches. The very inception, of offering patients with the control over their condition, makes them feel in control.
This is, especially important since persons suffering from stress or depression disorders including panic attacks have the common characteristic of lacking self-esteem. The self-assessment process empowers the patients to take control over their current condition with an aim of developing measures that can lead to an elimination of stress inducers. In cases, where self-assessment fails to yield meaningful results to the patient, the therapists can assist in the assessment of the disorder condition (Hinton et al., 2005). The combination of self-assessment and therapy-guided assessment offers a diverse approach to dealing with depression disorders and stress that are leading factors in the increase of panic attacks.
Carleton, R., Fetzner, M., Hackl, J., & McEvoy, P. (2013). Intolerance of Uncertainty as a Contributor to Fear and Avoidance Symptoms of Panic Attacks. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 42(4), 328-341. doi:10.1080/16506073.2013.792100
Craske, M., Lang, A., Aikins, D., & Mystkowski, J. (2005). Cognitive behavioral therapy for nocturnal panic. Behavior Therapy, 36(1), 43-54. doi:10.1016/s0005-7894(05)80053-x
Falsetti, S. (2005). Multiple Channel Exposure Therapy: Combining Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Panic Attacks. Behavior Modification, 29(1), 70-94. doi:10.1177/0145445504270874
Falsetti, S., Resnick, H., & Davis, J. (2008). Multiple Channel Exposure Therapy for Women with PTSD and Comorbid Panic Attacks. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 37(2), 117-130. doi:10.1080/16506070801969088
Henton, D. (2006). Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Vietnamese Refugees With PTSD and Comorbid Panic Attacks (Hinton, Safren, Pollack, and Tran, p. xx). Cognitive And Behavioral Practice, 13(4), 336. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.04.015
Hinton, D., Chhean, D., Pich, V., Safren, S., Hofmann, S., & Pollack, M. (2005). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavior therapy for Cambodian refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A cross-over design. J. Traum. Stress, 18(6), 617-629. doi:10.1002/jts.20070
Hinton, D., Safren, S., Pollack, M., & Tran, M. (2006). Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Vietnamese Refugees With PTSD and Comorbid Panic Attacks. Cognitive And Behavioral Practice, 13(4), 271-281. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.04.008
Marchand, L., Marchand, A., Landry, P., Letarte, A., & Labrecque, J. (2013). Efficacy of Two Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Modalities for Panic Disorder With Nocturnal Panic Attacks. Behavior Modification, 37(5), 680-704. doi:10.1177/0145445513492792
Tompkins, M. (2014). Cognitiveâ€“Behavior Therapy for Pediatric Trichotillomania. J Rat-Emo Cognitive-Behav Ther, 32(1), 98-109. doi:10.1007/s10942-014-0186-3
Wolf, A., & Goldfried, M. (2014). Clinical Experiences in Using Cognitive-Behavior Therapy to Treat Panic Disorder. Behavior Therapy, 45(1), 36-46. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2013.10.002
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