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Canada can be described as the 5th largest producer of energy in the world, and it produces about 6% of all the global energy suppliers. It is important to understand that in Canada, there is the existence of Canada’s federal system of government. Canada can be described as a federation of around ten provinces and three territories.
However, this is in exception to Quebec, which is a common law jurisdiction. The Constitution of Canada divides the legislative authority of the federal Parliament and the provincial legislatures. This paper looks at Regulations for oil field development and operations in Canada.
Key words: Federal Crown, Provincial Crown, Concession-based, Direct-based
The Federal Parliament has powers over matters of interprovincial, international scope and national. The provincial legislatures often have a jurisdiction over matters that are of a local nature. It is critical to note that participants in the oil and industry fields have to be subjected to both federal as well as the provincial regulators because these different levels of government overlap each others in authority when it comes to natural resource development. Canada is blessed with oil and natural gas and in fact currently it has the world’s third largest proven reserves of crude oil.
The ownership of oil and gas in Canada is split between the Federal Crown and the provincial crown. It is important to understand that different interest groups are often administered by the federal crown. In most cases, for example, in the Case of Alberta, which is the largest producing area in Canada, the provincial Crown is the owner of around 81% of the mineral rights. However, it is important to understand that different interest groups in Canada often have varying claims as well as interests when it comes to land and natural resources. In fact, these interests are constitutionally and statutorily protected.
There are several acts in Canada that are in respect to oil and Gas regulations. Firstly, there is the drilling and production regulation which is an amalgamation as well the complete modernization of the Drilling, as well as Production and Conservation Regulations. These acts are administered by three main regulators. They include the National Energy Board, the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. The regulations are often kept in place in order to ensure that the activities that are related to the drilling and production of oil and gas are being carried out in a safe manner that protects the environment and ensures that the different resources are not wasted in any way.
There are several federal statutes and regulations that often govern oil and gas exploration. The first is the National Energy Board Act. It is this act that establishes the National Energy Board that is supposed to deal with energy-related issues under the authority of the Crown (Federal). This includes the administration of oil and gas
These interests include conservation, production, construction, the operation of pipelines, tariffs on the pipelines and the inter-provincial trade of oil and gas. Further, it is also the National Energy Board that is responsible for the exportation and the importation of oil and gas into Canada. Another Key statute used in the regulation of oil and gas in Canada is the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.
This Act sets out rules which are intended to ensure that indeed projects are substantially reviewed in order to avoid detrimental environmental effects as well as encourage sustainable growth and development. The third important Federal statute is the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. It is this act that can be said to be the main instrument for the provision of protection of the Canadian environment, as well as human health. It is of the essence to comprehend that this includes the prevention as well as the complete management of risks which are posed by hazardous substances.
Read about extraction of oil from cloves
The oil and gas regime that exists in Canada can be described as concession based as compared to direct participation. This, therefore, means that the crown does not directly participate in oil and gas projects. In most cases, the owner of the mineral rights, which can be the Crown or at times the owners of freehold estates, often grant a company a lease which gives them the right to explore and drill minerals for a certain term in exchange for a certain amount of rental fees, consideration and royalty interests in the different recovered minerals.
When it comes to permitting rights, there are the freehold leases and the provincial crown leases and licenses. The freehold leases are often set for a certain term, and it often grants the lessee, the right to explore and drill mineral substances. This is often done by the lessee in exchange for rental fees, royalty interests in the minerals that are recovered and a certain amount of consideration. It is important to note that the lease is often automatically extended in an indefinite manner if there is continuous production that comes from the lands; however, if there is no production at all, the lease often expires at the end of the initial primary term.
The provincial Crown leases and licenses share the same concept, however, it is important to note that under the provincial Crown leases and licenses, there is a specific area that is targeted for exploration and there are two types of extensions. There is the indefinite extension of the lease that often comes because of continued production from the fields, and then there is the definite extension where a period is given to the lessee.
In most provinces, it is often five years. It is important to understand that the current regime that exists in Canada can be described as being generic because the same royalty rates and rules apply equally to all the oil sands projects. This, therefore, means that the different projects are often assessed according to their net revenue principle, and this means that a lower royalty will automatically apply to gross revenues, and a high rate obviously applies to net revenue.
This move is done in a bid to encourage both innovation and development and ensure that indeed the Crown does not impose substantial taxes on any operator until the project becomes profitable. There are often two main considerations that are used in order to determine whether a project is taxed at a higher or lower royalty rate. The first is whether the project is profitable and the second is the current price of oil. In many provinces, before a project can be said to be profitable or has reached its payout, a royalty of 1% to 9% is often paid to the gross revenue.
However, after a project has become profitable, a net revenue is often taxed at a net royalty rate of around 25% to around 40%
There is also the existence of income taxes. The first income tax is the corporate income tax rates. The Federal and Provincial crowns impose tax on the taxable income of the corporations. The federal corporate tax rate is around 15%; the provincial corporate tax, on the other hand, can vary between 5 to around 16%. This is entirely dependent on the area where the oil field is located.
The Canada’s competition act contains civil and criminal provisions that are aimed at the prohibition of a variety of anti-competitive conduct.
The Canada’s competition act establishes a pre-transaction notification and transaction review regime. This act is important as it gives broad powers to the Commissioner of Competition to investigate fully whether a certain transaction is likely to prevent or even lessen competition substantially. If a transaction is known to raise these concerns, then the Commissioner may apply to the Competition Tribunal in order to get a remedial order. This competition act is important as it ensures that indeed there is fair competition and that companies do not try and create monopolies with the main aim of manipulating the market.
In regards to foreign ownership limits, the Canadian government encourages foreign investments that contribute to employment opportunities, as well as economic growth in Canada. However, it is critical to note that foreign investments that are known to exceed certain monetary thresholds (the current is C$330 million) must be reviewed under the federal Investment Canada Act. The foreign investments that are reviewed are often approved if they are seen to meet a ‘net benefit to Canada’ test.
In conclusion, the regulations for oil field development and operations in Canada are controlled by both the Federal Crown and the Provincial Crown. Each of the Crown’s have an interest in oil and gas and consequently they come with their rules and regulations. The regulations range from taxation, ownership, development, foreign investment, and control of competition. These regulations ensure that the resources are not wasted and that the benefit from the natural resources trickles down to the people.
Canada. (2008). Government of Canada modernizes Indian Oil and Gas Act. Ottawa, Ont.: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
Canada. (1963). Office consolidation of the Canada oil and gas land regulations and oil and gas land orders. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.
Canada Oil and Gas Lands Administration. (1984). Drilling for oil and gas on Canada lands: Guidelines and procedures. Vanier, Qué.: Canada Oil and Gas Lands Administration.
Ron Deyholos, D. C. (2013). Canada. European Lawyers reference series , 1-16.
The United States of America and Canada are two nations that have been extremely close for decades on end. The fact that these two great nations are neighbors further improves the state of affairs between the two nations in a way no other two countries in the world can match (Beisner, 2003). Just like two siblings, they may occasionally run into problems and conflicts with each other. However, the most impressive thing is the fact that these two nations are able to resolve these conflicts and surge forward in the pursuit of both individual and mutual happiness.
