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Bill is an ambitious salesperson moving to Latino to replace a veteran salesperson in the country. Bill has his perceptions towards ethical working that are gratified but not applicable to Latino context. Frank, the veteran salesperson, introduces Bill to the mode of operation applicable in the country. He starts with explaining the perceptions that the Latinos have towards gringos from the united states that refer themselves as Americans. This is indicative that there is some underlying hostility towards the Americans since they have traditionally depicted themselves as better than the Latinos.
The country has appreciated the tradition of greasing the deals in order to ensure that there are sales. Greasing is widely accepted such that it is almost the only way of succeeding in the business. Creation of the viable enterprise in Latino is almost unfeasible for the person that does not work along the grain or according to the established customs. The open appreciation of bribes in Latino is equivalent to the benefits awarded to the congressional representatives in the United States to work according to a predetermined manner.
Bill is new and still maintains his perceptions towards business whereby he wants to contribute directly to the growth and development of the entire company. The company is working on the development of a different approach to business according to the vision of the new chief executive officer. There is a need for the change of the basis of the company from an exporter to a full global organization. The top management has identified proper management of the company as the way to attain the goal of growth for the company.
However, the plan will only work if it is modified to suit the needs of the individual market (Cavusgil, Knight & Riesenberger, 2007). However, the modifications of the plan will mean that some of the essential morals such as the approach to graft will be compromised. There is also an increasing risk of failure of the global operations of the company if the plan is applied universally (Cavusgil, Knight & Riesenberger, 2007).
There are two ways of dealing with the issue. On one hand, the Bill can decide to work according to the set approaches in the country since there are unique issues that lead to the development and acceptance of greasing. However, the payment of the bribes ought to be discouraged until when it is unavoidable. This means that the company will be capable of selling the products according to the practices established by the norms in Latino.
The alternative approach to the business is to focus on the differentiation of its mode of operation from the norm whereby it will be selling the products without engaging in any acts of graft. The products will be able to sell based on their merit as opposed to the greasing acts. This will make the company earn long-term credibility (Cavusgil, Knight & Riesenberger, 2007).
In as much as Frank’s approach to business has been successful, the longevity of the practice is largely hindered. To attain the necessary growth levels, it is required that the company adopts a universal approach. This approach will take time to take root in Latino but they will eventually make the company sell based on merit and not short-term power derived from graft. The company’s stand on corruption in Latino will position it uniquely leading to long term relationships.
Cavusgil, T., Knight, G., & Riesenberger, J. (2007). International business (1st ed.). Harlow: Prentice Hall.
The situation in Japan is one that requires a holistic review and strategic approach. The fact that many Japanese firms are still living according to the traditional approaches that used to be applied many generations before the current one possess a serious threat to the development of the sales and marketing force in Japan. In Japan, there seems to be a slight willingness to change from this approach, but it appears as though the proponents of this change are not willing to push the change agenda until the very end. This posits a dilemma to the marketing sector, since many young individuals are incapable of developing their careers in a meaningful manner, since they have to contend with the reality that the only way they will ever rise through the ranks is based on the ladder of seniority. This presents multinational corporations, such as NOM in this case, a challenge since they are unable to apply the same successful concepts that they applied in their native countries.
The key problem in Japan lies in the offering of straight salaries to salespersons. This is a major stumbling block insofar as motivation to the sales force is concerned. The reality that salespersons have no motivation to push them beyond their comfort zones is regressive insofar as multinationals looking to make sales is concerned. The key challenge lies in overcoming the psychological barriers that the Japanese have with regards to employment. The notion that working for a single employer in a lifetime has become anti-developmental to the marketing sector. This forces many Japanese salespersons to be complacent in meeting their targets, and even exceeding them. As a result, multinationals such as NOM find it difficult to implement strategic marketing plans since the Japanese traditions of lifetime employment to single employers are still ingrained in the Japanese mindset. The compensation and motivation program will most probably fail due to the inherent psychological barriers that the vast majority of the Japanese population holds regarding employment, even in the matter of sales.
