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A huge number of American population are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus every year with no exception to Richmond, California (Prince-Embury & Saklofske, 2013). Diabetes mellitus as a medical condition occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or when it cannot use the insulin produced effectively, therefore, the sugar levels in the blood build up (International Congress on Obesity, Halpern & Bouchard, 2003).
Pre-diabetes is a condition in which the blood sugar level is above recommended levels, but the patient is not yet classified as diabetic. This is according to the data in CDC, in collaboration the DHHS. Approximately 57 million people have pre-diabetes while another 2 million are already living with the condition.
The other health effects associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is that it not only lead to the risk of heart disease but can also contribute to eye blindness and kidney failure (Fox & Hanas, 2008). Literature from various studies spanning years of research indicates that having a medical weight program for the adults of 20 years and above can help in reducing the associated risk of diabetes mellitus. The derivation made from this fact is that the onset of diabetes is related to the weight gain.
Having a strict weight management program can help in reducing the risks associated with the onset of diabetes. People who have strict adherence to weight management program reduce intake of diabetic control medications or stop completely and opt to diet control. Weight control management helps in preventing the progression of the pre-diabetic to diabetes. A study conducted by the National Institute of Health indicate that people who have an average BMI of 34 contain elevated blood sugar levels, but they do not have the disease. The findings based on the research indicate that combining good diet and physical exercises reduce the risk of contracting the disease by 58 percent.
Self-management program helps in the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In various health clinics and centers in Richmond, there are weight management doctors who offer centralized focus to the individual. Weight management doctors in Richmond plays a critical role in developing the physical exercise management program and recommending the best diet for weight management. The medical doctor helps in the adjustment of the medication that helps in achieving an appropriate control (International Congress on Obesity, Halpern & Bouchard, 2003)..
This arises from the fact weight management results in a decrease, in blood sugar levels. It will become risky to continue the original medication under these circumstances. Another concern in various studies indicate certain medication associated with the control of blood sugar levels can lead to a disproportionate increase in weight. Adjusting the medication helps the patients in overall weight management.
Combination of medication and losing weight provides a possibility that the diabetes as a condition can reduce the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. People with the pre-diabetes can manage their weight to prevent a full-blown scale progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Prince-Embury & Saklofske, 2013).
There are other associated health benefits such as lowering the blood pressure and coronary heart diseases thus enhancing overall healthy life of the individual (Williams, 2002). An overview of the theoretical framework in this study finds great underpinnings in weight control measures using the intervention based strategies. Some of the strategies that will find great relevance in the literature is developing a personal physical weight management goals, encourage healthy eating, personal follow-up of the weight. The research will entail defining the social and physical environment that contribute to weight gain while encouraging the combination of the several strategies in the control of weight (International Congress on Obesity, Halpern & Bouchard, 2003).
The strategy in achieving weight management will use developmental interventions. Self-weight management forms the basis that the weight control is a personal initiative. Following up the weight will enhance proper adoption of weight management programs (Unger, 2007). Combining dietary recommendation, for instance, intake of low fat diet and food rich in soluble diet fiber helps in glycemic control of blood sugar levels.
Richmond, CA has come up with the physical exercise program where people are discouraged from the sedentary lifestyle (Kazaks & Stern, 2013). This entail aspect such as biking or walking to work especially to those people in the proximity areas. Multi factorial approach will help in obtaining an effective control-based solution to the issue of weight management. This entail combination of the strategies to achieve better results.
Research has shown that combination of good diet, physical exercises and having a follow-up of personal weight helps in achieving the best results (International Congress on Obesity, Halpern & Bouchard, 2003). Evidence based research has shown that a combination of the three strategies helps in achieving the improved reduction in sugar levels. There are the number of factors that have contributed to weight gain.
For best intervention strategies, defining the predisposing factors that contribute to weight gain will help in achieving the best control based-solutions (Foster & Nonas, 2004). The aspect under this scope of the study will ensure that control of diabetes is dealt before the onset. Apart from the genetic factors, socio-economic and environmental factors contribute to weight gain. Advertisement of certain food commodities in the television and binge eating are some of the factors contributing to obesity especially to the young adults aged 20 years and above. A family focused weight management program will ensure that prevalence of weight gain in certain families is under control thus attaining the long term goal of controlling diabetes (Kazaks & Stern, 2013)..
Foster, G. D., & Nonas, C. (2004). Managing obesity: A clinical guide. Chicago, Ill: American Dietetic Association.
Fox, C., & Hanas, R. (2008). Type 2 diabetes in adults of all ages: How to become an expert on your own diabetes. London: Class.
International Congress on Obesity, M., Halpern, A., & Bouchard, C. (2003). Progress in obesity research: 9. Montrouge, France: John Libbey Eurotext.
Kazaks, A., & Stern, J. S. (2013). Nutrition and obesity: Assessment, management & prevention. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Prince-Embury, S., & Saklofske, D. H. (2013). Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
Unger, J. (2007). Diabetes management in primary care. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Williams, D. R. (2002). The evidence base for diabetes care. Chichester: J. Wiley & Sons.