Trade is a factor that has brought Canada and the United States of America close over the years. The fact that both nations share and exhibit an entrepreneurial spirit is vital in the pursuit of capitalism in these two states. Capitalism has played a great role in the development of the individual economies of both these nations (Thompson, Randall, 2002). It has enabled Canadian and American folk alike, to exercise their entrepreneurial muscle in attempts to better themselves and their lives.
his has over the years resulted in the development of close Canadian-American ties that have been viably exploited in the world of business. When two individuals live as neighbors, it is inevitable that they will interact, share ideas and consult on matters; in other words, build a relationship. This relationship between Canada and the USA has resulted in the development of a working business relationship that sees the Canadian and American citizens enjoy the best of both worlds. Some of the main commodities that are traded between the USA and Canada include lumber, wheat, television rights and magazines. These are some of the commodities that are responsible for generation of business worth about 1 billion US dollars every day (Beisner, 2003).
The numbers of trucks that cross from either side of the Canadian-American border are a clear indication of the strong ties that exist between these two states. Canada chiefly supplies lumber and wheat to the USA while the USA supplies Canada with electronic and print media in forms of magazines, journals and television among other commodities. The trade between Canada and the USA has witnessed a meteoric rise over the years with the period after the First World War being the greatest. The end of this war identified the USA as a major trade partner of Canada, unlike before where Britain had that privilege. The harmonization of tariffs between USA and Canada has also contributed immensely to the growth of the Canadian-American relationship. The established of a free trade area and an undefended border has been a key player in the development of Canadian-American trade. The ability of entrepreneurs to move freely between Canada and the USA in search of markets or products has largely shaped the economic landscape of these two countries. For this reason, these two nations continue to be close allies.
Migration is defined as the movement of an individual from one place to another due to one reason or the other. The migration of Canadians into America and vice versa is very much alive today. The number of American citizens who have moved to Canadian states to live and work is significantly high. The number of Canadians who have moved to America in pursuit of the American dream cannot also be ignored (Beisner, 2003). The migration of individuals in this manner seeks to highlight the existent state of affairs between these two nations. For individuals to migrate freely and at will means that the co-existence between America and Canada is very sound. This migration is not new, both countries having experienced it for years and years. As early as the teething days of Canada as a nation, many individuals were migrating from Canada to the USA and vice versa. These individuals were either attracted by business opportunities or by peace, factors that were elusive in the early days. It was common to hear of Canadian families relocating to the USA in search of jobs at textile factories that paid far better than the textile factories in Canada.
The USA -Canada border is the longest undefended border in the world. Ekan claims that this fact reminds the entire world of the close relationship that Canada and the USA continue to enjoy (2008). The ability of citizens from both sides of the divide to migrate and move freely between the two countries is testament of the strong ties between these two close allies. The number of America-Canadian families has steadily been on the rise over the years. In these families, each of the two partners comes from one side of the border. This has also strengthened the relations between these two states, seeing that they are practically related to each other.
After 9/11, there were some stringent measures that were put in place to guarantee America’s security at the Canadian border. These slightly impacted on the movement of Canadian and American citizens (Beisner, 2003). However, the result is that these two nations settled the matter and have come up with measures that allow the free, but supervised movement of citizens as opposed to not settling the matter at all. This has been a stepping stone in fostering Canadian-American relationships as they are. The ability of American and Canadian citizens to cross both borders freely is a symbol of the strong relationship that exists between Canada and America.
The state relations between Canada and the USA have always been maintained at optimum. The diplomatic ties that exist between Canada and the USA are a product of many years of commitment, hard work as well cooperation between these two nations (Thompson, Randall, 2002). In the beginning, the relations between Canada and America were not as rosy, with America even attempting an invasion of Canada that failed miserably. The occurrence of these events many years ago resulted in the development of a hostile and uncooperative relationship between these two nations. Another situation that greatly affected the diplomatic ties between Canada and America is the dispute over the Northwest Passage.
The dispute arose from the fact that America claimed the passage lay on International waters while Canada claimed jurisdiction over the passage. These hiccups that were experienced between Canada and America took their toll on the diplomatic ties. The diplomatic relationship was at an all time low before the First World War. However, President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister William Lyon ensured they mended fences at the outset of World War II. The need to develop close diplomatic ties and maintain them arose from the fact that both nations saw the need to defeat the Axis powers. This, in effect, would guarantee continued prosperity like they had previously witnessed. This resulted in the development of close ties between the two states with Canada even helping America in the making of the atomic bomb. The existence of diplomatic ties goes even before the start of the world war, with leaders occasionally showering the other nation with numerous accolades and praises.
The origin of these close diplomatic ties can be said to be in 1947 when President Harry Truman said “Canada and the United States have reached the point where we can no longer think of each other as 'foreign' countries.” This came at the tail end of the world war after both nations had experienced close economic and military cooperation (Beisner, 2003). This can as well be the cradle of the beautiful relationship that these two nations experience today.
War and Conflict
The United States of America and Canada have been close allies even in times of war or conflict. The alliances that these two nations have formed on virtually every occasion serve to prove the close relationship that these two states have. Canada and America have fought alongside each other in almost every war that they have taken part in. From the war in Afghanistan, to the Gulf War, to the Kosovo War and even to the Korean War, Canada and USA have fought on the same side of the battlefield. This has had a tremendous effect on the relationship between Canada and America, seeing that it influences the way they think and operate. In all these wars, Canadian and American armed forces have developed friendships and close ties that have extended to the foot soldiers on the ground (Beisner, 2003).
This has played a role in fostering the good relationship between these two states. However, there have been instances in which these two nations have not agreed on which direction to take. Two case scenarios that depict this disagreement are the Iraq War and the Vietnam War. In these two instances, Canada stood on the opposition and refused to join the USA in the war as an ally. In both of these cases, the USA has suffered major casualties with her losing the Vietnam War. Some critics argue that the success of the USA in war depends on the position of Canada. This is a far-fetched theory that has no direction, bearing that one bases this theory on two instances alone. All in all, the military of these two nations continue to foster good, deep relations that are mutually beneficial to both parties.
Military and Security
The military of these two nations have a good working relationship. The fact that these two nations also have a fruitful relationship between the security organs is further proof that America and Canada are close allies (Ek, 2008). The world has always been an unsafe environment, and the need for protection is consistent year in, year out. In order to ensure national security to the nation and in extension to the neighbors, close cooperation between security organs is not only necessary but also mandatory. This will enable the security organs of both nations to share information that will enable each country to protect itself from internal or external harm. The working relationship between American organs such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Intelligence organs with their Canadian counterparts has played a vital role in ensuring that both states are well protected (Thompson, Randall, 2002).
