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The General adaptation syndrome can be described as a term used to describe the body's short-term and long-term reactions to stress. The stressors in humans often include several physical stressors such as starvation, suffering through severe weather, being hit by a car. Further, humans can often suffer from emotional or mental stressors when it comes to the loss of a loved one, the inability to solve a problem or even having a difficult day at work. There are three stages in the process of general adaptation the first stage is alarm reaction.
This first stage is alarm reaction and it is the immediate reaction to a stressor. In this stage, humans often exhibit either flight or fight response and this prepares the body for physical activity (Horowitz 32). The second stage is resistance and if the stress continues, the body often adapts to the stressors as it exposed to.
The changes often occur at many levels that take place in order to reduce the effect of stressor. The third stage is the exhaustion stage; the body resistance to the stress in this stage may be gradually or reduced. Generally this often means the immune system and the body's ability to resist disease and it might be almost totally eliminated.
Adjustment disorders can be described as states of subjective distress as well as emotional disturbance and it usually interferes with social functioning as well as performance and this arises in the period of several adaptations to significant life change as well as stressful live event. In many cases the stressor often affects the integrity of the individual social's network. Such stressors might include bereavement or even separation experiences.
Stress plays a role in the disorders as the physical and psychological symptoms of the person. This is because it is these stress factors that causes the person to have life changing events, and overwhelmed to an extent that they start to exhibit the symptoms that are associated with this disorder. Life changes also plays a very huge role in effecting stress levels and consequently turning up personal adjustment disorders.
This is because they the persons that have experienced the life changing event often feel the inability to cope, plan ahead and continue to linger in the present situation. They are disabled in terms of performing their daily performance and functions and therefore, their stress levels automatically go up. They might at times go into prolonged depressive reaction.
There are several psychological factors and they include personality traits, psychodynamic processes as well as learned cognitions and behaviors. The personality traits have showed that indeed there are some people that are at a higher risk of suffering from disorders as compared to other personalities. There are personality characteristics that are often heavily associated with physical disorders. However, it is important to note that indeed there are several psychological factors that can help reduce physical disorders drastically (Horowitz 74).
These traits can find expression through several behaviors and it research has show that indeed there is neurological disturbances that might occur in some people that have physical disabilities. The psychological factors can also play a very important role in alleviating disability disorders as the person can have relevant psychological factors that can help in alleviating the problem and helping the person to deal with disability disorders.
Therefore, it can be argued that the disability disorders can be either alleviated or increased by the presence of the psychological factors. Learned behaviors and psychodynamic processes can also help in alleviating the physical disorders and the persons might feel more confident about their physical disorders.
Horowitz, Mardi J. Stress Response Syndromes: Ptsd, Grief, Adjustment, and Dissociative Disorders. Lanham, Md: Jason Aronson, 2011. Internet resource.
Question 1. Learning and Communication Disorders
While it is normal for children to experience difficulties in understanding some concepts at school, persistent hatred for a particular area of learning or education as a whole may be a sign of a learning disorder. There are several types of learning disabilities that affect children. The most common include:
Learning disabilities in motor skills (dyspraxia): children with these disorder experience difficulties in executing physical activities such as jumping, running or cutting something. The mind is unable to communicate with necessary limbs which make it difficult for the children to complete simple tasks
Learning disabilities in language (aphasia): the condition affects the ability to understand spoken language and produce speech. A child with this condition, experiences difficulty in processing the right words to say.
Dyscalculia: this condition affects a child's ability to understand mathematical computations.
Dysgraphia : children with this condition have difficulties with writing and spelling. Such children are unable to organize their work in writing.
Autism is a condition that affects children at their early developmental stages and affects their ability to think, learn and experience the world. The condition might present itself different but there are some similarities in all children suffering from the condition. Children suffering from autism have difficulties in communication, social interaction sensory processing and information processing. These complications make it difficult for the children to learn like other children. Children with learning disabilities respond better if the condition is addressed early enough. Therapeutically assistance is the best known treatment where, children are taught skills on how to cope with their conditions. The approach towards the condition depends on the extent and nature of the condition.