Omega 3 oils are found in a number of oily fish and known to have a significant role in ensuring good health. Research shows that omega 3 oils can help in preventing cardiovascular diseases and problems related to blood pressure. However, the intake of these oils must be regulated particularly for people under medication. It is imperative that people who intend to increase the intake of these oils to contact their health advisors before increasing the intake of these oils. This study focuses on the effects of omega 3 fatty acid intake on blood Homocysteine and C-reactive protein in Cuban Americans, with or without type 2 diabetes.
After carrying out a study on 293 Cubans where 145 of them had diabetes and the remaining people testing negative to the condition, scholars managed to come up with results based on the C-reactive protein, Homocysteine levels, waist circumference and diastolic as well as systolic blood pressure. According to the results, there was the lack of conformity to the normality assumptions of both c-reactive proteins and Homocysteine. This made the results insignificant in making comparisons between the two factors. The results had to be categorized in alignment with clinic guidelines to make them consistent with previous research. Other factors such as the waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol reduce bias in the study. Since these factors are closely related to the levels of Homocysteine and c-reactive proteins in the body, putting them into consideration confirms the correctness of the findings.
Theoretically an increase in the intake of omega 3 fatty acids results in an improvement on the levels of c-reactive proteins in the body of a healthy adult. On the contrary, omega 3 fatty acids do not have effects on the levels of c-reactive proteins in people suffering from type 2 diabetes. According to study, the levels of omega 3 supplements positively correlated to the levels of c-reactive proteins for healthy individuals. This confirms the hypothesis in the literature concerning the relationship between the level of omega 3 and c-reactive proteins.
Supplementing omega 3 fatty acids has a significant relationship with the levels of Homocysteine in the body. According to various scholars, an increase in the levels of omega 3 results in a decrease in the levels of Homocysteine for a normal person. On the other hand, individuals suffering from type 2 diabetes portray low levels of Homocysteine when omega 3 fatty acids are increased. According to the study carried out on the Cuban Americans, Homocysteine was found to be negatively correlated with omega 3.this confirms the hypothesis in the literature since the results from the study carried out among Cuban American Cubans match speculations from the hypothesis.
Research undertaken by scholars shows that, there is slight or no relationship between diabetes and the levels of c-reactive proteins and Homocysteine. The results obtained among people bearing different ethnicity are also varying. In addition, the association between omega 3 and the level of c-reactive proteins have produced inconsistent results over the years. This is mostly attributed to the small sample size and short duration for supplementation in most of the studies. Making observations for longer periods may help in increasing consistency of results, but this does not guarantee complete consistency since there are several other factors that affect the levels of c-reactive proteins and Homocysteine. Although we cannot rule out the significant relationship between Homocysteine and c-reactive proteins the evidence supporting the existence of a relation between the two and diabetes is not sufficient.
There are a number of limitations that are responsible for the inconsistency in the results obtained during the study. The limitations may also be taken to be the reason behind the lack of correspondence between the results obtained and the hypothesis. The difference in the levels of omega 3 fatty acids in the bodies of individuals is one of the factors that caused a major variation in the results obtained. On the other hand, some food nutrients are lost during preparation depending on the method used. Since the omega 3 compositions in food was taken before preparation the amount that got into the body may be less than the value that was recorded. The inconsistency in the results obtained from the study may be attributed to the above uncertainties as well as other constant conditions that are dependent on the environment in which the study was carried out. The aspects of the population are not adequately catered for since the study only considers age and neglects other demographic aspects,
Even so, the study has some strength which makes it different from other studies. The inclusion of related factors such as blood pressure and cholesterol level in the body helps in streamlining the findings to point towards the areas of interest in the study. The findings in these results are only those that are directly related to c-reactive proteins and Homocysteine and not any other factors. The inclusion of extra variables eliminates bias in the study.
In conclusion, the study plays a major role in clarifying some theoretical hypothesis in the clinical field. Since most theories are not exactly applicable to everyone, the study gives a better understanding of the relationship that exists between c-reactive proteins and Homocysteine when the levels of omega 3 are altered. The inclusion of other factors such as the waist line, cholesterol level and blood pressure expands the set of variables used in the study. The study is more detailed than one that only focuses on the two aspects and leaves out other important aspects whose effects are very significant in the study.
Huffman FG, Vaccaro JA, Exebio JC, Ajabshir S, Zarini GG, et al. (2013) Relationship of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on C-Reactive Protein and
Homocysteine in Haitian and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes. J Nutr Food Sci 3: 179. Doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000180
Genest J (2010) C-reactive protein: risk factor, biomarker and/or therapeutic target? Can J Cardiol 26: 41A-44A.
Perna A.F &Ingrosso, D. (2003) Homocysteine and oxidative stress. Amino Acids 25: 409-417
Libby P (2002) Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature 420: 868-874.
Moreno PR, Fuster V (2004) New aspects in the pathogenesis of diabetic Atherothrombosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 44: 2293-2300.
Willett W (1990) Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New York
Huffman, F.G. Exebio, J. (2011) Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Healthy Eating Index among Haitian Americans and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes.
Takahashi M & Tsutsumi S.(2002). Fish oil feeding alters live gene expressions to defend against PPAR alpha activation and ROS production. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282: G338-G348.
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