Through the sharing of intelligence, these organs are capable of stopping impending attacks before they occur. This gives the government the upper hand since it is no longer acting in a retaliatory capacity. This has been a significant boost for the development of ties between Canada and America. The closely forged relationship between American and Canadian forces is not new, these two nations having joined hands in World War II. Roosevelt and Lyon agreed to have Americans join the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in order to boost their chances in the War. This resulted in 49, 000 Americans joining RCAF. After 9/11, America realized that she should do more to protect her borders from all sides. This saw the upgrade of security all through the country, even along the Canadian border. Canada was very supportive of America in this time and in their plan of action, a feat that saw them cement their fruitful working relationship.
Being a constitutional monarch, Canada is still under the rule of the queen. This is the case now and has been the case for many years. Canada’s position puts her under the influence of British customs, even though part of Canada is French-speaking. The culture of the Canadian people is greatly influenced by the British while the Americans seemingly have no culture. Being a conglomeration of different people from different parts of the world, it is impossible to clearly point out the cultural traits of the American people. Being an amalgamation of many people with diverse cultures has its own benefit, seeing that the USA has adopted various cultures of these different people to come up with their own ‘traditions’. The interaction between America and Canada has seen the passing on of American influences on Canadians and vice versa (Beisner, 2003). Many Americans have picked up Canadian habits or behaviors while many Canadians have picked up American behaviors, as well.
This has happened for so long to the point that many Canadians are constantly afraid of being Americanized. This is especially so in the English speaking part of Canada where the residents speak the same tongue as the Americans. By exporting their rich culture to Americans, the Canadians have been able to significantly influence how Americans think and act. On the other side of the coin, Americans have exported their ‘liberal’ nature over to Canada. This is evidenced by the fact that a seemingly conservative Canada is now allowing the importation of magazines, movies, television rights, literature as well as sports from America with minimal supervision. This is a great milestone insofar as the Canadian government is concerned, seeing that Canada was once a largely conservative country that fiercely opposed such actions. Over the years, tourism between these two countries has also ballooned with the number of tourists visiting each country rising significantly (Ek, 2008). This appreciation of each other has also played a key role in improving the existent relations between Canada and America. These factors continue to depict the close relations that America and Canada enjoy.
Being a large country has its own perks, but it also comes with its fair share of responsibilities. The developed manufacturing industries in both of these countries have played a key role in building the economies of these two nations (Thompson, Randall, 2002). However, the active role that they play in the pollution of the environment continues being a serious threat especially in this era in which climate change is no longer purely theoretical but a reality. Ek argues that the industrial emissions by these manufacturing companies have the potential of completely destroying the environment around these two nations (2008). It also bears heavily on the governments of both nations to oversee the conservation of the environment around them. This is because if these pollution are not regulated, then the result will be an unending blame game as to who is responsible for the environmental degradation.
The proposal of the ‘Acid Rain Treaty’ in the late 80’s sought to control air pollution and the subsequent formation of acid rain that affected the environment. Though it received plenty of resistance in the early stages, Mulroney (the chief protagonist in that narrative) emerged victorious with the signing and ratification of the Air Quality Agreement in 1991. This has seen both governments consult twice every year on trans-border air pollution. The development of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation oversees the regulation of pollution levels from industries throughout North America, a factor that continues to yield fruits in the fight against environmental pollution. This has also helped to make America and Canada better neighbors due to their active participation in the fight against environmental degradation in North America. The fact that both countries heavily support the forestation process is a significant boost to their environment. It also gives America and Canada another issue over which they can consult and further develop their relationship.
Drugs are a serious problem in the society today. Very many young men and women lose their lives due to drug abuse and drug overdoses. This problem is neither geographical nor racial, and it can affect anyone. In Canada and the USA, drug abuse is still a serious problem with which the government has to contend. Worse than drug abuse, is the problem of drug trafficking, which is rampant in both the USA and in Canada. A survey carried out on the American-Canadian border found out that Canada serves as the central source of marijuana and MDMA (ecstasy) for the American market while America serves as a transit body for cocaine on its way to Canada (Beisner, 2003). The drug abuse propagated by the trafficking of these drugs is a significant social problem in both America and Canada. The willingness to work together, shown by these two governments to eradicate this persistent problem, further proves that these two states are close allies willing to work together to solve a common problem.
The fact that the United States of America and Canada are neighbors is undeniable. It is also undeniable, that these two countries are in reality akin to two siblings; they may quarrel once in a while, but there is really no bad blood between them (Thompson, Randall, 2002). They all strive to ensure that they are happy and that their neighbor is happy, a factor that is vital in maintaining their relationship. The ability of these two nations to work with synergy and with a commitment to one another shows the depth of the relationship that these two countries have. It is not debatable that America and Canada are close neighbors who work together for their mutual benefit. This mutual understanding and concern over the years are what has molded this relationship that the two countries now enjoy. It then goes without saying, in the words of John F. Kennedy, "Geography has made us neighbors. History has made us friends. Economics has made us partners, and necessity has made us allies. Those whom nature hath so joined together, let no man put asunder."
Beisner, R. L. (2003). American foreign relations since 1600: A guide to the literature. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
Ek, C. (2008). Canada-U.S. relations in focus. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Hillmer, N. (1989). Partners nevertheless: Canadian-American relations in the twentieth century. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman.
Lustig, N. (1992). North American free trade: Assessing the impact. Washington, DC: Brookings Inst.
McDougall, J. N. (2006). Drifting together: The political economy of Canada-US integration. Peterborough [u.a.: Broadview Press.
Stern, R. M., University of Michigan., University of Michigan., & University of Western Ontario. (1989). Trade and investment relations among the United States, Canada, and Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Thompson, J. H., & Randall, S. J. (2002). Canada and the United States: Ambivalent allies. Athens [u.a.: Univ. of Georgia Press.
Petroleum industry waste
Emergency procedures on an petroleum spill
Petroleum spills and their chemical composition
Land surface treatment
The metronome process
Calculation of wastes
Environment and Technological disposals
The Deepwater Horizon petroleum spill
Use of Dispersants
The petroleum industry is often considered as one of the main environmental polluters and for this reason, there has been increased attention in ensuring that there is environmental protection during different petroleum activities. During the exploration, well simulation and oil and gas production there is a certain amount of waste that is produced. By using injection technology, the petroleum industry is often able to inject into the suitable underground geological formations the waste of the petroleum industry where it initially originated. However, there are times that the injection technology goes wrong, and a lot of petroleum waste is spread onto the soil. When this happens, there is a need to ensure that the soil is cleaned up by any appropriate method. Other than injection, there are also oil spills that, unfortunately, find their way into the soil. These oil spills are extremely dangerous, and it is imperative that an action be taken as fast as possible in a bid to ensure that the soil is ready to use for either farming or any other required purpose (Dhir, 2003). The soil contamination can be described as an environmental concern, and it has known to lead to serious problems of groundwater contamination. This paper discusses the different ways in which soil that is polluted with petroleum can be managed and treated.
Petroleum industry waste
Drilling during oil as well as natural gas exploration and production often produces considerable quantities of rock cutting that are coated with residual amounts of drilling mud. This involves lubricating the fluid and preventing the well bore that collapse while drilling. The drilling process is often considered as the main technological waste that comes from the petroleum industry, and this is opposed to secondary fluids that do not present any environmental problem (Dhir, 2003). The bigger problem that often lies in the secondary fluids includes inorganic and organic acids, oil gels, and the carbon IV oxide. The amount of waste that is produced during the exploration and production activities in many cases depends on a range of exploration and reservoir engineering activities, production conditions, work over operations and formation characteristics. As the different and diverse hydrocarbon reservoirs are developed, water that co-exists with natural gas and oil in the reservoir is eventually brought to the surface. In fact, in the oil fields, quantities of water that are produced increases when the reservoirs of oil are depleted. This presents a problem because in many cases the water is contaminated with petroleum wastes and it gets into the surrounding areas soil. There have been a lot of waste problems in regards to the petroleum industry. The most affected area after the oceans by petroleum is soil. In the majority of cases where an underground tank is removed or a pipeline moves, soil contamination is discovered.
Soil contamination often occurs when petroleum storage as well as handling systems often leaks the fuel consequently spills, and it contaminates the surrounding soil. When this action occurs, the soil often acts as an on-going source of contamination that may be needed to be remediated in order to prevent it from continuing to be a source of pollution. Emergency spill incidents often involve sudden release of petroleum products often require immediate action in order to stop the spill (Dhir, 2003). There is a need to contain as well as recover what has been released and then continue to begin the process of remediating the affected area. There are often basic steps when it comes to the responding to spill incidents during time critical moments. There is a need for oil companies to have a comprehensive action plan ahead of time for responding to spill incidents that occur to the facility.
Emergency procedures on an petroleum spill
In a case of a spill, there are qualified and well equipped personnel should be sent in to stop the leak or spill. This often includes the turning off the different nozzles and valves from leaking container and it also involves the plugging or patching puncture type holes, cracks, tears and all the possible. If a leak or spill cannot be stopped safely, there is a need to catch the liquid using several variety of containers, dams, dikes or even booms that are available. This involves the controlling of the source in combination with the confining of the released material. This in turn will minimize the environmental damage as well as cleanup costs. The second step involves the recovering of all the free liquids using several appropriate pumps using vacuum trucks or even the use of sorbents (Dhir, 2003). The spreading of sorbent material such as sand, straw, wood and synthetic pads can be used in order to help contain the released petroleum. In many situations, there is a need for immediate action in order to recover the contaminated environmental material. It is imperative that the petroleum soaked soil be excavated as well as containerized quickly before it is given a chance to migrate at any significant distance.
This either includes the ground surface in a vertically downward movements towards the soil or the spreading of the soil horizontally to other areas. The recovered contaminated environmental media should be placed into appropriate containers such as tanks and drums and should be transported to a disposal facility. The location of the spill incident may at times require the contaminated environmental media be transported to a secure location for temporary storage pending characterization and disposal. The temporary stockpiling of contaminated environmental media in some areas other than an area where the spill might occur and might contaminate underlying soil or the different surrounding surfaces, and it requires storage areas.
All the materials that come into contact with the released petroleum and everything from the earthen berms to different absorbents and it is potentially hazardous waste. Once the emergency is under control, the materials that are gathered characterized and containerized should be appropriately disposed. It is of the essence to note that highly flammable products and those that contain significant quantities of benzene should be regulated as a characteristic of hazardous waste. The constituents that make petroleum product a hazardous waste are in many cases highly volatile and it might help evaporate during the course the cleanup effort and it renders the remediation waste as a solid waste when the different sampled for disposal purposes. Similarly, it is imperative to understand that the products that are soaked in a soil to the extent that free liquids do not drain them often exhibit longer hazardous waste.
All the waste including sorbent materials that are recovered from the contaminated media such as soil should be properly containerized as well as characterized in readiness for disposal. There is a need to create samples that are representative of the waste material that are being disposed. The samples should be collected from the contaminated portions of the accumulated materials that are used in order to minimize the loss of volatile constituents (Dhir, 2003). The number of samples that are collected should also adequately characterize the volume of material that are excavated. For materials that are described as potentially hazardous, for example, soils that are extremely contaminated with petroleum, the stockpiled contaminated media should always be characterized as well as containerized. The containers should include run offs, tanks and drums. This should occur within 72 hours of the generation, and it potentially requires the expediting of samples for further analysis. There should be permanent stockpiling as the contaminated environment media if it is temporary stockpiled means that it might contaminate underlying the soil in surrounding surfaces (King, 2010).
If the remediation waste is determined to be extremely hazardous waste and it exhibits a characteristic of ignitability then the recovered liquid such as gasoline cannot be reused or recycled without first being treated of the toxicity (Friend, 1996). On the other hand, it the testing reveals the remediation wastes are non-hazardous, then several options might be said to be available in order to ensuring that the party that is performing the cleanup is able to effectively manage the waste. Some options for the management petroleum contaminated soil often include thin spreading of small quantities of the different portions of the contaminated soils on the ground in a bid to enhance the biodegradation of the different petroleum constituents. The compositing is important as it enables the promotion of the microbial degradation of the different constituents. Further, thermal treatment of the facilities are often specifically designed in order to ensure that the soils are treated effectively, and there is the disposal at a permitted landfill by the relevant authorities. The options often either reuse or manage the contaminated soil onsite, and it should be approved by the state prior to the implementation of all the techniques used.
Testing is often needed in order to delineate the extent of contamination in soil as well as ground water and to confirm that remedial actions which successfully removes all different contaminations that are approved above cleanup levels (Dhir, 2003). The techniques employed are often similar to the traditional methods however characterize contamination at several release sites.
Petroleum spills and their chemical composition
The story of petroleum can be described as a story of waste. It is important to consider the volumes involved. Canada often provides at least 3.5 million barrels per day, and this is the reason as to why the country is the seventh largest oil producer in the world (Friend, 1996). Consumers often rarely consider the large amounts of wastes that are created by the industry as it brings out its output to the population. At each and every stage in the petroleum manufacturing stages, considerable volumes of waste often needs to be treated. There are several ranges of wastes such as upstream oilfield wastes, well site construction, seismic surveys as well as the fraccing liquids. These production wastes often include salty byproduct water and contaminants like gunk in different tailing ponds. There is, therefore, a need to ensure that the wastes that are produced are well treated and managed in a carefully arranged manner.
The exploration, production and distribution of petroleum and petrochemical products results into what can be described as the generation of considerable volume of waste oil sludges. These sludges often come from a variety of sources which include storage tank bottoms, oil-water separators and also dissolved air floatation units. The composition of the sludges often varies with their origin and storage condition which might contain to around 10 to 30% of hydrocarbons, and the remainder is water (Dhir, 2003).
