Adjustment Disorders Essay Examples & Outline

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Adjustment Disorders

ADJUSTMENT DISORDERSThe General adaptation syndrome can be described as a term used to describe the body's short-term and long-term reactions to stress. The stressors in humans often include several physical stressors such as starvation, suffering through severe weather, being hit by a car. Further, humans can often suffer from emotional or mental stressors when it comes to the loss of a loved one, the inability to solve a problem or even having a difficult day at work. There are three stages in the process of general adaptation the first stage is alarm reaction.

This first stage is alarm reaction and it is the immediate reaction to a stressor. In this stage, humans often exhibit either flight or fight response and this prepares the body for physical activity (Horowitz 32). The second stage is resistance and if the stress continues, the body often adapts to the stressors as it exposed to.

The changes often occur at many levels that take place in order to reduce the effect of stressor. The third stage is the exhaustion stage; the body resistance to the stress in this stage may be gradually or reduced. Generally this often means the immune system and the body's ability to resist disease and it might be almost totally eliminated.

Adjustment disorders can be described as states of subjective distress as well as emotional disturbance and it usually interferes with social functioning as well as performance and this arises in the period of several adaptations to significant life change as well as stressful live event. In many cases the stressor often affects the integrity of the individual social's network. Such stressors might include bereavement or even separation experiences.

Stress plays a role in the disorders as the physical and psychological symptoms of the person. This is because it is these stress factors that causes the person to have life changing events, and overwhelmed to an extent that they start to exhibit the symptoms that are associated with this disorder. Life changes also plays a very huge role in effecting stress levels and consequently turning up personal adjustment disorders.

This is because they the persons that have experienced the life changing event often feel the inability to cope, plan ahead and continue to linger in the present situation. They are disabled in terms of performing their daily performance and functions and therefore, their stress levels automatically go up. They might at times go into prolonged depressive reaction.

There are several psychological factors and they include personality traits, psychodynamic processes as well as learned cognitions and behaviors. The personality traits have showed that indeed there are some people that are at a higher risk of suffering from disorders as compared to other personalities. There are personality characteristics that are often heavily associated with physical disorders. However, it is important to note that indeed there are several psychological factors that can help reduce physical disorders drastically (Horowitz 74).

These traits can find expression through several behaviors and it research has show that indeed there is neurological disturbances that might occur in some people that have physical disabilities. The psychological factors can also play a very important role in alleviating disability disorders as the person can have relevant psychological factors that can help in alleviating the problem and helping the person to deal with disability disorders.

Therefore, it can be argued that the disability disorders can be either alleviated or increased by the presence of the psychological factors. Learned behaviors and psychodynamic processes can also help in alleviating the physical disorders and the persons might feel more confident about their physical disorders.


Horowitz, Mardi J. Stress Response Syndromes: Ptsd, Grief, Adjustment, and Dissociative Disorders. Lanham, Md: Jason Aronson, 2011. Internet resource.


Psychological Disorders in Children

Question 1. Learning and Communication Disorders

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN CHILDRENWhile it is normal for children to experience difficulties in understanding some concepts at school, persistent hatred for a particular area of learning or education as a whole may be a sign of a learning disorder. There are several types of learning disabilities that affect children. The most common include:

Learning disabilities in motor skills (dyspraxia): children with these disorder experience difficulties in executing physical activities such as jumping, running or cutting something. The mind is unable to communicate with necessary limbs which make it difficult for the children to complete simple tasks

Learning disabilities in language (aphasia): the condition affects the ability to understand spoken language and produce speech. A child with this condition, experiences difficulty in processing the right words to say.

Dyscalculia: this condition affects a child's ability to understand mathematical computations.

Dysgraphia : children with this condition have difficulties with writing and spelling. Such children are unable to organize their work in writing.

Autism is a condition that affects children at their early developmental stages and affects their ability to think, learn and experience the world. The condition might present itself different but there are some similarities in all children suffering from the condition. Children suffering from autism have difficulties in communication, social interaction sensory processing and information processing. These complications make it difficult for the children to learn like other children. Children with learning disabilities respond better if the condition is addressed early enough. Therapeutically assistance is the best known treatment where, children are taught skills on how to cope with their conditions. The approach towards the condition depends on the extent and nature of the condition.
Question 2 Perceptions on Abnormal Behavior in Children

 Culture defines the acceptable or normal behavior for children and adults. Additionally, culture presents different definitions concerning abnormal behavior or mental disabilities. Instead of viewing disabilities as the medical conditions they are, some cultures view them as outcomes of evils spirits. As a result, children or adults with abnormal behavior are secluded or avoided by the other members of the community.

Most communities do not associate psychological disorders with children. As a result, certain conditions in children are seen as natural diversity in people while they are treatable conditions. The conditions get worse as the children grow. With time children with abnormal behavior start withdrawing from their peers as soon as they realize that they are not like other children. Failure to address issues of psychological disorders during the early developmental stages makes it difficult to correct in the future.


Kemp, M.A. (2014).learning disabilities and disorders: types of learning disorders and there signs. Retrieved on 1st February 2015 from: