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Law enforcement, parole and probation agencies help in striking a balance in security within the community. Given their similarities, they have true partnerships in existence (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). Despite their roles being similar, there are exists indifferences among them. The main cause of these indifferences is that police spend much of their time in arresting people from the streets while, in the same context, the probation and parole officers spend their time keeping these offenders integrated within the community. The indifference is not the main concern in the paper but rather pointing out the factor that may lead to poor law enforcement. Superficially, this appears as a diametric opposed position.
Neither of the two groups can ignore the fact that most adult offenders had been in prison. The law enforcement agencies may have the power of determining the people they arrest while the probation officers have no power over the people they receive from the corrective centers. It is ultimate that the law enforcement and parole or probation officers have the role of preventing the commission of new crimes. Congruent challenges in law enforcement cannot be achieved through either of the officers in isolation. Community policing is one way that that may help in linking the probation and law enforcement policies together (Hess & Orthmann, 2009).
This collaboration helps in addressing the immediate conditions that will help in ensuring public safety. The ongoing presence of the offenders in the community begs the need of effective partnership to reduce recurrence of crime. For this partnership to be enhanced, various considerations need to be addressed. The first step is understanding the role-played by each of the group (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). Each agency for instance needs to guard against crossing to the other line of duty. This entails taking up the duty of other officers. Challenges in effective partnership entail jurisdictional boundaries. City police, for instance, may be the one that has the jurisdiction in maintaining law and order as well as taking the probation and parole role of the agency. There are many other issues with certainty that need address. Maintaining individual and organizational relationship will help in achieving the partnerships. This paper is about law enforcement and the relationship between the officers and probation/parole officers in maintaining peace and tranquility within the community. This paper will also talk about a selected crime being rising cases of burglary.
A major shift in law enforcement from a reactive or incident policing to a proactive crime prevention and control. There is a shift towards problem-oriented policing (Peak & Glensor, 2012). Problem orientation helps in defining new approaches such as the use of intensive police research and crime analysis to identify the criminal activities and patterns within the society. Information collected by law enforcement agents help in defining the scope and nature of certain crimes and crime-related problems (Peak & Glensor, 2012). Crime analysis involves the use of GIS for mapping hence achieve problem solving processes. Law enforcement will help in solving the rising cases of crimes and ensuring a collaborative effort between the probation officers and the police. Persistent findings indicate that a small number of individuals continuously contribute to a number of arrests.
Good law enforcement will help in monitoring the locations of such probationers. Information sharing is of the essence, and this means the police can access the probation database. From the database, it is possible to obtain the personal information of these offenders. On the other hand, the probation officers would obtain police data that will help them monitor offenders and reduce the risk of re-offense. Enhancement in this category can happen through access of geo-coded police data. This data regard the arrests and interrogation performed and could help in alerting the probation officer on the whereabouts of these offenders (Peak & Glensor, 2012). The information will help to counter the emotionally and volatile probationers or their family members. Such information will ensure the safety on their occupation.
Petty crimes may have profound effects on the economy of the region and the victim. Such crimes, for example, burglary, go unnoticed and ignored. Integration of data and sharing of information between the two groups of officers will help in reducing such incidences (Peak & Glensor, 2012). Law enforcement officer contributes much to the criminal justice system through conviction of the offender arrested. In the same context of parole/probation supervision plays a critical role. In some situations, the offender placed on parole may also be an absconder of the probation. Parole officers, as already mentioned, have no arrest authority, and they depend on the law enforcement agencies for arresting parole violators. The indication in this case is the co-operation between the parole officers and the law enforcement officers.
Law enforcement and parole/probation agencies have a common denominator which entails solving and reducing crime. The only difference between them is the perspective and approach. Joining of forces will ensure a leverage and sharing of resources for their mutual benefits. The most compromising situation is that the partnership has an ad hoc nature without a full blend in the core work of corrections. There are significant data showing the relationship between law enforcement and parole officers will help in achieving positive outcomes. Partnerships need to be institutionalized as portfolios in the agencies. Law enforcement led information sharing forms a valuable asset in the fight against crime. The aim in this aspect is weave the information seamlessly in the operations (Joan Petersilia, 2009). Another aspect is data management in partnership. This entail the creation of the database that is cross-sectional between the probation and law enforcement agencies.