The chemical composition often differs especially in terms of petroleum sludges. There are a variety of physical, chemical as well biological approaches that are often taken in order to ensure that the refinery sludges do not land in the soil and surrounding areas. In many countries, the sludges are often accumulated in large lagoons, and some of them are used in the remediation of residually oily sludges. The attempts to process the sludges often uses centrifugal methods in order to separate the oil, water, solids and is highly capital intensive (King, 2010). This often not consistently effective, and this produces residual solids that are of high petroleum and hydrocarbon content. Another option is often to direct the oily sludge to the delayed cooker, however, this might at times degrade the sludge quality, and this reduces its economic value (Friend, 1996). Foul odors are often reported when it comes to the coke product that comes after sludge injection, and it can often result in the operator’s complaints. The sludge injection in most cases requires modifications in order to ensure that sludge is well treated (King, 2010).
Land surface treatment
One of the most practical ways for treating petroleum contaminated soils are by land surface treatment where petroleum contaminated soils are applied onto the soil surface periodically turned over and tilled in order to aerate the contaminated soils. This is often done in order to enhance the volatilization and biodegradation processes in the soil. It is of the essence to note that in order to facilitate prompt remediation of the soils there is a need to thinly spread the sol and to dice and re-till it regularly. Tilling of the soil is of the essence as it helps in ensuring that there is volatilization of the lighter portions while the remaining compounds are able to be immobilized within the soil mass and they are also broken down biologically. There are several naturally occurring soil micro-organisms such as fungi and bacteria to combine with oxygen, sunlight and moisture in order to biodegrade the petroleum product. Soils that have been successfully remediated are often acceptable for reuse either at an intermediate level or even at a final municipal disposal waste sites.
The use of biological processing to treat waste or waste contaminated material is often well documented. The bioprocessing involves the exploitation of abilities of indigenous and augmented micro-organisms in order to that the organic substrates are metabolized. It can often be done by in land based environment such as land farming, bio-piling, and composting. There are cases where the contaminated material might be treated in the slurry bioreactors in order to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbons (Friend, 1996). The process of correcting the soil that has been contaminated with petroleum can be done by the process of land farming. This process has been implemented worldwide as a means of biological treatment and several disposal oily sludges. The sludges are often sprayed on the land together with fertilizers, and the soil is often tilled in order to promote the activity of the natural soil microbial population for the purposes of degradation of the different and diverse hydrocarbons.
Biological waste water treatment involves the conversion of biodegradable waste products by biological means. This is often the practice of using a controlled biological population that is used to degrade waste using several biological pathogens. The pathogens are able to decrease the amount of waste and they are put in the bioreactor. There is the use of tremendous diversity in the types of micro-organisms that exists in bioreactors, and it is these micro-organisms that are responsible for the breaking down of the masses.
Although the land farming method methods have been hugely implemented and it is a low cost method it often requires strong and long treatment time because of the variation that exists in terms of pH, moisture levels, natural microbial activity and temperature. The lack of uniformity when treating the soil often causes high contaminant concentrations and toxicity in the soil that at times could be prohibitive. Most of the limiting factors are however eliminated when it comes to the employment of bioreactor technology (Friend, 1996). It eliminates the need to spray the different high concentrations of petroleum hydro carbons on large areas of the land. The bioreactor based process can be characterized by higher rates and it extends of degradation as compared to absorption of contaminants by continuous mixing. Further, there is a need to ensure that the controlled environmental as well as the nutritional factors such as moisture, bioavailability of nutrients and oxygen which help in the promotion of microbial activity and growth.
The metronome process
The metronome process is another effective method in the management of reactor based microbial process that is used in the treatment of petroleum and oily sludges. The petrozyme process often uses advanced fermentation technology in order to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons when it comes to the sludge producing a non-hazardous effluent with the different levels of hydrocarbons. The main and core technology that is used in the petrozyme process often involves the high rate of biodegradation of the different hydrocarbons in the bioreactor by using naturally selected and it acclimated several indigenous bacterial culture that is supplemented with a designed blend of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate.
The reactor design and process operating conditions often promote growth of highly active population of microbial. The microbial population often converts the petroleum hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide and water. However, this process has been deemed too expensive especially when it is done in a large scale format (Friend, 1996). There have been pilot scale testing and full-scale operations which have demonstrated that petrozyme’s bioreactor based process can be described as being technically advanced, it needs to be regulated in a cost effective manner. The process is often easy to use, and it is robust in order to accommodate oily sludges with several varied compositions. The toxic, as well as the mobile hydro-carbons, are effectively degraded and treaded as non-hazardous for a low-cost disposal.
Land surface treatment for soils that are contaminated with petroleum is often effective as it helps the soil to vent off quickly and reliably destroy petroleum contaminants. This method has negligible impact on ground or surface waters, human well-being and the milieu. The leaching of adulteration from the petroleum polluted soils often reach the underlying soils. However, with land surface treatment the contaminated soils can be effectively held and contained in the site. The larger the petroleum stacking rate in the initial stages and the initial soil volumes the more time and exertion the management of the soil requires. The contaminated soils should not be applied in any thickness that is greater than the soil levels and can be wholly bowed over with several passes of the tilling equipment used.
Soil removal can be described as the best method for soil cleanup, a decision that must be made in ensuring how the soil will be effectively managed (Friend, 1996). Once the soil is removed, it can be adequately treated, or a sample can be taken and the treatment that is need for that particular soil found out. If the precautions are to be taken seriously then there is a need to prevent adverse environmental impacts or even nuisance conditions. Stockpiling of the contaminated soils can be described as being conducted on a temporary basis while they make arrangements for disposals and treatment. During this time, the soils should be placed within a secure, beamed area, and it is covered at all times.
Landfills are becoming restricted by the day and the cost of disposal often goes up. Ideally, no contaminated soils should be disposed of in a landfill because the results in the problem being moved from one place to another (Friend, 1996). Also, other problems with landfill in the future might be the cleanup of the landfill and level of disposing of the contaminated soil in the landfill that is held partially responsible for cleanup costs.
The above ground biological treatment can be described as an excellent treatment for gasoline contamination and works relatively well for waste oil, diesel and heavy hydrocarbon contamination that does not aerate readily. The above ground biological treatment often results into the destruction of contaminants, and this method reduces the long-term liability and therefore provides a better environmental solution (Ronneau, 1997). However. Therefore, the bioremediation is often relatively costly when dealing with soil contamination. The services of a qualified consultant are often necessary for the design of an appropriate and effective treatment system.
Hazardous waste from petroleum products are often specifically taken into the landfill. The landfill is often dup up and all the hazardous waste from petroleum is put into the landfill. The landfill is often required to have a run-on control system a control of the wind dispersal system of particulate matter as well as a runoff management system. The landfill system should have several parts such as bottom linear system. This part often separates trash and subsequent leachate from groundwater. The cells (old and new) and this is where the trash is stored in the specific landfill. The storm water drainage system often collects train water that exists on the landfill. The leachate collection system on the other hand collects water which has percolated through the landfill itself as well as contaminating substances.
