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Communism in China was controlled with the aim of ensuring that the citizens were in line with the major tenets of the government. Communism was supposed to be the main way of the survival of the country that had been plagued by numerous problems. With the rise of the rule of chair Mao, there was also to hope in the communist teachings.
The teachings included the control of the economy and the development of the economic assistance of the members. Therefore, the country was deemed a majorly successful by assessing how much the communism effect had been on the people. The country still believed that the people were the main sources of power and as long as there was a vision in terms of the roles of the people, there would be more likelihood of the country developing the required levels.
In China, communism controlled access to information that the access to information was an effective means of controlling the message. The information that the majority of the government installations allowed the people to use includes the role of the government in the control of the issues. The success stories of the government and the system of governance were the only reports issued.
The government was keen to paint the picture of continued success while in the real sense the only success that it was attaining is the increased level of censorship to the people. Being able to develop the censorship over the people was a means of control over the contamination of the ideals of communism with sister information. For a long time, the consumer ship of the media was controlled in a bid to increase the perception of the people about the success of the system.
The country was still adamant that the system of communism was working in the country. The desperation to paint the mode of governance in the light of continued performance and success was a major way of attaining the faith of the masses. This was continued until the government elected leaders that aware more rational and accommodating to the international perspectives and opening up of the borders. The opening up of the borders came after the collapse of the institution of communism. It also came after the development of the numerous challenges with the system and the recognition that the best way of dealing with the issue was to increase the participation of the country in the geopolitical systems
Communism in the Soviet Union also took the same approach as that of the Chinese. The stakes in the communism actives of the Russian government were more given that the spread of the communist influences would lead to the development of new issues for the people. Communism was increasingly becoming one of the major threats to the western civilization with the risk of the newly formed nations, and pockets of the nation are being turned into communists. The western ideals of capitalism were under attack with the depiction of communism as the ideal way of enhancing progress among the people. Being able to control the level of development of communism was a major worry for the superpowers.
The difference between communism in China and Russia was the commitment by the government to the promotion of the ideals. In China, the commitment arose from the need to continue with the ideological orientations presented to the people by Chair Mao. In Russia, the motivation was to increase the dominance of the country over the rest of the nations in the world. This was a launch pad of the international influence and the creation of the ultimate super power. Therefore, the control of the spread of capitalism was more central in the communist Russia than in the rest of the communist world.
Censorship in Russia was more strict with the subjection of the people that were deemed traitors to different forms of torture. The government was keen on the reduction of the western influence by ensuring that the access to the information was reduced. Consumption of any pieces of media from the external world was deemed a major challenge. Therefore, the government controlled the use of the books and the media. The films that the people viewed were also voted in order for them to be ascertained whether they met the threshold, or they were means of perpetuating the rumor mill. The concerns over the access to information and the subsequent costs of the information were a major role of the spy agency in Russia.
Censorship was meant to increase the levels of ignorance in the community such that there were no instances whereby the people would be enlightening and forced to look at the issues in a different manner. The focus also led to the development of additional materials that were supplied to the Russian masses in a bid to control their perceptions of the government in its favor.
The onset of the red scare came with the end of the First World War. There were increasing political tensions in the government and the world. There were concerns over the impoverishment of the nations by the war. Therefore, the majority of the players in the government were afraid that the continued exposure to the same threats would culminate in the development of the socialist’s movement.
The term red care is largely used to refer the agitation of the pro-socialist leftists that sought to develop a stat built on the socialist ideals. The red scare was the fear among Americans that the Russian revolution was bound to take place in the United States. The fear of the revolution was based on the previous successes in over places. The effect of the red scare was supposed to be felt in every aspect of the society from church to marriage.
Some of the newspapers execrated the issue by proposing that the fears would lead to the development of xenophobia. With the backing of some of the threats to the action by the immigrant labor force, the issue was now painted as a xenophobic attack in the looming. The immigrant workers were not accepted fully since they were deemed major scares in the nation. The potential of the immigrant labor force to influence the labor strikes was deemed as one of the means of increasing the level of the scare and the exposure of the government to new issues. Being able to deal with the issues of the scare was a major concern of the government even in the first days of the scare.
