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Definition of Martial Arts
The martial arts define the codified traditions and systems of combat practices that are practiced for various reasons. These include competition, physical health and fitness, self-defense, spiritual, physical and mental development (Potts, 1996). Notably, the ancient china is the area where earliest forms of martial arts are traced at the era of Xia Dynasty, which was more than 4000 years ago. In addition, this term was used by an English fencing manual in 1639 with reference to Science of Art.
This term was derived from Latin meaning Art of Mars. Noteworthy, some of the martial arts are traditional and are tied to cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds. Others are modern systems which have been developed by either an association or a founder. There are various types of martial arts including Tae Kwon Do, Jeet Kune Do, Escrima, Hapkido, German Long sword Fencing and Brazilian Jujitsu (Potts, 1996). This paper is going to focus on Tae Kwon Do, its origins, and why is should be recognized as a valid sport.
Origins of Tae Kwon Do
Tae Kwon Do is a Korean martial art. It originated in Korea and it combines combat and defense techniques with sport and exercise. Tae Kwon Do was developed by several Korean Master during the 1940’s to the 1950’s (Potts, 1996). One of the most well-known masters was referred to as General Choi Hong Hi. However, there are those that argue that Tae Kwon do is traced from a group of Korean nationals during the choi yong-sool, post Japanese colonial period of Korea, in 1899-1986.
Prominent students of Tae Kwon Do
The most prominent students of this martial include Seo Bok- Seob, JHan-Jae, Kim Moo-Hong, Myung Jae-Nam and Myung Kwang-Sik. It is an old Korean martial which was a merger of defenseless combat styles that was advanced by the three challenging kingdoms of Korea Baekje, Silla and Goguryeo.
Have a look at the National Football League in USA also
Youthful men were educated in defenseless contest techniques in order to develop speed, survival skills and strength. The most accepted of the techniques include subak, ssireum and taekkyeon (Lewis, 1987). This art involved non classical, direct and straight forward movements. Practitioners of this art believe in few movements and emphasize on extreme speed and maximum effect.
Philosophy of Tae Kwon Do
The philosophy of Tae kwon do has developed over different expressions since its development in different kwans. However, various forms of tae kwon do are based on the five tenets of taekwon do which include perseverance (In Nae), courtesy (Ye Ui), self control (Guk Gi), Integrity (Yom Chi) and Indomitable spirit (Baekjul boolgool). Tae kwon do philosophy is derived from three basic principles which are non-resistance which emphasize on encountering force with minimum force without clashing or deflecting the power of the opponent.
Second principle is circular motion where a person uses fluid flowing circular movements as opposed to linear motion (Lewis, 1987). The third principle is water principle which requires a person to have total penetration of the opponent’s defenses by continued attack.
Tae Kwon Do basics
The Tae kwon do does not oppose force by force but rather completes the movement of the opponent by accepting his energy to flow as he aims and defeats the opponent through borrowing force. A person is also supposed to understand Yin and Yang which are forces that act continuously in an interdependent way.
The philosophy of Tae kwon do is based on the aspect of winnowing out and not adding things on top of others as a way to form a system. His philosophy was based on a borrowed metaphor on filling a cup with water constantly and then emptying it. This described his philosophy as casting off what is useless (Lewis, 1987). He applied the mentality of a sculptor of beginning with a clay lump and removing the unessential to have an end result of bare combat essentials in the case of Tae Kwon Do.
Tae kwon do also emphasizes combative because of its self-defense tactics and techniques. These tactics have also been applied in training warfare such as police and military force. Tae kwon do is featured as sporty and has been included in many Olympics since its beginning such as Summer Olympic Games.
Certain version of Tae kwon do involves defense against a variety of weapons such as a knife, Jung Bong (police baton sized stick), dahn bohng (a 35 cm short stick), a cane or walking stick and also a rope used during training. The students are taught on how to defend and employ tactics on the weapons encountered (Scandiffio & Nicolas, 2003). In addition, other organizations of Tae kwon do include weapons of training such as long staff, middle length staff, sword or gum, nunchaku, war-fan and other kinds of bladed weapons inclusive of twin short swords.