Thermal treatment is often preferred over the process of aeration as well as landfill disposal. The treatment method at times may try to reduce the future liability of the contaminated soils. The contaminated soils are often treated on site through the use of a portable mobile unit, or it is transported to a stationary facility (Friend, 1996). It is of the essence to note that the mobile unit is especially useful when it comes to the sites that are remote from a permanent thermal treatment facility and landfill. However, there is a need to ensure carefully that the treatment site is suitable for the treatment equipment. A stationary facility often operates similar to the landfill from a user perspective. One should provide the facility with information about where the contaminated water should be from a user perspective. One should provide the facility with sufficient information about the contamination levels.
The thermal treatment involves what can be described the combustion of organic substances that is contained in several waste materials. Incineration converts the waste material that is converts the waste to flue gas, ash as well as heat. This ash can be described as being formed by inorganic constituents of the waste. Incineration involves the burning of the waste materials at high temperature and the incinerators often reduced the solid mass by original waste by around 80 to around 85%. This therefore means that that while incineration cannot completely replace landfills, it often significantly reduces the necessary volumes that are needed for disposal.
In order to properly understand the site, the land submission spot should be clearly marked with flags or stakes. The stakes should all remain in place during the treatment of the contamination of the soil until all the remediated soil has been removed. It is of the essence to note that the soils should be tilled as soon as it is practically possible that is within 48 hours of the contamination. Further, there are several things that should be added into the soil in order to enhance the decomposition of the petroleum. These materials include organic materials and fertilizers and are often added before and after soil spreading. Further in order to ensure the hydrocarbon cessation, the soil management layer should be effectively and thoroughly aerated through the processes of tilling approximately once in every two weeks in order to optimize the hydrocarbon breakdown as well as satisfy the oxygen demand for the process. It is important to understand that frequent tilling might cause excessive volatilization and might create excessive drying, as well as dust problems (Bamborough & Domínguez, 2008). For this reason, excessive aeration should be prevented as much as possible. Further, there is a need to ensure that there is frequent tilling because when the process is infrequent this might not provide the adequate aeration that is needed for mixing particularly in regards to the heavy textured soils which may at times slow down the hydro-carbon breakdown (King, 2010). Even after every step, aeration should be continued until all the hydrocarbon concentration decreases into acceptable levels.
There are several things that should be taken care of, for example, odors that are generated from the treatment site might be described as the highest peak during the initial spreading of the contaminated petroleum soils as well as initial tilling operations. Odor that is generated is often extremely temperature dependent (Dhir, 2003). The odors that are generated should be treated with a matter of urgency. In most instances, when it comes to the breakdown of the petroleum residues one growing season is enough. However, this is often dependent on the nature as well as the concentration of the original petroleum materials. Further, the number of environmental factors also plays a very huge role when it comes to this aspect. The land surface treatment of the petroleum polluted soil can be said to be a representative of a cost effective method of remediating soils that have been polluted with petroleum. However, it is of an essence to understand that this process is not appropriate when it comes to when there is liquid petroleum on the site.
Calculation of wastes
There is a need for calculating the amount of waste and this should always be done. The accurate measurement of waste can be described as difficult If not impossible because o he varied nature of waste as well as the difficulties that are often posed by the presence of several solid materials. There is a need to use the best available measurement technology for the given circumstances (Bamborough & Domínguez, 2008). The measurement of the waste material is extremely important as it often ensures the people managing the waste to understand how much they are dealing with and consequently they can be able to create a program by which they can implement. Further, appropriate components of the waste should also be determined, for example, the amount of petroleum that exists, the amount of water and the amount of solids. The representative samples should be properly centrifuged in order to determine the proportionate quantities of each and every component (King, 2010).
All solid wastes are often required to have an effective hazardous waste determination method. The petroleum contaminated materials are often solid wastes, and when they are actively managed as wastes, they can be able to be excavated for both treatment as well as disposal. Sampling and analysis are of importance as it conducts the sampling procedures that is used, and it is often dependent on the matrix such as soil and water (Ronneau, 1997). There are common materials that can be contaminated with petroleum, and they include media such as soil, gravel, water and sand. The media and debris from an underground tank are often subject to corrective action in order to test the toxicity characteristic of the soil. There is a need to create a fill where there is existence of solid wastes such as sand, stone, soil, brick and rock (Dhir, 2003). Fill that is not hazardous may be used for other purposes such as erosion control, channel stabilization, roadbed preparation and erosion repair. All the provided wastes that are used in the different activities should not be mixed with other solid wastes and, therefore, should not be handled inappropriately and should be disposed effectively (King, 2010). This is because it might have the potential to cause contamination that might at times threaten human health or even the environment. Regardless of the source, a petroleum contaminated material that whether hazardous or not should be handled as such. This ensures that the people dealing with waste can be able to deal with the waste appropriately.
Environment and Technological disposals
Environmentally and technologically sound disposal of oil spills is extremely essential when it comes to the minimizing of environmental damage from the oil spill. The very nature of oil spill emergency clean-up is important as it has the potential to contribute to the implementation of less than adequate disposal practices (Bamborough & Domínguez, 2008). In case of an emergency situation, there is need to have sufficient time and resources in order to evaluate the suitability the alternative disposal options that exist in the area and to effectively choose what one offers the best conditions for different environmental protection.
Further, in addition to the securing of appropriate approvals there is a need to dispose of the waste in a way that will be appropriate (Ronneau, 1997). It is, therefore, of importance in the strategic planning purposes, and the different relevant authorities to consider appropriate disposal methods and therefore, create suitable sites for temporary storage as well as disposal within several varying jurisdictions. There is a need to take into account the different possible ranges of sizes and types of petroleum spills that are likely to occur and the type of environmental harms. Given the volumes of petroleum that are often transported worldwide on a daily basis, there is a need to have a realistic spill response strategy in order to recognize that a major spillage could occur at any place or time in the estuarine and coastal waters (King, 2010). In the recovery of the petroleum or the dispersion at the sea at appropriate or feasible options there is a need to have ensure that petroleum does not reach the store.
The petroleum is usually emulsified and contaminated within a variety of solid that complicates disposal and handling. In the event of a petroleum spill at sea, it often takes time for the petroleum to reach the shore and the length of the coastline that is affected and it in many cases depends on an amount of interrelated factors. There are a lot of factors that affect the extent of oil spillage, firstly, there is the tidal conditions, the prevailing wind direction as well as efforts to contain and disperse the petroleum at sea (Dhir, 2003). Further, there are several factors that affect the amount of petroleum that is beached as a result of the spill in the sea. This often includes the rate of evaporation of several crude oils and it evaporate within the first 24 hours and refined products and may at time evaporate completely. Petroleum that is collected from the surface of the sea can often contain debris and this petroleum often washes to the shore. The collection and disposal are often greatly complicated within the variation in waste composition and appropriate disposal techniques that have to be selected for the different circumstances. Other wastes that might require disposal include sorbent material, and in practice often includes combination of the different particles (Bamborough & Domínguez, 2008). When removing sand and structural material from the soil it should be remembered that a minimum volume should be taken in order to preserve integrity of the beach and to minimize volume of waste that requires disposal.
