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The nurses working in the ICU area most likely bound to have some inconsistency in their work. The sleep deprivation is more than the average inconvenience that the doctors face. It has an effect on the safety accorded to the patients as well as the nurses themselves (Clemmitt, 2010). Sleep deprivation may lead to slow reflexes from the nurses, impaired decision making, slow motor skills and high levels of stress due to lack of adequate sleeping time.
Various inquests made in this field have led to the development of a knowledge base that seeks to link the sleep deprivation in the intensive care unit with the increases risks to the safety of the patients. The lack of sleep is likely to affect the nurse that work in the night shifts. The critical care setting leads to the development of a higher risk to the safety of the nurses. The specialized and demanding to work environment for the nurses may call for making of quick assessments by the nurses and making rapid decisions on the assessed situation (Clemmitt, 2010).
In the event that the nurses working in the specialized intensive care unit environment have sleep deprivation, the tendency of failure in the strenuous environment is high and recurrent. More research on the area is important since the reality of the issue ought to reach the stakeholders and the policy makers. Including the real effects of the sleep deprivation on the performance of the people is important since it leads to the development of the best policies for the hospitals that have intensive care units (Clemmitt, 2010).
Read about the relationship between sleep deprivation and Parkinson disease
The inclusion of the intensive care unit is important since most of the assumptions taken by the policies makers are that the section is not as demanding. The study will lead to the development of time schedules that allow the nurses to visit the sleep rooms.
Clemmitt, M. (2010). Sleep deprivation. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.
The study will use the chi square test in determination of the sleep deprivation in nurses. The entire nursing body that works in the hospital will be assessed to determine the variance of the entire nursing staff. Variance of the nursing population will be used in the formation of the chi square. The chi-square test is a statistical hypothesis test that has the sampling distribution being the chi square distribution in sets of data that have the null hypothesis being true. In a sample size t taken from a population that has a normal distribution, likelihood allows the test to be undertaken even if the variance of the population is determined prior (Turabian, 2007). The stability of a condition allows for the determination of the variance without the likelihood of any error whatsoever. Suppose that the chi square is testing the variant of the entire process leading to a small sample of the t the variation is constant. The test in this case is the sum of the squares around the sample mean dived by the variance of the stable population is the statistical hypothesis test (Turabian, 2007).
Correlation in the research will be conducted between two main variables of the sleep allocated to the nurses and the quality of their service. In statistics, the dependence is the statistical relationship between the other random variable and two sets of data. Correlation is the statistical relationships that involve dependence. Pearson correlation is the common statistical approach used in the determination of dependence Pearson correlation is only determinable in the event that the standard deviations of the sets of data are finite (Turabian, 2007). This is in accordance with the corollary that the correlation cannot go beyond one in the absolute values. This coefficient in applied in the investigation of the linear relationships. The correlation may be positive or negative (Turabian, 2007). Positive coefficient means that the relationship is perfectly increasing. If the coefficient is negative, relationship between the variables is perfectly decreasing. The data analysis method that the can be applied includes regression analysis, central tendency, variance and the standard deviation. These approaches measure the degree of centrality and deviation.
Turabian, K. (2007). A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Data collection procedures
The modes of collecting the data will include the use of questionnaires interviews and desk research. The design of the questionnaires will be made in such a way that the responses will cover all the aspects that lead to sleep deprivation. The questions will be asked in different forms to ascertain the consistency of the responses (Patton & Patton, 2002). A focus group is a mode of data collection that seeks the general feeling portrayed by people found in the same environment. This approach is more or less like a group interview. The main advantage of using the focus groups in data collection is that there are little or no inhibitions since the reporting of such data is done according to the focus groups, and there is no mentioning of the individuals that participated. The final method of data collection is the use of interviews. Interviewing the respondents in the research is instrumental in the collection of firsthand information (Patton & Patton, 2002). The interviews will be conducted through the telephone or face-to-face. Face to face, interviews have the advantage of immediate feedback, and they will be the ones used unless when the situations do not allow meeting with the interviewees.
Data analysis plan for demographic variables
Data analysis for the demographic variables will entail the use of measures of central tendency (Patton & Patton, 2002). The measures of central tendency applied in this research will include mean mode and median. The mean will be used to analyses the average of each of the demographic variables. Mode will be found to indicate the recurring figure in the data analysis. The mode is calculated by the physical count of the figures that occur more than once. The median is the number that is in the middle of the set of data when they are arranged in order. Measure will indicate the number of the respondents that have same opinions on the effects of the of sleep deprivation on quality delivery (Patton & Patton, 2002). The standard deviation will be calculated to indicate the deviation from the mean. This is measure will be useful in the determination of consistency and how the data is centered on the mean. This will help in the determination of the uniformity of the data. Measurement of the standard deviation of the data will arrived at by using the difference to be obtained between mean and each of the measurement of the variable (Patton & Patton, 2002). These differences will be squared and summed. The sum will be divided by the mean and the answer will be squared to find out the standard deviation.