There are also schools that teach students on how to defend against firearms. Notably, these techniques and weapons are also incorporated into military and law enforcement curricula of training (Scandiffio & Nicolas, 2003). It also puts a lot of emphasis on kicks which are thrown from a stance that is mobile and the leg is employed to attain great power and reach that the arm.
In their training, they mainly incorporate kicks, system of blocks, punches, throws, take downs and sweeps, joint locks and open handed strikes. Some of the instructors also incorporate grappling techniques and utilize pressure joints identified as jiapsul (Potts 123).
On the aspect of principles, there are those that argue that some forms of Tae Kwo ndo stands in the middle of scale of hard- soft martial art (Scandiffio & Nicolas, 2003). This is because it employs soft techniques that are similar to those applied in aikido and jujutsus as well as applying hard techniques applied in tang soo do. However, the hard techniques emphasizes on circular and not linear movements. Tae kwon do is therefore a hybrid and eclectic martial art that emphasizes on different techniques. All these techniques follows three principles namely circle principle, water flexible and nonresistance.
However, other forms of Tae kwon do is a hard martial art due to the techniques applied such as kicking, punching, throwing and sweeps. Another principle is an intercepting fist which focuses on best defense being strong defense (Scandiffio & Nicolas, 2003). In this principle, the attacker is supposed to approach a target in order to attack an individual hand to hand. The five ways of attack assist practitioners to organize their fight. The principle of defensive teachings include stop hits and stop kicks and also simultaneous parrying and punching.
Tae Kwon Do as an Olympic Sport
The sport has been an Olympic event since the year 1992. However, it is of importance to understand that it has not been taken seriously as it should be. The sport is physical, it involves use of strength and tactic and is one of the most brain involving sports in modern times. There is therefore, a need for persons to give Tae kwon do the respect that it deserves in the Sport arena.
Many countries should practice as it not only increases competition, it trains one self-defense and it gives a person physical agility. It is therefore, my opinion that this sport that originated in Korea and has many versions should be taken seriously and should be made a top Olympic event.
There are cultures that argue that Tae Kwon Do increases violence and consequently, they refuse their children and other persons to take part in it. This is one of the things that is making the sport to crumble despite its promising star. For example, In Quebec, an 11-year-old girl by the name Asmahan Mansour, was removed Tae Kwon do class by her parents because they said it was too violent.
In Montreal, some girls were stopped from taking part in Taekwondo while wearing a headscarf. Although they were members of the team, training and competing just like the rest, they were excluded due to their religious beliefs and practices. The reasons cited for this, however, were safety concerns. It is some backward cultural norms such as these that are making the sport to move behind.
The sport has been featured in popular culture. In popular culture, Tae Kwon do has featured in several ways especially in films and actors. These include Bruce Lee in The Green Homet, Kareem Abdul Jabbar in Game of Death and stickman who is a rap in the group of dead prez. This shows that a lot of people and especially artists have used the art of Tae Kwon do in their work today. It is also very popular especially in movies such as spider man who uses a lot of kicking and techniques applied in tae kwon do.
Scandiffio, L, & Nicolas D., (2003). The martial arts book. Toronto: Annick Press.
Lewis, P., (1987) The martial arts. Secaucus, N.J.: Chartwell Books.
Potts, S., (1996) Mastering martial arts. Mankato: Capstone Press.
The issue of the payment of college athletes has been one of the most pressing issues that the NCCA has been dealing with over the years. The college athletes are often unpaid but they offer the same type of services that the other professional athletes offer. The organizational has all along approached the issue by not giving it the best attention needed. The organization has been ignoring the issue for a long time until when it has become apparent that it requires more attention. The services that the athletes accord to the organization combined with the entertainment that they offer to the millions of fans that are always in attendance is always not rewarded.
The payment of the athletes ought to be based on the services that they offer their employers and the money that they bring in to their employees. The college athletes are often dedicated to the organizations. They display an above average dedication that has to be rewarded. They often put in so much input in the training and actual games to the extent of being more proactive than the other employees are.
Failure of the organizations to recognize the sacrifice and reward it accordingly leads to the development of the questions on how the organizations are committed to their athletes. It also leads to the question of how dedicated the organization is to the mission and motto of developing the talents of the individual athletes.