It is of importance to understand that spills can occur at different isolated and inaccessible parts of coast, and therefore, it might be difficult as well as expensive to collect and transport the material to several ongoing storage sites (Ronneau, 1997). The emergency storage of liquids as well as solid waste issue often needs to be quickly addressed as there is a need to understand the site and the nature of the spill. Relatively cheap as well as simple short-term emergency storage can often be provided by digging pits in the ground as well as the lining of the base and walls with several heavy gauge petroleum in oil permeable materials such as PVCs. The long narrow pits are often more practical as they are easier to dig, fill as well as employ themselves. During the recovery operation of petroleum, vacuum trucks that have large quantities of free water which can be collected with the oil unless the oil layers are thick (King, 2010). Before the permanent removal of the material from the pits, it is of importance to collect the oil and leave behind the free water. This might be achieved through actual skimming of the surface of the pit by using a skimmer and then transferrin the collected petroleum into a second pit.
In certain circumstances the material that is contaminated with 5% of the oil which can be left to degrade naturally. If the spill is at a remote or even at an isolated location, it is worth considering the possibility of allowing a natural process to proceed and continue to reassess the situation as the conditions continue (Bamborough & Domínguez, 2008). There are several petroleum management techniques, firstly; there is a gravity separation. This process is important, and it separates the oil that is present in the water and it is skimmed off, and this is dependent whether or not it is emulsified. It is often important in the process to avoid or even minimize the pumping of mixtures of petroleum and water before the gravity separation can be effected (Ronneau, 1997). The collected water and oil mixtures should be allowed to separate into the layers of the collecting device; this might be a vacuum truck, static tank and wagon. The lower aqueous layer that is in the soil can be pumped out.
At remote sites, improvisation may be necessary in order to achieve maxim oil recovery as well as minimize the volume of the oily waste, and it might transport to the intermediate storage. If the terrain permits, damming can be carried out in order to contain the petroleum and then picked up by vacuum trucks (Dhir, 2003). Small floating skimmers are often available commercially, and it can be used with a vacuum truck. Alternatively, a baffle with a weir arrangement can be organized in order to make –shift separator in cases where the soil has been polluted, and there exists a hazard can be used. In the process of spreading, the low molecular petroleum begins to evaporate, and emulsions occur. The emulsions often cause serious operating problems, as well as a reduction of water content to around 2%, and it might be necessary to allow subsequent reprocessing by allowing viscosity. However, it is important that during the petroleum spill disposal stage even a small reduction in water content decreases the transport as well as storage requirements by reducing the volume to be managed and it will ease handling and improving permeability.
The Deepwater Horizon petroleum spill
The Deepwater Horizon petroleum spill often referred to as BP oil spill started in April 2010 in the Mexico Gulf. The horizon oil spill claimed over 11 years and is often considered as the largest accidental marine that occurred in the oil spill in history of the whole petroleum industry. The deep water horizon spill spread to the shore and affected the soil; it started after the eruption and dipping of the deep water horizon oil rig (King, 2010). From that point on, there was a flow of oil under seas for about 87 days. The total discharge that came from the leakage was about 5 million barrels. There was a massive response that ensued in a bid to protect beaches, estuaries and wetlands from the spreading of oil, and it utilized skimmer ships, different floating booms as well as controlled burns (Ronneau, 1997). The extensive long spills to the soil affected the growth of plants, and there was a need to ensure that it was indeed cleared up as fast as possible. Oil cleanup crews worked for several days in order to clear the 55 miles of Louisiana beach through several weeks. It is important to understand that there was a need to ensure that everything went according to plan, and this is the reason as to why there was a need for coordinated efforts from different parts of the government.
The deep water horizon explosion and subsequent spilling of around five millions barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico shows he extent to which petroleum and oil spills can happen. It goes without say that as long as humanity continues to drill for oil, and given the current boom of the industry post spill, there will be definitely other accidents in the future. The oil spill was extremely catastrophic, and there is a need to understand that there is a need to do more in terms of innovative solutions that will help reduce the impact of the next spill. Research has indicated that a spill solution may be sponge that is made from pure carbon nanotubes, with a dash of boron added which can absorb around 100 the weight of the petroleum (King, 2010). It has been proven that sucking off oil at the surface of the soil or even water is important. The carbon sponge is extremely effective in the management of petroleum that has been spilled on the soil. Secondly, there is the use of extreme spill technology. For example, one of the deterrents that were used to clean up the gulf spill was the wildness of the ocean (Bamborough & Domínguez, 2008). The rough seas in the ocean made it impossible for the standard booms, as well as skimmers, to effectively operate (Ronneau, 1997). However, the extreme spill technology can be able to do the job as it uses boats that can withstand waves that are even 10 feet tall. This technology should be implemented in order to ensure that indeed there is no oil that reaches the shore and affects the soil.
It has been recently determined that there are no petroleum spills that are the same, and this is often because of the petroleum types that are involved, the location, and the weather conditions. There are four main methods of response in recovering oil spills. In the management of the petroleum spill in the soil, it is often advisable if the leak is not too much to leave it alone in order for it break down by natural means. The best method if the leak is small is to leave it in order to disperse by natural means, a combination of wind, sun, wave action and current wave and this rapidly disperses and it evaporates most oils. Different light petroleum oils can evaporate with a combination of sun, and wind action. However, it is extremely difficult to use this method if the soil has already been contaminated, and it has trickled down into the soil. In this case tilling, can be the only method that is used in order to ensure that the soil is turned up and down in order to aerate it (King, 2010). This will be of the essence because it gives the bacteria oxygen, and it can be able to effectively decompose the hydro-carbons. It is of importance to understand that in every spillage there are often different things that occur and there are several factors such as temperature, the amount of bacteria, the amount of spillage and the type of petroleum that has spilled.
Use of Dispersants
There is a need to use dispersants in order to breakdown the oil as well as speed the natural biodegradation (Ronneau, 1997). The dispersants in the soil can be used by reducing the surface tensions which stops oil and water that exist in the soil from mixing. The small droplets of petroleum are formed, and they help in the dilution of the water in the movements. The formation of the droplets often increases the surface area and, therefore, this increases the exposure to natural evaporation as well as bacterial action. The dispersants are often most effective when they are used within one hour or two when the initial spill occurs. The successful dispersion of petroleum through the soil many at times affect marine organisms like earthworms. It can be at times used temporarily accumulated by several sub tidal seafood (Bamborough & Domínguez, 2008). There are several decisions like whether or must to use the dispersants to combat the different oil spills, and it be made in each and every individual case. The decision often takes into account time when the first spill occurred, the weather conditions and the type of petroleum that has been spilled. Dispersants are often said to simplify the assimilation of oil by the microbes (King, 2010). There is a need to mix the dispersants with oil underneath the shallow and in theory, and it permits microbes to précis the oil before it has reached the surface of either water or soil. Various risks is often identified as well as evaluated in specific that an increase in the microbial activity might reduce oxygen levels, and it threatens animals and plants (Dhir, 2003).