Question 2 Perceptions on Abnormal Behavior in Children
Culture defines the acceptable or normal behavior for children and adults. Additionally, culture presents different definitions concerning abnormal behavior or mental disabilities. Instead of viewing disabilities as the medical conditions they are, some cultures view them as outcomes of evils spirits. As a result, children or adults with abnormal behavior are secluded or avoided by the other members of the community.
Most communities do not associate psychological disorders with children. As a result, certain conditions in children are seen as natural diversity in people while they are treatable conditions. The conditions get worse as the children grow. With time children with abnormal behavior start withdrawing from their peers as soon as they realize that they are not like other children. Failure to address issues of psychological disorders during the early developmental stages makes it difficult to correct in the future.
Kemp, M.A. (2014).learning disabilities and disorders: types of learning disorders and there signs. Retrieved on 1st February 2015 from: www.helpguide.org/articles/learning-disabilities.htm
Fear and anxiety are closely related based on the way they are expressed. It is possible to interpret anxiety as fear or the other way round (Chapter 6, 164). Therefore, it is important to acknowledge the similarities and differences between the two for the purposes of proper diagnosis and treatment. The basis of this discussion will be adjustment and anxiety disorders. Accordingly, the case of a pilot’s wife’s fear has been selected as a point of reference in writing the essay (Chapter 6, 167).
Influence of Culture on Diagnosis and Treatment
The issue of culture has lately been of great significance in the diagnosis of certain disorders. The culture or ethnicity of a patient has a great influence on diagnosis and treatment of anxiety and adjustment disorders. Different cultures have various ways of viewing or explaining anxiety disorders. In some, the conditions are interpreted as possession by evil spirits or punishment from the gods. Such interpretations may interfere with diagnosis as patients may be unwilling to cooperate with therapists or medical practitioners (Small, 2006). In communities where mental disorders are seen as a curse or where the patients are seen as outcasts, the treatment procedure must include community education aimed at correcting the culture based perceptions on health. Community education helps the patients and their communities to see the condition as a health problem and hence accept treatment. This is also crucial for the recovery of the affected patient.
Comparing Anxiety and Adjustment Disorder
Both conditions are expressed through emotional and behavioral reaction towards a real or imagined stressor.
Patients suffering from anxiety disorder or adjustment disorders exhibit symptoms of depression. In some cases, the two conditions lead to demeaning thoughts where patients express self-blame or insignificance.
Both disorders interfere with a person’s ability to lead a normal life. They are characterized by intense panic attacks, excessive worrying, feeling overwhelmed, suicidal thoughts and seclusion from family and friends. As a result, the patients is unable to have a normal social life.
Anxiety disorders are caused by perceived possible future threat that is not necessarily factual. On the other hand, adjustment disorders are caused by a traumatic event in which the patient was involved or witnessed (Chapter 5, 145).
Anxiety disorders are related to the cognitive ability of an individual while adjustment disorders are not related to a person’s cognitive ability. Instead, adjustment disorders rely on the existence or non-existence of a stressor.
Factors That Complicate a Diagnosis of Anxiety and Adjustment Disorders
Most people in the community do not relate anxiety and adjustment disorders to metal health. Some take them as normal condition while others are not aware that the conditions can be treated. As a result, most patients fail to seek medical attention. Inadequate information about the conditions, therefore, becomes a major barrier to diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Cultural perception concerning mental health is also a barrier to diagnosis and treatment of adjustment and anxiety disorders. Cultural behaviors prevent patients from seeking medical assistance where most of them resolve to seclusion in fear of being stigmatized.
Ethnicity and Background Affect Diagnosis in Mary’s Case
Mary’s condition remained undiagnosed for a long time because she spent most of her life as a housewife (Chapter 6, 167). This way, she suppressed her condition by avoiding high places and closed places. Mary’s case is characterized by the fear of being seen as weak or abnormal. By opening up, she feared that the community might stigmatize or view her differently. Most people like Mary hide their conditions by avoiding their stressors hence making their conditions more complex (Small, 2006).
Chapter 5. Stress and physical and mental health. PDF
Chapter 6. Panic, anxiety, obsession and their disorders. PDF
Small, M. F. (2006). The culture of our discontent: Beyond the medical model of mental illness. Washington, D.C: Joseph Henry Press.