The fact that the college athletes offer their services to the spectators and the team with the main focus being the development of the team, they have a right to more definite and formal payment system that accommodates their input and sacrifices. The development of the payment system has to ensure that the college athletes are treated according to their actual contributions as opposed to their status (Gerdy, 2001). The bottom line in the determination of the payment system to the athletes is the contribution, work ethics and dedication to the team. The payment system ought to be harmonized to include the inputs of the young team members.
The main source of the earnings in the industry is the ability of the players to entertain the viewers and perform to their best. All the revenue streams point towards the input of the athletes. There are no criteria of determining the single input of an athlete. At the same time, there is no way of determining the inputs of the professional athletes and the college athletes. All their contributions are acceptable and lauded.
In some cases, college athletes have a bigger fan base compared to the professional athletes. The fan base is a major driver of the revenue streams of the teams and the industry (Humphrey, Yow & Bowden, 2000). Therefore, if a college athlete has the capability to attract the required fans to the games and guarantee a revenue stream, he should be paid in according to the same scale used to pay the professional athletes an imperative. The money flow into the organization is sufficient to guarantee the players slight stipend for their sacrifice for the team.
The trend of not paying the athletes is an ideal situation whereby the business gains from the services that they render and collects all the money that flow in from their services while refusing to pay them. It means that the organization can generate income without having to incur any expense or incurring too minimal expenses (Humphrey, Yow & Bowden, 2000). The trend of taking advantage of the college players begs the question of how ethical the operations of the teams and NCAA are (Gerdy, 2001). It is a marker of the selfish interests of the teams that take advantage of the need of the athletes to make a name with the hope of going professional (Sommers, 2010).
The failure of the organizations to pay their employees means that the players are not guaranteed to any form of living in the event that they do not make it to the professional levels. The players are often hard working and dedicated such that they put in so much time in training and the games. They often have to go the extra mile in convincing the teams that they have the qualifications to make them go global. The dedication may make them put in too much effort than their bodies can handle. Often, they are subject of injuries that are career threatening. In the event of these injuries, the organization does not pay them. This makes them unemployable in the sports industry.
The failure of the NCAA to recognize the risk that the college athletes undertake during their college careers leads to the issue of the commitment of the organization to the game and its subsequent development.
The games are often used too demanding such that the risk taken by the athletes in terms of their exposure to the injuries and other forms of risks is not rewarded by commensurate returns. The teams essentially prey on the talent of the athletes uses, them and dumps them for the next big option. A few of them make it to the professional level. They eventually come out of the system with little rewards for their input (Humphrey, Yow & Bowden, 2000). They are relegated to the job search while they had done their share in the contribution to the organization that they play for (Roby, 2014). Therefore, the treatment of the college athletes by the teams and NCAA is lacking.
One of the arguments that the NCAA presents for the failure to offer the college athletes any compensation is that their payment assumes the form of the school fees (Stoll, 2011). However, the payment of their education and other living expenses is not sufficient to cover all that they need in their journey towards sportsmanship. Additionally, the students ought to be paid for their contributions to the teams.
The piece rate systems of payment ought to be used in the assessment of the amount to pay the student athletes. For instance, the value that the athlete creates for his or he team is significantly bigger than the school fees that the team could be paying for him. Given the fixed level of the school fees, the argument does not hold (Roby, 2014). The students ought to be paid according to their exact contributions to the team. They contribute more than they are compensated for by the management. Therefore, the teams end up fleecing them.
The system uses many double standards in the treatment of the student athletes (Gerdy, 2001). If the system does not pay the students for their sacrifices in the field, it should not be barring them from working just like other students. The argument is that if the students are not pad they should be able to work just like the other students and make some money on the side. This approach will ensure that they have the disposable income that facilitates their living. However, there NCAA has explicit requirements that the students should not be allowed to work for any person. They are barred to the slight stipend and the scholarships that they receive. The barring of the students from working is a means of ensuring that they are not able to cash in on their performances. The NCAA ends up limiting their performance (Gerdy, 2001). The double standards in the policy-making authorities lead to the reduction of the potential of the students to make a living for themselves using other means.
The NCAA does not view the players as professionals since they are still in college. This perception is misguided since the players have the same performance capabilities with the professional players. Additionally, the players may even be better than the majority of the professional player since they are often younger and more energetic. This excuse is often used to form the basis of their payment. However, the coaches of the college teams are also paid professionally. The payment of the coaches yet they are coaching the college level sport could be a justification for the development of a payment system for the athletes too. However, this is not the case, the coaches are paid in the same scales as the professional coaches yet the people that they coach are not allowed any form of payment.