Data analysis for the study variables
The variables of the research are the quality of care, the suitability of the task environment, the nature of the task environment and the demands of the job. In order to analyze the quality of care, the research will use the repetitively administered questionnaires. The analysis of the questionnaires will give the information required on the quality of care provided by the nurses that are deprived of sleep (Patton & Patton, 2002). The analysis of the hospital system will lead to the obtainment of information on the nature of the task environment and its effects on the performance of the nurses. The analysis of the nature of the task environment will be conducted by the use of the best practices in nursing and the task environment (Patton & Patton, 2002).
Patton, M. & Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Statistics show that at least one in ten people affected by sleeping disorders worldwide. Sleeping disorders are caused by different causal attributes, and in this article, an overview of some of the common sleeping disorders are discussed and the implications that these disorders have on the welfare of the individual. The document also assesses the treatment methods used to cure these disorders.
When we talk about sleeping disorders, we typically tend to conceptualize it as an inability to sleep. However, sleep disorders also consist of the activities we engage in unconsciously while we are sleeping. Conversely, sleeping for very long hours can also constitute a sleeping disorder, but medical experts opine that the amount of sleep a person needs depends on their age. As such, infants and toddlers can sleep for between 17 to 19 hours every day (Olson, 2016). On the other end, adults require 7 – 9 hours of sleep every day, but this may vary when the adult is a pregnant woman, or an invalid (Olson, 2016). All in all, sleep is a subjective issue, and different variables can contribute to many sleeping habits.
However, certain habits are regarded as detrimental to the mental and physical of a person. Such patterns are described as sleeping disorders. There are many types of sleeping disorders. In this section, we describe these disorders and examine their causal attributes, and how health practitioners try to cure them. The first disorder we are going to examine is sleep apnea. This disorder impairs the breathing pattern of while sleeping (Baptista, 2017). Essentially, the air pathway becomes blocked, and the person is at risk of getting hypertension, cardiac arrest, and stroke (Baptista, 2017). The easiest culprits are overweight people, men, and people aged 40 years and above.
Knowing when one is susceptible to developing sleeping sleep apnea is contingent on one knowing the signs to look out for. Some of these signs include morning headaches, loud snoring, feeling sleepy during the day or when driving, waking up with a dry throat, mood changes decreased interest in sexual interest, forgetfulness, and insomnia (Kocsis, 2017).
Treatment procedures from therapy, surgery, changing lifestyle, and sleeping position (Baptista, 2017). Mild cases of apnea can be remedied by changing lifestyle habits. Sedentary lifestyles frequently lead to weight gain, therefore, losing weight may be necessary to reduce instances of sleep apnea. Similarly, medical procedures can also be used. The most commonly used are Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), and bi-level positive airway pressure (BPAP) (Baptista, 2017). These are devices that are worn over the nose which inject a continuous flow of air into the nose to prevent the airways from closing. Similarly, surgical procedures such as nasal surgery, Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, and Mandibular maxillar advancement surgery can also be used to treat severe cases of sleep apnea (Baptista, 2017).
This is a condition that causes the individual finding it hard to fall asleep/stay asleep for the required hours. Insomnia can be categorized into primary and secondary insomnia. The former is caused by factors not associated with heath condition while the latter is thought to be resulting from health-related issues, medication, or substances that a person may be taking (Townsend & Kazaglis, 2017). Also depending on the length of time, a person is affected by this condition, insomnia can be described as being acute or chronic. If the condition lasts for shorter periods of time, say, one night then it is acute insomnia. Chronic insomnia lasts longer anywhere between three nights a week to more than one month (Baptista, 2017).
Insomnia can be caused by life-related stresses like job loss, loss of a loved one, certain medications, and environmental factors e.g. noise, heat, and involvement in activities that alter the normal sleep patterns (Townsend & Kazaglis, 2017).
Insomnia is characterized by sleepiness during the day, memory and concentration problems, irritability, and general fatigue (Pathak, 2017).
Mild insomnia does not require treatment other than practicing good sleeping habits but sometimes rapid-onset short-acting drugs can be prescribed but for limited periods. However, for chronic insomnia, there is need to address the underlying health conditions that may be occasioning the condition. In some cases, behavioral therapy may be prescribed to help the individual learn and adapt to new sleeping habits. The fundamental techniques in behavioral therapy include relaxation exercises, reconditioning, and sleep restriction therapy (Pathak, 2017). Similarly, developing sleeping hygiene is also recommended as a way of curing insomnia.