Soil aeration that is done at a lower cost treatment option is by no means what can be described a no cost procedure. Soil aeration often involves more than just the spreading or piling the soil and letting it all sit in (Ronneau, 1997). The process often requires the use of several specific controls to prevent the creation of other problems and considerable work that is needed to ensure that the treatment is effective when it comes to the reduction of contaminant concentrations in acceptable level. Soil aeration should include several active treatment measures such as the use of popes and pumps in the air through the soil. This aeration is extremely effective as it helps the soil to be well aerated. Further, the solid waste is brought up to the surface, and it can be decomposed effectively by the biological decomposers.
Finally, one might decide to introduce several biological agents in order to hasten the biodegradation process. Most of the components are often petroleum washed along a shoreline, and it can be broken down by bacteria as well as other micro-organisms into harmless substances such as carbon dioxide and fatty acid (Bamborough & Domínguez, 2008). This decomposition is a natural process and can be speeded up by addition of several fertilizing agents such as phosphorous and nitrogen. This is important as it helps stimulate growth amongst different microorganisms that are present (King, 2010). However, the effectiveness of this process depends on the factors on the ground that is being treated. There are other things such as whether or not the fertilizer is water soluble, and it is applied either in pellet or even in liquid form.
The final disposal method should often be considered includes direct recovery of product, and it includes processing of oils to different saleable products, fuels, incineration and with biological degradation. The adoption of a single technique should always be avoided because the best results are often obtained by using several methods in a series. The prime aim should often to recover the oil for re-use and the destructive methods such as incineration used as a last resort. There are various methods of petroleum spill debris disposal methods that have are often practiced (King, 2010). The most common forms are land farming that include oily wastes that are often spread and are mixed with soils in order to promote aerobic microbial degradation. Secondly, there is the landfilling with refuse, this often constitutes the use of oil spill debris being incorporated into an active landfill together with industrial wastes. Petroleum spills the debris should be deposited into pits, trenches and other depressions that are prepared for debris disposal onsite. The excavated soil can be used as intermediate as well as the final cover for the debris.
Each of the disposal method can be described as being best suited for different circumstances, and this depends entirely on the debris characteristics, the disposal site features and the climate. The primary considerations often include accessibility of different existing suitable landfills, land availability and the degree of several regulatory control over the different waste disposal practices. There is a need for one to understand the characteristic of the debris which vary significantly depending on the spill location, the cleanup method, as well as the oil type. The basic debris parameters that are important when it comes to the selection of a compatible disposal method often includes the size of the distribution of the solid matter, that is collected during the entire spill up, the biodegradability of the debris constituents and finally the petroleum content that exists on the debris.
Significant removal of several oily components can often be achieved through effective volatilization and long term oil migration (Dhir, 2003). The loss of volatilization, as well as the subsequent movement through different soil matrix, is often related to vapor pressures of the oil and soil substances. There is a need to ensure partial pressure of oxygen in the different soil environments. There are four basic debris characteristics of oil spill debris can be said to influence the immediate, as well as long term oil migration from the different debris mass. The four debris include oil content, chemical content, water content, and biodegradability of the sorbents and solid debris.
The higher the oil content that exist in the debris, the greater the likelihood of the oil that would escape from the mass at the disposal site from deposition. The debris contains a relatively low percentage of oil, and it tends to retain several surfaces on soil, rock, and debris constituents. The environmental effect of petroleum is often adversative because it is extremely toxic to almost every form of life. The likelihood of micro-climate change exists, and it is pronounced. Petroleum referred to as oil has over the years been closely linked to virtually each and every aspect of the present society and especially for transportation for heating for both commercial and homes.
Petroleum is a mixture of different organic compounds most of which are extremely toxic and can cause cancer. Petroleum has been described as being acutely lethal to the fish, and it kills fish quickly. When it comes to the soil, the petroleum increases the pH value of the soil and kills the plants. Further, there is presence of benzene in both crude oil and gasoline, and it is acknowledged to cause leukemia in several humans. The compound can be transferred from the soil into the plants and is recognized to decrease the white blood cells tally when it comes to humans. This, in fact, reduces susceptibility of the exposed people to infections. Studies have connected benzene experience to several mere parts per billion ranges to what can be described as terminal leukemia. High temperatures are often created by combustion of petroleum that is caused by nitrogen gas in the air to dissolve, and it creates nitrous oxides. In many cases, nitrous oxides together with sulfur oxide combined with water that exists in the atmosphere and it makes acid rain. Acid rain creates an increased corrosion of structures and machinery. It often leads to the destruction of different archeological structures as it can be seen in Rome and Greece.
In conclusion, soil pollution has been on the increase with petroleum being transported by pipelines, roads and ships. Further, underground tanks that store petroleum are also responsible when it comes to soil pollution. There are several methods that can be used in the treatment and management of soil polluted with petroleum. The first is soil removal where the soil is removed from the site and is independently treated to the facility for either treatment or disposal. If the soils are independently treated, there should be several precautions. The excavation of the petroleum polluted soil is often deemed necessary when the soil poses environmental or health threats. The exaction may at times be necessary when clean water storage tanks are being installed or removed in construction zones where contamination of the soil was present. However, in many cases the petroleum contaminated soil is often left to degrade over time where the risk to the potential receptors is considered to be low.
The second method is land treatment. The soil in question is tilled and aerated in order to make sure that hydrocarbon is exposed to several micro-organisms that eventually decompose the hydrocarbon. Another method is individual landfills where the contaminated soils are disposed of into a landfill or moved to another location. The in place soil treatment often involves vapor extraction and biological treatment of the soil. However, this method is often deemed expensive because of the large amounts of contaminations that occur and are difficult to remove. The treatment methods involve complex clean-up projects. Thermal treatment involves passing the soil over heat, and it can be done either at the source or a mobile location. Mobile locations are often preferred when the spill is at a remote location.
Bamborough, L., & Domínguez, J. B. (2008). Soil contamination research trends. New York, NY: Nova Science Publ.
Friend, D. J., National Cooperative Highway Research Program. National Research Council (U.S.)., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials., & United States. (1996). Remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.
King, R. O., & Library of Congress. (2010). Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster: Risk, recovery, and insurance implications. Darby, PA: Diane Publishing.
American Petroleum Institute. (1963). Biological treatment of petroleum refinery wastes. New York.
Ronneau, C., Advanced Research Workshop on Utilization of Biotechnologies in the Field of Radioactive and Toxic Wastes Management and Site Restoration, & NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Utilization of Biotechnologies in the Field of Radioactive and Toxic Wastes Management and Site Restoration. (1997). Biotechnology for waste management and site restoration: Technological, educational, business, political aspects ; [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Utilization of Biotechnologies in the Field of Radioactive and Toxic Wastes Management and Site Restoration, Mol, Belgium, November 28 - December 2, 1994]. Dordrecht [u.a.: Kluwer.
Dhir, R. K., Newlands, M. D., & Dyer, T. D. (2003). Sustainable waste management: Proceedings of the international symposium held at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK on 9-11 September 2003. London: Thomas Telford.
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