The argument that the college going athletes ought not to be paid in millions of dollars may hood since the college students are not fully fledged athletes. However, the system also has to consider the input of the players in the sport and come up with the right approaches of payment. The formal payments may encourage the students to increase their performance over the time.
In conclusion, the college athletes have all the rights to be compensated for their sacrifices. The compensation does not have to be equal to the ones advanced to the professional players. On the contrary, it has to be developed according to the risk that they undertake. The fact that the athletes contribute to the overall profits of the organization ought to be the main justification for their compensation argument (Andre & James, 1991).
Andre, J., & James, D. (1991). Rethinking college athletics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Gerdy, J. (2001). Have College Athletics Become Destructive in America?. Professional Ethics, A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 67-78. doi:10.5840/profethics2001929
Humphrey, J., Yow, D., & Bowden, W. (2000). Stress in college athletics. New York: Haworth Half-Court Press.
Roby, P. (2014). Ethical Leadership in College Athletics. Journal Of Intercollegiate Sport, 7(1), 35-39. doi:10.1123/jis.2014-0086
Sommers, A. (2010). College athletics. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
Stoll, S. (2011). The Problem of Ethics and Athletics: An Illegitimate Stepsister. Journal Of College And Character, 12(3). doi:10.2202/1940-1639.1817
The opening of any type of business often involves an investment that is thorough and it requires knowledge, diligence, and research skill. In the business of golf, there is a need to create a strong business with key values and ethics. It is important to understand that each customer wants to feel different and feel that they are special when playing golf. The business is extremely sensitive and consequently, there is a need for professionalism to endure and for the business to service each and every customer personally (Lineberry, 1973).
A round of mini-golf is extremely fun for any persons. It appeals to persons that want to round a miniature golf appeals to just about anyone that wants to play an interesting game with a different mix of easy and sometimes complicated movements. The game is interesting and the business will set to grow at a fast pace given that its target population will include virtually every human being. From children above five years, to people that are above 65 years. This will ensure that the business has a large clientele and this will increase the business exponentially. I intend to open a mini-golf business in British Columbia. The area locals are recently in love with golf and I want to take this opportunity.
Ethics and values have acquired a different dimension in the 21st century that includes organizational culture and it became enshrined in the laws. Organizational culture forms part of ethics in business, coupled with the corporate social responsibility. Rather than being optional, corporate social responsibility became constitute of ethics. Studies involving ethnographical factors and human behavioural patterns have become core in determining ethics in business.
The top three values of the company will be integrity, honesty, and discipline. It is important to understand that these three values are extremely important in order to steer a service company such as that of the Mini-golf business. Integrity is important in any organization as it often helps in making sure that every employee is sincere about the happenings of the day, accounting procedures, and reporting irregularities to the proper channels and increasing transparency.
Honesty is another important value that the company will hold close. Honesty is an important virtue as it gives the employees of the mini-golf company the right to give their own opinion and this helps a company to grow. Further, it is important to understand that honesty gives an edge to the executive of the company as they know they can rely and trust their employees. Honesty ensures that the company’s secrets are safe.
Lastly, the company needs discipline. Discipline is the doing the right thing at the right time at the right place. The mini-golf business is extremely sensitive and consequently there is a need for the employees to be always on their job and at their best behaviour (Lineberry, 1973). This will ensure that indeed they are able to understand that the customers come first and they should respect that. They should behave appropriately in and out of work and carry out the brand of the company in the right manner.
The business will offer the 18-hole experience for the golfers. Although it will not be the complete circuit as it is in the official game, the twists and turns and small bridges will bring the experience of the real thing to the park. Further, there will also be the direct hole experience. In this service, there will be a competition on who can make the most shots in the hole. Lastly, there will be the sale of golfing merchandise, this will include actual golf balls, golf sticks, polo t-shirts and instructional videos on how to play beginner golf.
Lineberry, W. P. (1973). The business of sports. New York: H.W. Wilson Co.