The scare entailed threats to the ruling class with the conspiracy to mail email bombs to the members of the political and economic establishments since they were deemed major forces of capitalism. The red scare sought to instill the ideals of socialism in the minds of the people. The best way of doing this was to remove the influence of the political elite in the decision-making process and replace it with the more palatable socialist teachings.
The government had issued numerous warnings against the political establishments that were proposing that the government adopts the socialist movement. Before the mailing of the letter bombs, there were concerns raised by the President to the Congress over the after war morale that included the deportation of any elements that were deemed to be politically undesirable.
The second red scare came after the Second World War. The scare was culminated by the international events such as the spying for the Russian government by political leaders and the Berlin blockade. The iron curtain in the Eastern Europe increased the fears. The rumors of the development of the nuclear power by Russia increased the concerns over the sustainability of the global political system.
The interval fears such as the works of the communist part of the United States, the espionage of major spies led to the development of deep concerns over the eventual effect of the communism and its ideal of the government. It also led to the development of fear that the attempts to increase the representation of the communist ideals among the public would eventually work, and the government would be forced to accommodate the communist ideals.
The fear of the sleepers and the other spies in the United States was also high with the majority foot he members testifying to the development of the spying system that was meant to increase the communist influence over the capitalist dominance. The members of the communist parties and the sympathizers were supposed to be simple and normal looking people that were leading the ordinary American life.
However, they had a hidden agenda that manifested in the least of the activities. Therefore, there was a development of ways of ensuring that the ideals propagated by the Communist nations were incapable of taking root in the society. There were also concerns over the development of the best way of dealing with the issue with the majority of the people concerned with the sustainability of the capitalist regime with so many forces moving against it in the public and hidden ways. Various releases pointed out that the reality of the red scare could not be reverted.
Hollywood 10 was a film in which every member of the Hollywood 10 was recorded denouncing the red scare. The members are denounced the blacklisting of the Hollywood players. The film was directed by a hollow bigwig at the time. However, once the film was released, the director was incapable of securing employment in the United States.
The members of the Hollywood 10 were supposed to be part of the sympathetic groups that had been advocating for the development of the socialist ideals. The majority of the member in the group was professionals in the film industry. The members were categorized in the group due to the infamous decision to refuse to give any form of testimonies to the Congress for the alleged involvement in the communist ideals. The move to sidestep testifying before the committee led to the development of the perception that the members were less inclined to work according to the red scare mongers.
Censorship of the Hollywood 10 manifested a keener putlog with the government focusing on the reduction of the influence of the Hollywood ten on the minds of the people. The centrality of the members of the group led to the creation of the perception that the group was a significant threat. The group received its centrality status from the ability to develop new focus in the content development states and propagated the ideals of the communist party to the viewers. The other source of the confirmation by the government that the group was involved with the Communist party came from the decision to develop a unified resistance against the red scare.
Curtailing the events of the Hollywood 10 was informed by the various testimonies by the former spies that the Hollywood was a major weapon for the propagation of the communist ideals. Any person in the industry was a suspect. However, the Hollywood Ten were more implicated due to the stances that they had taken against giving testimonies to the government about the communist actions and membership in the Communist parties. Involvement of the major agents from the CIA in the former communist linked espionage led to the development of the perception that there was no agency that could not be reached by communists.
The blacklisting of the major directors and actors was based on the belief that they did not hold the same ideals that the government sought to propagate. The blacklisting was focused on the development of the actors and player that were only loyal to the capitalism as a mode of doing business there was a lot of concern over the development of the communist ideal with the development of the red scare.
The main criteria for the denial of work were based on the fear by the government that the members were disloyal to the government and sympathetic to the communist cause. The Hollywood ten were members of the film industry that were adversely affected by the directive. The development of the blacklist was based on the idea that the creation of a blacklist would help in the control of the media content developed and consumed by the majority of the America.
