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Maintenance of amiable relationships between the management and all stakeholders is an important aspect in any organization. The business has to ensure that is takes care of all the needs of the stakeholder where possible (Hill, Jones & Schilling, 2014). In the event that there are other constraining factors that are deterrents to the pleasing of the stakeholder, the management has to ensure that it explains the situation and does the best to please the stakeholders.
The problem with this approach is that there are limitations to what the management can do to please the stakeholder. In most cases, the management cannot please all the people. Tradeoffs ensure in the relationships with the stakeholders (Seuring & Gold, 2013). The approach that the management adopts towards treatment of the stakeholders is a major determinant of the sustainability of the company. The dilemma sets in when the management has to determine the choices according to their ethical appropriateness.
Ethics are a set of guidelines to the performance of an organization. Ethics determine the acceptance of the company and viability of the same in the different business context. How the organization approaches the issues ought to be ethical in order for it to be acceptable. Ethical behavior is important in the organization it ought to be cultivated. Ethical behavior protects the management from the incurrence of the litigation liability since some of the ethical behaviors are also covered by the law.
Development of the most ethical approaches to the conduction of business also determines the viability or legitimacy of the business in a certain context. For instance, when a company establishes an operation base system in populated area, it has to ensure that it caters for the needs of the community. It also has to ensure that it conducts its operations in a manner that increases the value to the entire community while protecting it from the harm that could result from the nature of the operations.
In the event that the business does not operate according to the tenets of the ethical code set by the industry of required by the virtue of common practice, the business has no chance of developing to a higher level. Chances are the people will not accommodate it in the community. Failure of the business to meet the needs of the community when designing the policies leads to the loss of legitimacy. Therefore, the business has to ensure that it covers the needs or interests of the external parties (Ackermann& Eden, 2011).
The management may want to please the shareholders and other investor groups. Therefore, it may adopt some business practices that are harmful to the organization and the community (Seuring & Gold, 2013). For instance, it may resort to the unconventional accounting procedures that focus on the development of the misleading perception in the eyes of the investors and creditors. Resorting to this approach may please the needs of the investors and the creditors (Hill, Jones & Schilling, 2014). However, it may also lead to the loss of the legitimacy to operate in the region.
Leader of the business have to focus on the sustenance of an ethical business irrespective of the conventional practices in the industry. Aligning a business on the ethical practices is important for all companies. However, a business could find itself operating in the environment whereby all the players are focused on the cutting corners. In this case, it could be difficult for the company to stay competitive (Ackermann& Eden, 2011). However, promoting the image of the company and the association of all the business processes with quality and ethical processes will lead to the increased acceptance of the company.
Failure of a business to observe the ethical requirements is a major detriment to the business in the case of Enron; the company was managed by a bunch of people that were non-complaint to the ethical requirements (Hill, Jones & Schilling, 2014). Failure to follow the rules of ethics led to the eventual collapse of the company, loss of the shareholders’ investments and the collapse of Arthur & Anderson.
The unethical conduct of the business also led to the unearthing of the faults in the law controlling corporate governance, the lapses in the control mechanisms were the main reasons for the development of the practices by the company. Being able to control the lapses and reduce their effects on organizational performance became the main foundation of the Sarbanes Oxley act (Ackermann& Eden, 2011).
Shell has been focusing its operations on the development of the most ethical conduct. Being able to develop the business has been hinged on the capability of the inclusion policy. As a result, the company has been focusing on the development of the best approaches to business that extolls the role of all stakeholders. A stakeholders approach is applicable in the running of the business whereby the main goal is the development of a viable business environment that meets the needs of all the players (Hill, Jones & Schilling, 2014).
The company has run an ethical business even in the operational environment rife with corruption and self-serving management approaches. The result of an ethical management has been development and sustained growth.
Ackermann, F., & Eden, C. (2011). Strategic management of stakeholders: Theory and practice. Long Range Planning, 44(3), 179-196.
Hill, C., Jones, G., & Schilling, M. (2014). Strategic Management: Theory: An Integrated Approach. Cengage Learning.
Seuring, S., & Gold, S. (2013). Sustainability management beyond corporate boundaries: from stakeholders to performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 56, 1-6.
The Hawthorne effect refers to a psychological reaction of human beings to close supervision. In the study, it was concluded that human beings perform better with increased attention from colleagues and supervisors. Peer pressure is a common psychological influence among peers. While this influence has been discouraged severally, it could be used positively. Hawthorne applies an idea that is very close to that of peer pressure. When employees supervise each other, they create an effect that is similar to that of peer pressure (Rouse, 2014). This paper focuses on analyzing the influence of Hawthorne studies towards management thinking.
Hawthorn studies have had numerous applications on areas of human resource management. According to the study, employee’s productivity increased for a period when the change was made at the work-place. The researcher used lighting and first tested the productivity of the workers when the lighting was increased (Rouse, 2014). It was seen that there was higher performance for a certain period after increasing the lighting. However, the impact of reducing the lighting at the workplace also had similar results.
Peer supervision creates a common sense of purpose enabling employees to meet their targets. The idea of Hawthorne implied that people tend to handle tasks more carefully, when they are aware that someone is watching. Throughout history, the study has received several critics. However, the study remains relevant since it has proven practice when tested on different groups of employees (Rouse, 2014). Several people agree to the fact that they are very careful when handling tasks while under supervision. Considering Hawthorne theory, managers should alter the business environment regularly so as to create positive pressure on the employees. This ensures that there is no room for the employees to become relaxant or feel that they have achieved enough.