Flexibility may refer to muscle joints, ligaments, bones as well as well another part of the anatomy. The ligaments are often said to be flexible, however, flexing a ligament too far can at time result into serious injury (DeVries 21). Further, flexibility usually refers to the length of a muscle. It is best addressed through stretching, and it is just one part of overall mobility. Range of motion on the other hand refers to how well the joints in the human body move.
Loose connective tissue can be described as a category of connective tissue that includes several tissues such as the reticular tissue, adipose tissue, areolar tissue. Loose connective tissue can be described as the most common type of connective tissue when it comes to vertebrates. It often holds organs in place, and it attaches the epithelial tissue to the different underlying tissues.
It is also critical to realize that it also surrounds the blood vessels and nerves. Dense connective tissue also referred to as dense fibrous tissue has fibers as its main matrix element. The dense connective tissue mainly contains collagen fibers, and there are rows of fibroblasts, fiber-forming cells that in turn manufacture the fibers (DeVries 81). The dense connective tissue forms strong structures that resemble ropes, and they are referred to as tendons and ligaments.
The 5-minute stretching routine is the first type of the routine. The routine is designed to complete on an exercise mat at the end of the workout. It often takes 5-10 minutes, and one can get all the preceding benefits (Goode 18). The first thing is to hold each stretch for 10-15 seconds and repeat two times with each leg. The second exercise is the butterfly groin. It involves pressing the elbows down in an effort to increase the stretch, it is important to understand that the closer one puts the feet on the body, the more intense the stretch will become (Houglum 12). The third stretch is the lying hip stretch; the hands is supposed to be around the right knee to pull the left leg towards the body. This is a great hip stretch, and this is why it should be incorporated into the routine.
The fourth is the lying quad stretch, and of all the stretches in the routine, this one should one should consider doing while standing and holding on the one foot with both hounds. The further one brings the knee backward the more intense the stretch. It is important to understand those quadriceps are muscles that are in front of the leg.
The neck stretch is the last stretch in the routine; it involves moving the head from left to right and then from right to left and tilting with the hand (Houglum 32). There should be caution to ensure that one gets the right information for this routine as they had been several people that had been injured when they tilted the head too much with their hands. One should tilt it just enough to stretch the muscles.
In conclusion, there are several people that consider stretching as a waste of time; however, this is not the case as stretching is extremely important. It improves one range of motion and it also makes one be flexible which is important for any person doing exercise.
DeVries, Herbert A. Physiology of Exercise for Physical Education and Athletics. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown, 2010. Print.
Goode, Katherine. Skeleton and Muscles. Woodbridge, CT: Blackbirch Press, 2000. Print.
Houglum, Peggy A, and Peggy A. Houglum. Therapeutic Exercise for Musculoskeletal Injuries. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2005. Print.
The American Therapeutic Recreation Association defines recreational therapy as a service that restores, remediates and rehabilitates an individual’s level of functioning and independence in the activities of life (Yarnell, 2015). The aim is to promote wellness and health as well as eliminate or reduce activity limitations and restrictions to participating in life’s situations due to a disabling condition or an illness. Under the domain of experiential therapy, there are a variety of techniques that can be used to achieve the same objective and one of these techniques is sports therapy. This is an aspect of healthcare specifically concerned with preventing injury and rehabilitating a patient back to his/her optimum sports specific fitness, occupational and functional levels. Sports therapy incorporates the principles of exercises and play as well as pathological and physiological processes to prepare an individual for competition, training and work (What is Sports Therapy?, 2013).
History, description, and purpose of the facilitation technique
Sports therapy was founded 28 years ago but not many people familiar with sports therapy or the job of sports therapists. In summary, a sports therapist can be regarded as a healthcare professional with the knowledge, ability, and skills to utilize play and exercise principles to optimize performance, injury prevention and preparation programs. They can also provide immediate injury care and basic life support in a competitive, recreational and training environment. They possess skills to assess, treat and refer for specialist intervention and advice. Sports therapists also offer appropriate remedial and sports massage in an exercise or sporting context in addition to planning and implementing appropriate rehabilitation programs (What is Sports Therapy?, 2013).