Psychology: Anxiety Disorders in the Films
Anxiety disorder symptoms
The film is, ‘Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004).’ The character suffering from the anxiety disorders is Jim Carrey starring as Joel Barish (Kaufman, Gondry & Feld, 2004). The symptoms of the disorder are feelings of fear, panic, and uneasiness. The individual suffering from anxiety disorder looks and feels worried in whatever she or he does (Wilz & Kalytta, 2008). The person fears of an outcome of a certain situation. The uncertainty of the outcome of a situation makes the person to be uneasy and panic. Also, the person experiences a problem with sleeping. Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced length of sleep or sleepless nights (Wilz & Kalytta, 2008). Moreover, a person suffering from the disorder is most likely to be unable to be calm and still. Thus, the person looks violent and does not remain at peace even when talking to people around or performing some activities.
Subsequently, another symptom of the disorder is relationship problems. According to Voznesenskaya (2013), the results of emotional differences between partners in a relationship may result in relationship challenges that are symptoms of anxiety disorder. Another symptom of the disorder is the inability to talk to people around and preference to live in solitude. Further, another symptom is nausea. The person developed feelings of discomfort in different situations. As noted by Wilz & Kalytta (2008), the person becomes uncomfortable with even what his friends does or what he or she does. The person can, therefore, do strange and dangerous things as becomes unconscious.
On the other hand, the symptoms have been represented in the character in many ways. Firstly, Joel realizes that his ex-girlfriend, Clementine erases her memory to forget the relationship they had and forgot about him Kaufman, Gondry & Feld, 2004). He also decides to do erasure of his memory to forget about their relationship. This represents the symptom of uneasiness, panic, inability to be calm and feelings of fear. The fear of the outcome of the erasure done by his ex-girlfriend makes him also do the erasure. This means, therefore, that he suffers from anxiety disorder. Secondly, after the erasure, Joel struggles to restore some memory of Clementine and the love they had before Kaufman, Gondry & Feld, 2004). This represents the symptom of discomfort and uneasiness and to some extent, the problem of sleeping.
The impact of the disorder is that Joel also went for an erasure and caused him to forget about the love with his Clementine. The erasure also made both couples to react with incomprehension and shock when they boarded the same train as they could not remember knowing each other before (Kaufman, Gondry & Feld, 2004). Another impact was that Joel and Clementine, who was close to him, acquired different difficulties such as nausea and had to be hospitalized more frequently. Also, they suffered from other clinical depression such as stress and developed lack of desire in sex.
Intervention and its effects
Despite the lack of any observable intervention to change his personality in the film, it is mentioned that Joel and Clementine attempted a new relationship (Kaufman, Gondry & Feld, 2004). However, the only intervention that Joel made was to refresh his memory and discover that it was good to be calm, fearless of situations and optimistic. He, therefore, realized that the love could not be given in. The intervention to eliminate the anxiety was, therefore, productive as the two agreed to begin a new life.
Apparently, Joel is treated with respect as the physician investigated and assessed how long he had been exhibiting the symptoms (Kaufman, Gondry & Feld, 2004). The medical conditions were also analyzed properly to facilitate the recovery from the disorder. His situations were handled effectively by encouraging change in his behaviors. As explained by Voznesenskaya (2013), through the behavioral therapy, the character was able to reconsider his personality after reuniting with his ex-girlfriend. Starting a new life with Clementine means that, the diagnosis was done successfully, and the character was treated with dignity. This means that the doctor handled his symptoms in a professional manner observing ethical practices such as respect and self-esteem for the patient, Joel.
Kaufman, C., Gondry, M., & Feld, R. (2004). Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind. New York: Newmarket Press.
Voznesenskaya, T. (2013). Generalized anxiety disorder: Differential diagnosis and treatment. Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics, 0(2), 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.14412/2074-2711-2013-2407
Wilz, G., & Kalytta, T. (2008). Anxiety Symptoms in Spouses of Stroke Patients. Cerebrovasc Dis, 25(4), 311-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000118375
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