In order to develop the marketing sector in Japan to benefit even multinational organizations that implement different strategies in marketing, a comprehensive payment plan must be established (Tse, Lee, Vertinsky, & Wehrung, 1988). This plan will be aimed at phasing out the traditional opinions of the Japanese on employment. By gradually eliminating straight salaries for incentive-based pays many multinationals will be looking to venture into the Japanese market. This will work to lure young Japanese nationals into working for these multi-nationals that offer opportunities for such individuals to grow career-wise based on their efforts and abilities, and not seniority. In addition to this, such an implementation would work to satisfy all the employees, including the old and new sales people.
It would be an effective move to apply universally acceptable motivation principles. While culture is an important aspect of any society, and every society must be proud of their heritage, it is necessary to ensure that the same society is moving at the pace of the world in which it is located. As a result, Japan would do well to adopt universal principles, such as those applied in the USA. By eliminating the straight salary approach and introducing an incentive and commission-based salary system, many employees, especially salespeople would be better motivated to work and beat their quotas. In this manner, companies would experience better profit margins as a result of high sales numbers (Roth, 1995).
Roth, M. S. (1995). The effects of culture and socioeconomics on the performance of global brand image strategies. Journal of Marketing Research, 163-175.
Tse, D. K., Lee, K. H., Vertinsky, I., & Wehrung, D. A. (1988). Does culture matter? A cross-cultural study of executives' choice, decisiveness, and risk adjustment in international marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 81-95.
Present sources of the Japanese history were written by the Chinese scholars. The Chinese had knowledge about the islands and the people long from an early period. However, the accounts of japan are minimal and give the account for the people of japan in brief and in a distant manner (Knox, 1907). However, their accounts of the same are pointers towards the growth and culture of the Japanese. The writings point towards the rise of the kingdom of Yamato. This was the true foundation of the real kingdom of japan. Japanese accounts of their traditions did not surface until the seventh century. Their writings were inspired by the writings of the Chinese scholars. They came up with accounts of their history by accumulating their myths legends and other true accounts. Early writings did not make any clear distinction between the myth and history. In this case, they came up with the early beliefs of the creation of the universe as well as the entire system of the Japanese islands. The historians introduced the earliest gods of the Japanese people that were referred to as Kami.
Creation myths came out more prominently in the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki. The myths system arises from a system of contradictory details that have been passed down the generations in from of oral history before being written down. The creation myths start with the condensation of the chaos (Hori, Kitagawa, & Miller, 1968). They purport that the world was initially a collection of chaos (Knox, 1907). However, the chaos condensed leading to the parting of the heavens and earth. The deities commenced the process of creation. There was the development of the passive, active essences that later parted into the two spirits that later came to signify the ancestors of all things in the world.
The formation of the island followed issue of a command on the Izanagi and Izanami to create the fourteen islands (Tanabe, 1999). The commands were to consolidate the earth and give rise to the drifting land. The creation of the island was conducted on the floating bridge of heaven using the jeweled spear to stir the brine (Hori, Kitagawa, & Miller, 1968).
After the formation of the islands, the creative pair was charged with the production of the numerous gods and goddesses. The last deity that the pair made is the deity of fire. The god was the last act of creation conducted by the creative pair in conjunction (Knox, 1907). After the creation of the deity of fire, Izanami retreated to the Hades and left the entire process of creation to Izanagi. Izanagi created sun goddess, impetus male, and the moon goddess (Tanabe, 1999). The moon goddess is less documented. However, the sun goddess and the impetus male are well documented and they were in charge of the process of creation through biting off the parts of the jeweled sword and blowing the biting away (Hori, Kitagawa, & Miller, 1968). The fragments from the word became numerous gods and goddesses that were in charge of the various clans. The creation process from chaos to the time of the era of the two goddesses and one god culminated in the creation of man.
The trio of gods accounts for the most of the mythology of the Japanese. Their influence in the creation affect the development of the power, for instance, the sword discovered by the impetus male in the eight-headed serpent is the symbol in all the emperors’ regalia. The belief system of the Japanese has always developed along the trilogy. However, prior to the formation of the written history the myths on the creation of the human kind as well as the role of the gods were most dominantly passed through the oral history. There most notable myths that were later reduced into writing were Kojiki and Nihon Shoki (Hori, Kitagawa, & Miller, 1968).
Hori, I., Kitagawa, J., & Miller, A. (1968). Folk religion in Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Knox, G. (1907). The development of religion in Japan. New York and London: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Tanabe, G. (1999). Religions of Japan in practice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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