REM Sleep Disorder
Sleep is divided into two stages – the non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep stage and Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep stage. REM sleep is thought to account for 20 – 25 percent of the total sleep time (Howell & McCarter, 2016). Typically, REM sleep stage is characterized by muscle paralysis which allows the individual to sleep inactively i.e. sleep without "acting out" the dreams. However, there are instances where the person "acts out" his/her dreams. Such people can kick out, yell, or scream while sleeping and not know that they are acting out their dreams. REM is prevalent in middle-aged and elderly men (Howell & McCarter, 2016).
Symptoms and Causes
Medicine has not identified the exact causes of REM sleep disorder but hypothesizes that the condition can have relations with other degenerative neurological disorders such as multi-system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, Shy-Drager syndrome, and body dementia (Senelick, 2015). In 45% of RBD cases studied, there was a link with alcohol withdrawal, sedative-hypnotic withdrawal, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and other antidepressants. It is noted that 38% of RBD victims subsequently developed Parkinson's disease (Senelick, 2015).
Researchers opine that sleep paralysis is an indicator that the body is not moving fluidly through the two stages of sleep. In essence, one has a feeling of being "conscious" but unable to move their body. Reports from other studies indicate that this condition may accompany other sleeping disorders e.g. narcolepsy. Sleep paralysis occurs in two phases; when it occurs while one is falling asleep, it's referred to as predormital/ hypnagogic sleep paralysis. But when it occurs when one is waking up, it's called postdormital/hypnopompic sleep paralysis (Sharpless & Doghramji, 2015).
This condition affects many people, and research offers that up to 4 in 10 people experience sleep paralysis with the condition suspected to affect both genders in equal measure (Sharpless & Doghramji, 2015). There are studies that attach these condition to genetics. However, the main factors cited as causing sleep paralysis are the lack of proper sleep, bipolar disorder, sleeping on the back, leg cramps, narcolepsy, certain medications e.g. medicine used to treat ADHD, and substance abuse (Sharpless & Doghramji, 2015).
In most cases, sleep paralysis is not treated using medications but rather adopting healthy sleeping habits such as getting enough hours of sleep every day i.e. sleeping for 6 – 8 hours daily. In cases where there is an underlying disorder such as narcolepsy, medical help can be sought to treat the particular disorder. Doctors also advise against being stressed when going to sleep and disengaging from any bedtime activity like reading or using the phone while in bed (Blahd, 2016)
Like any other good thing, too much indulgence in sleep has been linked with increased chances of dying, diabetes, and heart diseases (Sowa, 2016). Medical literature cites oversleeping as a potential sleep disorder that causes a person to sleep for very long hours during both day and night. Researchers offer that hypersomnia makes a person feel less energetic, unable to remember most things, and in general be anxious (Ratini, 2016).
Hypersomnia is thought to be due to depressive circumstances, substance abuse such as alcohol as well as certain prescription medicines (Ratini, 2016). In other instances, research has noted that too much fatigue can cause a person to oversleep because this is the body's natural response to the fatigue (Ratini, 2016).
Treatment for hypersomnia is by practicing good sleep hygiene which medical professionals opine should include a 6 – 8-hour sleep time. Also, sticking to a regular sleep pattern i.e. sleep time and wake up time, is advisable to avoid disrupting the body's sleep clock. Similarly, avoiding drinks that contain caffeine or alcohol are discouraged when one is due to go to bed (Sowa, 2016).
Baptista, V. (2017). Sleep apnea. Magill’s Medical Guide, 10-12.
Blahd, W. (2016, October 16). Sleep Paralysis. Retrieved from WebMD Medical Reference: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleep-paralysis#2
Howell, M. J., & McCarter, S. J. (2016). Importance of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder to the primary care physician. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 91(10), 1460.
Kocsis, I. (2017). Characteristics of Sleep Apnea Assessed Before Discharge in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Heart Failure. Acta Medica Marisiensis, 63(1), 19-22.
Olson, E. J. (2016, April 6). How many hours of sleep are enough for good health? Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/...
Pathak, N. (2017, January 1). WebMD Medical Reference. Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/insomnia-symptoms-and-causes#2
Ratini, M. ( 2016 , January 8). Physical Side Effects of Oversleeping. Retrieved from WebMD Medical Reference: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/physical-side-effects-oversle...
Senelick, R. ( 2015, October 20). REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. Retrieved from WebMD Medical Reference: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
Sharpless, B. A., & Doghramji, K. (2015). Sleep paralysis: historical, psychological, and medical perspectives. New York : Oxford University Press.
Sowa, N. A. (2016). Idiopathic hypersomnia and hypersomnolence disorder: A systematic review of the literature. Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation and Liaison Psychiatry, 57(2), 152-160.
Townsend, D., & Kazaglis, L. (2017). A brief tool to differentiate factors contributing to insomnia complaints. Health Psychology, 36(3), 291-297.
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