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Community Organization Model finds vast relevance at the community setting in dealing with the issue of diabetes mellitus. The objective in the health promotion program is to increase the prevention behaviors for the person living with diabetes and those that are at risk (Zimmer, Hill & Sonnad, 2003). The Community Organization Model finds application in both administrative and clinical situations. The theory helps in developing a plan for the management of diabetes mellitus.
The theory adopted in mid-1940’s guides into mobilization of personal efforts and strategies for implementation. Team members using the theory apply action research and identify the way of solving clinical situations (Rohde, 2006). The proponents of the theory argue that it offers intervention at every level in the change process. Community Organization Model enables nurses to assess and synthesize the best information into practice. The theory concerns at identifying the processes and strategies that will increase the likelihood of adoption of healthy programs maintained at the community setting.
The theory will be helping in designing a health promotion program in the community setting. It is a multistep theory with definitive stages such as assessment, initiation of action or plan development, implementation of change and evaluation/ dissemination of the preferred changes (Rohde, 2006). The awareness stage aims at defining the condition of diabetes mellitus and the pre-diabetic situation. Under the assessment stage, the issue is identifying the prevention behaviors for adoption to persons who are diabetic and those that are pre-diabetic. In creating the awareness at the community level, Community Organization Model will help in identifying the major risk factors that lead to diabetes (Prilleltensky, 2005).
Several risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle can be identified. After assessment, action can be initiated at the adoption stage. Action can include encouraging diagnostic test for diabetes for early detection, encouraging healthy diet and physical exercises. The changes adopted need implementation and finally evaluation. Implementing strategies for this case include government sponsored diagnostic testing of diabetes and building gyms for workout sessions, a form of community empowerment (Prilleltensky, 2005). Strict measures implementation to prevent heavy caloric intake especially fast foods at the street corners. Evaluation of the adopted changes looks into the feasibility of the measures and their institutionalization (Jones & Donovan, 2004).
The theory focuses on the individuals and the environmental settings where they are found. Community Organization Model encourages pre-diagnostic tests for diabetes and further encourages adoption of strategies that may help in the prevention of the disease. The adopted preventative measures focus at the individual-level. Weight management strategy forms the individual initiative that helps in reducing obesity (Jones & Donovan, 2004). Richmond community for instance has a high incident rate of obesity, with programs such as weight management and nutrition aiming at reducing the prevalence level. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes. Community Organization Model also focuses on the environment in which the community lives. With strict laws regulating the sale of fast food, the theory intends at reducing the environmental predisposing factor (Harrison, 2006). Some of the adopted programs at this level is the reducing the extent of TV adverts that encourage the purchase of fast foods.
Weight management program forms the main adoptable program for reducing the prevalence of diabetes and transition of the pre-diabetic to full blown disease. Weight management initiative encompasses healthy choice of food and physical activities. The initiative is prone to several setbacks in the implementation stage. One of the resource problem likely to emerge is the access to whole meal food commodities (Harrison, 2006). In Richmond, most of the food sold in the supermarket is heavily refined. This will necessitate transportation of fresh farm produce to the local groceries. Despite having several gyms scattered in Richmond community, another problem likely to emerge is start-up capital for the establishment. Although most people work within the city, personal initiative to use cycling to go for work may be lacking (Harrington & Estes, 1997). In an area where most people own vehicles, the idea may appear retrogressive. Supplying mountain bicycles to the community may be challenging and cumbersome.
To overcome these obstacles, several measures need to be in place. Farmers can be subcontracted from the areas with intensive farming to supply fresh produce to the grocery shops (Harrington & Estes, 1997). Intensive campaigning on the use of fresh produce need heavy investment as the part of the adoption stage. Organizations within California are realizing the need of healthy people. Donations from established multinationals such as Apple Inc, among others will help in construction and stocking of gyms and supply of bicycles for the implementation of the initiative. People need to be educated on the necessity of adopting the personal initiatives that will lead to weight management (Harrison, 2006).
Established health theories play a significant role in defining the course of action. The theories can incorporate concepts to come up with an integrated model. The integrated model take the concepts from both the community based theories and individual theories. The two-tier effect can helps in achieving the best result (Harrington & Estes, 1997). Though community based models may touch on the individual, they do it superficially. Integrated model may help in focusing on the community while at the same time providing sustainability in the community. The derivation from the concept realizes that individually of the person can influence the general health of the community especially in statistics and other indicators while communally it is possible to solve the problems with one voice (Harrington & Estes, 1997).
Harrington, C., & Estes, C. (1997). Health policy and nursing (1st ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Harrison, T. (2006). Health promotion for persons with disabilities: what does the literature reveal?. Family \& Community Health, 29(1), 12--19.
Jones, S., & Donovan, R. (2004). Does theory inform practice in health promotion in Australia?. Health Education Research, 19(1), 1--14.
Prilleltensky, I. (2005). Promoting well-being: Time for a paradigm shift in health and human services.Scandinavian Journal Of Public Health, 33(66 suppl), 53--60.
Rohde, J. (2006). BRAC: learning to reach health for all. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 84(8), 682--683.
Zimmer, C., Hill, M., & Sonnad, S. (2003). A scope-of-practice survey leading to the development of Standards of Practice for Health Promotion in Higher Education. Journal Of American College Health,51(6), 247--254.
One of the main expectations that the organizational change manager has to deal with is the perception of what the change is all about and how it will affect the normal functionality of the organization (Cameron & Green, 2004). This is critical since it determines the divide between the realities and determined hence affecting the acceptance of change. Critical expectations affect all the stakeholders in the organization. The two parties affected by the expectations includes the management and staff. Being able to meet the expectations of the two parties mentioned (Myers, 2004). Addressing the expectations of the management is critical since it will affect the implementation of the change plan. Addressing the expectations of the employees affects the resistance to change and the subsequent adoption of the organizational change (Floyd, 2002). Employees’ expectations are particularly important since they influence the adoption of the change process.
Contacting has numerous challenges. One of the most recurrent challenge is the divide between the expectations and the reality. In most of the cases, management engages in contracts that have high goals which may not be implementable in the end. Arriving at the expected outcome in the contract could be constrained by this factor (Floyd, 2002). The other challenge that manifests in contracting is the resistance to change often the contract are meant to bring about a certain kind of change to the organization and there are omen people that may not be open to the idea of change (Myers, 2004). Being able to contract successfully, calls for change management whereby there must be an understanding on the inevitable nature of change. The management expectations outhit to be realistic and scientific such that they will be attainable. Focusing on these aspects will make change management feasible.
Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2004). Making sense of change management. London: Kogan Page.
Floyd, P. (2002). Organizational change. Oxford [England]: Capstone Pub.
Myers, D. (2004). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
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