The initial issue of the censorship took place in the 1947 after ten directors and screenwriters were deemed to be in contempt of the Congress after they refused to testify inform of it for the alleged involvement in the communist party. The House committee on un-American actives was the main accuser in the story with the development of the initial issue over the activities of the directors and writers. The development of the perception that the community was secret working towards the creation of a different form of ideal led to the development of fears among the members of the Congress and the intelligence community that the directors were actively involved in the propagation of ideas that were contrary to the belief systems of the American people.
The fact that the directors and the screenwriters had the ability to control the content that they created and means of spreading the influence of the communist party to the rest of the world was one of the main motivators for the censorship activities. The development of the Hollywood ten documentary film led to the confirmation of the fears. It also led to the creation of the perception that the film industry was the main target of the Communists, and it had to be controlled.
The foundation of the Hollywood blacklist was in the events of the 1930s whereby there were supports from the Hollywood professionals of the activities in the rest of the world such as the Moscow show trials. Concerns about the link between the activities of the American communist party and the Hollywood professional led to the development of a blacklist. Confessions of a former member of the American communist party confirmed the fears.
The same fear expressed by the members of the communist party manifested in the communist nations. The focus on the local party affiliations and the use of the media as a way of controlling the spread of the contaminating ideas was also in line with the actions of the communist parties in the communist China and the Soviet Union. Another aspect that is similar to the censorship activities of the United States and the communist nations is the continued reliance on the information from the defectors. The defectors in the American communist party pointed out that there were sleepers in the government that were responsible for the development of the intelligence in support of the communist party movements. In the communist nations, the majority of the information was also developed from the inside sources.
The actions of the HUAC were also similar to those of the Communist nations in that the members of the nations were focused on the reduction of the power and discrediting of the members of the revolutionary movements. In the HUAC, the government was responsible for the curtailing of the possibilities of the rest of the members of the American Communist Party and the revolutionary movement by ensuring that they could not secure employment. Being able to lead the nation in times of uncertainty called for the adoption of the rush measures. Therefore, the red scare was deemed real and acted upon in the United States as the fears of capitalism were dealt with by the communist nations.
Dirlik, Arif. The origins of Chinese communism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Fried, Albert, ed. McCarthyism: The great American red scare: A documentary history. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Gibson, James L. "Political intolerance and political repression during the McCarthy Red Scare." American Political Science Review 82, no. 02 (1988): 511-529.
Minxin, Pei, and Minxin Pei. From reform to revolution: The demise of communism in China and the Soviet Union. Harvard University Press, 2009.
Schmidt, Regin. Red scare: FBI and the origins of anticommunism in the United States, 1919-1943. Museum Tusculanum Press, 2000.
Tucker, Robert C., and Silvio J. Treves. "Communism and Russia." Foreign Affairs (1980): 1178-1184.
The events following the First World War can be cited as the main sources of the urge to develop a different set of ideology that would be liberating to the people deprived of hope. Communism and fascism were the main political ideologies. The World War 1 had rampant effects on the nations and the personality of the people. The harsh punishments that followed the World War 1 were other bases for the development of the two ideologies. The leaders in either of the fronts were aware of the desperation in the people (Morgan, 2013). They noticed that the citizenry was in dire need of a motivation or a reason for living. Development of the ideologies in the aftermath of the war was one of the means identified by the leaders of dealing with the issues plaguing tehm (Grant, 2006).
In the case of Italy, the British, French and Russians had made promises to the Italians that they would give them a piece of land in exchange for their joining the Allied Forces. This promise was the main foundation of their joining the war (Griffin, 1995). However, the promise did not materialize since the principles of self-determination became hindrances in the fulfilment of this promise. The Italians were unable to collect the property promised unto them for the simple reason that the Allied Forces were not entitled to the property they promised. The principles of self-determination stated when a piece of land could be given out to another state. The second condition on which a land can be given to another state is if the settlers on the land are of the same origin as the dominant members of the state. In most of the lands that Italy had been promised, the main population was not Italian (Griffin, 1995). Therefore, there was no way of collecting the promise. This trickery led to the development of bad blood between the Allied Forces and Italy.