As such, the spectrum of expertise of a sports therapist is built to capture five significant competency areas that are related to illness or injury in the sporting or exercise environment. They are prevention, evaluation and recognition, rehabilitation, management, treatment and referral, and educational and professional issues. All forms of sports have the potential to cause injury to the body and the general rule in sports is that the more contact there is, the higher the chances of sustaining a traumatic injury (Manske & Lehecka, 2012). Most injuries in sports are as a result of sprains, strains and stress fractures caused by abnormal stress on a tendon, joint, bone or muscle. The use of sports therapy backed with evidence-based procedure is seen as being capable of reducing medical errors, improving healthcare quality as well as challenging views based on beliefs instead of empirical evidence
According to Dattilo and McKenney (2016), play/sport is an intrinsically motivating and freely chosen activity associated with active engagement and positive affect. It is intrinsically motivating in the sense that most people do it for its own sake. In other words, individuals engage in it for the inherent rewards, and subsequently, sport/play is often seen as an end in and of itself. The active engagement aspect of any sport refers to the state of the participant being psychologically and physically absorbed in the activity to the point where they lose sense of their surroundings and time. The ability to partake of a sport as an adult is dependent on Piaget’s (1962) four stages of a child’s cognitive development, i.e., sensorimotor, construction, symbolic play and games with rules.
Dattilo and McKenney (2016) contend that play is “a medium that allows people to experience autonomy and provides them with opportunities for success and to be in charge of their actions” (p. 9). As a spontaneous, dynamic process, other processes such as feeling, thinking and doing take place simultaneously and participants can engage in play without fear of failing or sustaining other undesirable results. This attribute makes play/sports to be an effective therapeutic medium that can be used to bring positive change to people with limiting or disabling conditions. As a therapeutic medium, play/sports can involve the use of directive play and non-directive play therapy.
The effectiveness of sports therapy
In a study to review the efficacy of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), Van Baar et al. (1999) conducted computerized research of clinical trials in Medline, Cinahl and Embase databases. The outcome measures were self-reported disability, pain, observed disability and the patient’s assessment on the effect achieved. Independent reviewers assessed the validity of these trials. Six out of 11 clinical trials met the validity criteria, and findings showed that exercise therapy had beneficial effects on patients with OA. Similarly, exercise therapy was found to be effective in patients with low back pain, cystic fibrosis, intermittent claudication and obstructive pulmonary disease (Smidt et al., 2005).
Activity protocol and adaptations
There are a myriad of sports therapy protocols that can be used ranging from the non-operative sports therapy protocol that can be used for Achilles rupture (Achilles rupture non-operative treatment protocol) and general knee pain. Under the post-operative physical therapy protocols are distal biceps repair and Elbow arthroscopy and Debridement protocol for torn/injured biceps and broken elbows respectively. There is the Foot and Ankle physical therapy protocols for fractured metatarsal (5th metatarsal fracture protocol) and ankles (ankle arthroscopy with/wo Tala OCD Microfx post-op protocol) not forgetting Hip Physical therapy protocols for repairing the gluteus medius and Hip Labral Debridement (Physical Therapy Protocols, 2018).
Dattilo, J., & McKenney, A. (2016). Chapter 17: Therapeutic Use of Play. In J. Dattilo, & A. McKenney, Facilitation Techniques in Therapeutic Recreation (3rd ed., pp. 5 - 40). New York, NY: Venture Publishing.
Manske, R. C., & Lehecka, B. (2012, October). Evidence-Based Medicine/Practice In Sports Physical Therapy. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 7(5), 461 - 473.
Physical Therapy Protocols. (2018). Retrieved January 31, 2019, from St. Louis University, School of Medicine: https://www.slu.edu/medicine/orthopaedic-surgery/sports-medicine/physica...
Smidt, N., Henrica, C., Dekker, J., & Bouter, L. (2005). Effectiveness of exercise therapy: A best-evidence summary of systematic reviews. Journal of Physiotherapy, 51(2), 71 - 85. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(05)70036-2
Van Baar, M., Assendelft, W., Dekker, J., Oostendorp, A., & Bijlsma, J. (1999). Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy in patients with Osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 42(7), 1361–1369.
What is Sports Therapy? (2013, September 9). Retrieved January 31, 2019, from The Society of Sports Therapists: http://www.society-of-sports-therapists.org/index.php/public_information...
Yarnell, A. (2015, September 28). What is Recreation Therapy? Retrieved January 31, 2019, from Zepf Center: http://www.zepfcenter.org/news/2015/09/28/regular-news/what-is-recreatio...
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