Rouse, M. (2014). Hawthorne effect. Retrieved on 14th December 2014 from: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Hawthorne-effect
This article seeks to address the reaction of overseas stakeholders on the corporate social responsibility efforts that an organization seeks to display in a foreign market. Essentially, it has been established that multinationals which engage in do-no-harm social responsibility experience more liability of foreignness compared to multinationals that engage in do good social responsibility approach.
The second article on country level institutions, firm value as well as the role of CSR initiative seeks to explore more on the reason as to why corporate social responsibility in countries with little or no market supporting institutions has more value compared to countries where there is market-supporting institutions. The article attributes this to the increased transaction costs as well as limits to resource access in countries with little or no market supporting institutions as opposed to those that have institutions that support the market both economically as well as legally.
This third article seeks to explore the effect of local legitimacy on the imitation of certification by subsidiary representatives of the foreign multinationals as well as domestic firms. The article proposes that there is a striking difference between the subsidiaries and domestic firms in deciding whether to adopt either the national CSR certifications or the global CSR certifications. The first difference is that multinationals expect to gain a different legitimacy in terms of local communities adopting the said certifications. Secondly, there is a difference in knowledge about the local legitimacy of the certifications.
This article seeks to explore the relationship between the state of institutional flaws as well as the practice of CSR reporting applied by multinationals in such emerging markets.
The underlying assumption in all the three articles is that multinationals operating in foreign countries must all carry out corporate social responsibility activities so as to remain in harmony with the business environment. The legal implications, as well as the CSR certifications adopted by MNEs, are not considered in the assumptions although they are quite crucial.
Linkage with main paper
Article 1 relates to the main article in that they both focus on the effect of host country stakeholders on corporate social responsibility. Article 1, however, is more specific on the type of social responsibility adopted and the reaction that the host country has on the type of corporate social responsibility a country undertakes.
Article 2 is in tandem with the main article on the basis of the effect of market-supporting institutions on corporate social responsibility.
This article relates to the main article on the premise that local institutions affect the CSR certifications adopted by multinationals in respect to the reactions from the stakeholders.
This article connects with the main article since both of them address how country institutions affect multinationals CSR decisions.
The main research question here is: how does the host country institutions influence multinational enterprises adoption of the corporate social responsibility approaches?
The host country institutions greatly affect the corporate social responsibility models that a company adopts since the reception by the local community varies accordingly. Host country institutions are supposed to support MNEs’ CSR effort both economically as well as legally. Failure on one side might affect the MNE adversely.
The most important thing is that the multinationals ensure that their corporate social responsibility efforts are in tandem with the host country business and legal environment. Also, it is important that multinationals know when to choose national CSR certification and when to choose global CSR certifications. This is because the approach adopted is crucial to having the locals embracing the multinational company’s efforts.
Levels of Analysis
The level of analysis is at three distinct levels. The first level is the firm level where the decision of the firm is considered. The second level is the country level where country institutional support is examined. Finally, the third level is the global level where global level approaches are considered in the achievement of corporate social responsibility.
This hypothesis postulates that a multinational’s exposure to host country environment enables the MNE to understand the standards that are acceptable in the environment and thus leads o the adoption of standard based CSR. This is because standards are global as opposed to country based practices which vary from country to country.
According to this hypothesis a multinational’s’ exposure to host country environment complemented by the locals stakeholder power lead to a CSR approach that is right based. In this approach, the corporate social responsibility strategies consider the rights of the individuals within the society.
This hypothesis attempts to address the factors that can reduce stakeholder power. Essentially stakeholder power could be unfair to the MNE’s depending on their bias and their perceptions. However, when a company adopts rights based CSR accompanied by issue salience, the stakeholder remains with fewer roles to play and thus power decrease.
Issue salience has a positive impact on the relationship between stakeholder power and rights based CSR. Essentially, when a company adopts rights based CSR alone, the role of the stakeholder reduces. However, with the increase of issue salience, stakeholders’ role is maintained. When issue salience reduces, the stakeholder power also reduces accordingly.
Host country corruption can affect the institutions which directly affect the multinationals’ economic as well as legal implications. As such, the approach that a multinational takes regarding corporate social responsibility depends majorly on the environment as well as stakeholder power.
It is also important to note that increased stakeholder power could lead to the mistreatment of a multinational since stakeholders positions frequently change due to changes in preference as well as other dynamics.
In the main article, the author sought to address the issue of the role that host country institutions play in the decision multinationals make in terms of CSR strategies. In the other articles, the main ideas of the author vary, but the underlying message is that of factors affecting multinationals in the adoptions of corporate social responsibility models I various countries.
Issues such as host country institutions as well as stakeholder power and local as well as global CSR certificates and models are all issues that multinationals need to consider going forward.
Crilly, D., Ni, N., & Jiang, Y. (2015). Do‐no‐harm versus do‐good social responsibility: Attributional thinking and the liability of foreignness. Strategic Management Journal.
El Ghoul, S., Guedhami, O., & Kim, Y. (2016). Country-level institutions, firm value, and the role of corporate social responsibility initiatives. Journal of International Business Studies.
Husted, B. W., Montiel, I., & Christmann, P. (2016). Effects of local legitimacy on certification decisions to global and national CSR standards by multinational subsidiaries and domestic firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(3), 382-397.
Marano, V., Tashman, P., & Kostova, T. (2016). Escaping the iron cage: Liabilities of origin and CSR reporting of emerging market multinational enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies.
Rathert, N. (2016). Strategies of legitimation: MNEs and the adoption of CSR in response to host-country institutions. Journal of International Business Studies.
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