Probation and parole officers have become actively involved in the response to the rising cases of burglary. It has been noted through various analytical processes that probation officers act as the external conscience to these offenders. The meaning of this term is that probation officers will make sure that the offenders of this crime abide by the stipulations in their parole. In a bid to prevent the rising cases of burglary, the officers are encouraged to participate in groups meant at preventing these crimes. Volunteer to share the information to the law agencies with the notification of violators of parole. Such information sharing will assist in apprehending such offenders.
They should also use their experience in the control of rising cases of burglary (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). In this move, the officers should understand the background of the perpetrators and share any wayward behaviors with the parents (Peak & Glensor, 2012). These officers have the important roles in preventing the rising burglary issues. They do not have a restrictive role in supervising offenders, but performing certain activities that will help the probationers fit in the society. Law enforcement officials are the first to respond to crime scenes and follow the due course of the law to ensure prevailing of justice.
Law enforcement officers help in the conceptualization of mainstream correction strategies. Increased instances of burglary fall in the category of crime and the police help in the implementation of legal procedures that involve apprehending the culprits (Peak & Glensor, 2012). Through forging the necessary collaborative partnerships, strategic crime control can be achieved. In the crime scene such as incidence of burglary, the police are the first respondents often leading in the process of investigation and issue warrants of arrests to the culprits.
Culprits who continuously commit these crimes may be under placed under probation by the magistrate or the judge. Local parole officers come handy when there is a violation of the probation. Since they have no authority of issuing warrants of arrests or even apprehending the suspects, these violations are reported to the Parole Department (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). The department actively review the report, and if there is an establishment of the violations, a warrant of arrest is issued. The Parole department is involved in issuing a warrant of arrest. In conjunction with the law enforcement agencies, Parole violator is apprehended.
The legal process follows. In the process, the court establishes preliminary hearing to the case. The violator is placed in custody while waiting the revocation hearing. In the revocation hearing, lack of enough evidence leads to the release of the violator. In situations when there is enough evidence, the prisoner is ordered and returned to the Parole Department. Through the interaction between the law enforcement officers and the Parole department, crime rates decreased considerably especially burglary-related crimes (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). Strengthening and ensuring positive relationship between the police department and the parole department help in solving the reducing the crime cases (Peak & Glensor, 2012).
Police officers and parole officers need to remain receptive to the program and offer the necessary assistance. Police-parole officer’s partnerships help to establish both formal and informal agreements between the police departments. This help in deterring commission of crimes for both the juveniles and adults offenders (Joan Petersilia, 2009). Probations and parole fall under the category of community agencies. The partnership between these departments will go a long way in solving serious to petty crimes. Burglary as a crime remains the top agenda in many neighborhoods and may go unnoticed. Complexity of criminal activities brings a vicious cycle which never ends, therefore, there is high tendency that these crimes may recur. Police-parole partnership helps in solving the crimes thus deterring their recurrence.
The accrued benefits arising from such partnerships include enhanced partnerships. The activities help in supervisions of the high-risk probationers or parolees. The enhanced supervision helps in deterring offenders from committing more crimes. They help in apprehending fugitives who abscond the conditions of release (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). Partnership between the parole and the law enforcement officers helps in sharing vital information that may lead to knowing the location of the offenders and thus, leading to the apprehension. About other enforcement agencies, partnerships help in the joint address of criminal activities such as drugs and gang activities.
The correlations between the parole or probation officers and the intersection with the law enforcement agencies help in controlling the crime rates (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). Crime reduction should be the main agenda in partnership. Crimes such as burglary are only solved through better relationships between the two departments. Statistics shows that most offenders are convicted and serve their sentences within the community. Co-operation between the parole officers and the law enforcement officials will help in controlling recurrences of crimes by these offenders.