The embarrassment and the feeling of being tricked was one of the main drivers for the Italians to develop their sociological theories. The Italian prime minister did not have anything to show for the sacrifices that his nation had undertaken in the joining and actively supporting the Allied Forces cause. Majroty of the Italians did not believe that the nation was not in a position to collect on their promise. Therefore, they turned against the government of the day on the belief that the government was not being honest with them about what transpired (Morgan, 2013). The veterans were despised by the residents since they were failures by the standards of the imposed by the people. The soldiers also returned home to a nation that was rampantly affected by runaway poverty and widespread unemployment.
In addition to this aspect, the nation had borrowed significantly to support the way just like the rest of the nations that took part in the war. The nation was heavily indebted to other countries. The value of the currency was at a third of what it was before the joining of the war. Naturally, all the people apportioned the significant part on the blame on the nation for joining the war. Corruption and bribery was rife in the Chamber of Deputies hence making public administration difficult (Sandle, 2006).
Fascist party was formed out of the desperation of the veterans by Benito Mussolini. The party upheld the war since it was mainly comprised of the world war veterans. The fascist party envisioned the rise to glory of the nation to the same levels that were previously enjoyed by the Roman Empire (Sandle, 2006). Election of the fascists into the Chamber of Deputies led to mounting of tensions between them and the communists. Fascists had more appeal to the masses owing to their low social class membership. Russia found itself dealing with the very issues that were in play in Italy. The same problems that were affecting the warring nations were replicated in Russia.
However, Russia sought a different version of a solution to the issue. The government sought to stick to the system of governance that was based on the communism (Grant, 2006). Communism was deemed ideal since it emphasized on sharing of the communal property. It posited that it was the solution to greed in the capitalist systems (Grant, 2006). The country sought to popularize its system of governance to the regions that it previously dominated.
The fascists had a backing of loyal army. The communists in the Chamber of Deputies had their faction of the army. In most cases, the communists and the fascists would fight publicly. In a move means to restore sense in the public arena, the king granted Mussolini the power by making him the premier. The move may have quelled resistance and averted the brink of anarchy. However, it also sent some salient message that the totalitarian government and rule was accommodated. With this mandate, the new premier sought to consolidate the power and cement the position of the army. Ironically, he was in support of communism in Germany since he later proved to be a worthy ally to Adolf Hitler (Sandle, 2006).
Countries in Eastern Europe assumed different paths after the war now that they had finally been freed from the shackles that previously bound them to the German and Russian rule. There were some successes in the countries in the transition from domination to self-determination (Sandle, 2006). However, others inevitably ended up adopting the systems of governance that were similar to the ones used in the communist countries and regions. Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia and Finland were under the domination of the two defeated countries (Sandle, 2006). The attainment of self-determination was a major move for the countries. However, they lacked the established governance structures. Finland is the only country that managed to develop and maintain a large duration of peace since it aligned its governance to the Scandinavian countries. The rest adopted varied version of communism and fascism under some dictatorial rule.
Introduction of democracy was largely lauded by the western nations since they assumed that it was the best system of governance. Self-determination was an appealing approach to the management of the nations but there were contextual issues that made it less likely to be applicable in the regions. One of the recurring issue was the newness of the new approach of governance in the countries (Sandle, 2006). The countries were unaccustomed to the system of governance and they adopted it since it was just hailed. The nations were also young and under the ruler ship of dynasties and elitist political rings.
Lack of experience with the system of governance led to the relapse of the governments to the traditional undemocratic rules. Each of the dictatorships that rose into power lean towards a certain precept of communism of fascism (Sandle, 2006). Therefore, the essence of the liberation from the previous masters was lost. The countries still used the same systems that the former nominators used. The unpopularity of the liberal system of governance was no longer applicable and only contraptions of communism and fascism prevailed. Eastern Europe was the worst affected region owing to the rapid instability of the governments.
Grant, R. (2006). Communism. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library.
Griffin, R. (1995). Fascism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Morgan, H. (2013). Fascism. [S.l.]: Xlibris Corporation.
Sandle, M. (2006). Communism. Harlow, England: Pearson Longman.
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