Hess, K. M., & Orthmann, C. M. (2009). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Joan Petersilia (2009). When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. Oxford University Press, USA.
Peak, K. J., & Glensor, R. W. (2012). Community policing and problem solving: Strategies and practices. Boston: Pearson.
Police work demands more focus than most of the jobs owing to its demanding nature. The stakes are so high in the job that the slightest mistake could lead to death of the police and the people that they are charged to protect. The immense pressures piled on the police officers inadvertently make the officers mask their real nature in the required conduct a stipulated by the ethical code of conduct (Lynn, 2008). Personality factors affect police conduct. In the most basic form, the police are trained to question every situation. Optimistic officers seek the most favourable situation and they may lean towards the exonerating evidence than they would seek out the incriminating one.
Officers have to involve their emotional side since they deal with human beings in all that they do (Myers, 2004). They also have to ensure that they have the best interest of the society in all they do. In order to fulfil their role, the police officers have to push their emotional instincts to the background and act according to the facts. Any reliance on the ‘gut feeling’ is not permissible (Myers, 2004). Therefore, police work calls for a lot of emotional labour. The fact that the job involves interaction with people, there are instances when the police officers have to come up with courses of action that drains their emotions. Whenever the police have to arrest a person in from of the peers and family, they feel the pain of tearing the suspect away from them. However, the job requirements do not allow them to show empathy to the family members. Personality of the officers is the main determinant of the extent of the emotional labour (Rafiee, Kazemi & Alimiri, 2013).
Lynn, A. (2008). The EQ interview. New York: AMACOM/American Management Association.
Myers, D. (2004). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
Rafiee, M., Kazemi, H., & Alimiri, M. (2013). Investigating the effect of job stress and emotional intelligence on job performance. 10.5267/J.Msl, 2417-2424. doi:10.5267/j.msl.2013.08.025
The continued abuse of the citizens was an issue that affected the perceptions of the people towards the police force. During the arrest, the spreading the suspect in front of the people was a way of dehumanizing him. The wailing of sirens even after the apprehension of the suspect led to the instilling fear in the suspect as well as the onlookers. The arrest was too brutal given that the suspect had not given any form of resistance.
Isolation in the prison cells is a form of torture that the police officers and prison guards use in order to instill the needed reaction and submission (Macionis, 2003). When one is placed in a place that there is no human contact or where there are not means of identifying the surrounding leads to the development of fear and possible insanity. The only companion that the people have is their thoughts. Isolation leads to loss of the time count and what makes one a human being is lost. Isolation works since there is loss of socialization and perception (Healey, 2003).
The stripping of the inmates and the other preparation procedures in the prison often lead to the development of the perceptions of being dehumanized. The prisoners and army recruits are inevitably made to understand that they do not have any form of control over what happens in their lives from that moment onwards (Healey, 2003). This process enhances submission by the members to the authority. The sense of individuality privacy and choice is lost with the aforementioned action. Stripping of males is a strategy that makes them have low self-esteem. It also reduces their sense of self-worth leading to low self-esteem. Reduction of the perceptions of the self-efficacy and self-esteem ends reducing the instances of rebellion. The mandatory shaving enforces the feeling that the person is no longer in a position of determining even the slightest things such as grooming.
The correction system works as a system. Just like any other system, there are rules and conventions that are adhered to (Macionis, 2003). The good guards were aware of the prevalence of violence and intimidation in the prisons. Therefore, there was no way of speaking against the tenet since they are matters of convention and practice. The culture of the prison system upholds the use of violence. In as much as the guards had the choice, they were incapable of acting on it from the fear of moving against the culture of the system.
I would take the imprisonment if since there is a reason for the imprisonment. The only issue will be the development of the right approach to the imprisonment. However, with final adaptation to the prison system, copping will no longer be an issue. The only difficulty will be experienced in the early days of the imprisonment and after I have adopted to the life, it will be possible to cope. The reintegration to the society will be difficult after the imprisonment (Healey, 2003).
Working on change from within the system is often easier since the players in the change movement will be capable of changing the institutions better due to their knowledge (Sharrock, Hughes & Martin, 2003). The internally instigated change movement is also easier to implement since the people affected by the change are more involved and knowledgeable about the system. The commitment of the internal change agents is also more than when the agent for change is an outsider.
The events are not identical but there is a common running theme in the enactment of the change. The majority of the law enforcement officers are focused on the development of a more controllable system. The humiliation and abuse of the citizens is one of the ways of ensuring that the prisoners are compliant. The humiliation in both cases was a way of ensuring that the prisoners were submissive. Therefore, there are variations of the same script therefore very similar.
The prison system functions on the humiliation of the members. It is focused on the development of the systems that are smooth and complaint. The reduction of resistance is the key (Sharrock, Hughes & Martin, 2003). It applied in both the prisoners and the guards. There are difficulties in the development of any change since the systems are designed to be rigid. The forces of good rarely prevail in the system. There is an emphasis on the sustenance of the status quo in the prison system as opposed to the enactment of change.
If I were the guard in the prison, I would have been a better guard among the good people. Being the good guard would have come with challenges. In most of the cases, it would have been unattainable. The development of the good attitude will only manifest when dealing with the prisoners directly. However, in some cases, I would be forced to work according to the rules of the group. In these cases, I would be less capable of enacting any change. Therefore, being good will not be a certain thing.
Healey, J. (2003). Race, ethnicity, gender, and class. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Pine Forge Press.
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Sharrock, W., Hughes, J., & Martin, P. (2003). Understanding modern sociology. London: Thousand Oaks, Calif.
Natural disasters are common in all nations. Often, they have strong negative impacts to these societies as they lead to massive deaths and as well destruction of property (Bobrowsky, 2013). Over the last century, global campaign on national preparedness to these calamities has considerably geared the development of immediate response mechanisms and hence determination of best strategies for combating these disasters. The paper is a disaster and community resource evaluation aiming at developing comprehensive analysis of the Katrina disaster that struck United States on 25 August 1995.
Overview of the natural calamity
The disaster originated from the Atlantic storm where it began as category one hurricane and blew across the shores of the Southern Florida. It was among the country’s costliest tragedy. Its damage to the country were minimal (Daniels, 2006). As the government made efforts of controlling the tragedy, the storm roared into the Louisiana coast with a degree of intensity amounting to 125 mph. apparently, it as well stroke the New Orleans where the nation experienced a massive damage where approximately 80 percent of the Louisiana City was left covered with water. Similarly, approximately 1836 people lost their lives with a destruction of about $125 billion encountered (DesRoches, 2006).
Responses used by the government
As the first response to the calamity, United States government sent emergency response teams that were to play a crucial role of supplying community-based clinics in the affected areas (DesRoches, 2006). The response mainly focused at supporting the low-income health programs and provided the critical relief social services to the community (Bobrowsky, 2013). According to reviews made by analysts, the government response in rescuing and vacating people from the affected region played a significant role in gearing the massive damages. Additionally, the response evidently demonstrated lack of preparedness to natural calamities (Daniels, 2006).
As a future strategy of responding to calamities, it is vitally essential for the government to have its emergency teams focused on maintaining a substantial and immediate response to such calamities to avoid extended losses (Bobrowsky, 2013). Additionally, lack of coordination while responding to the calamity, revealed by imagery of some residents who remained without food, water and shelter, reveled a poor response mechanism by United States. Therefore, it is important for future emergency response teams to coordinate and focus on the suffering residents (Daniels, 2006).
Bobrowsky, P. T. (2013). Encyclopedia of natural hazards. Dordrecht: Springer.
Daniels, R. J., Kettl, D. F., Kunreuther, H., & National Symposium on Risk and Disasters. (2006). On risk and disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
DesRoches, R. (2006). Hurricane Katrina: Performance of transportation systems. Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers.
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