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The problem of crime has been a constant menace to society. From petty theft to robbery with violence, crime continues to be a migraine to the government of the day. The rise in crime rates over many states is alarming, and testament of the myriad of challenges that face society. The need to overcome the majority of these problems has led many a government into seeking solutions to a problem of which they do not know the causes. All through the United States of America, the causes of crime seem to be identical in nature. The war the government wages against crime can only be won with a deep understanding of the roots of this vice. In order to overcome crime in modern USA society, the government must have a deep understanding of the causes of crime, and the factors that lead to increased crime levels in society. This paper attempts to uncover the causes of crime and the causal linkage, if any, between these causes and the rampancy of crime.
Crime persists as one of the challenges societies face. The constant rise in crime rates the United States over is a certain cause for alarm. This is because many neighborhoods, which are at the grassroots of crime, continue to feel the adverse effects of this problem (Darrow, 2009). Many young men and women lose their lives daily because of crime in one way or another. Many are part of the criminal gangs that control neighborhoods, and even more are victims of robbery and homicide.
It is necessary to fix this problem, and the only way to do so is to understand the causes of crime in their entire scope (Burke, Tomlinson, Cooper, 2011). This is because the only way to fix a problem as big as this one is by first understanding its causes. There is a great need to grasp the full understanding of the causes of crime in order to effectively combat this problem. In almost all the neighborhoods in which crime is a constant threat, there are a number of baseline underlying factors that are responsible for this high crime rates. The need to address these underlying factors is high as this is the only way crime can be significantly reduced all over the United States of America.
The countless efforts to solve the menace of crime in many American neighborhoods is testament of the need to understand the causes of crime. Factors such as poverty, low education levels and unemployment have been instrumental in perpetuating this problem. This is because many of the perpetrators of crime have been found to have these traits in common. Based on this, it is necessary to address these factors in a conclusive manner, to prevent further growth of these cancerous tumors that continue to eat away society. Only by addressing these factors, will society witness reduced crime rates.
It is mandatory that the causes of crime are understood, in order to reduce the rampancy of crime in the United States of America. This research is geared at understanding the causes of crime in all the neighborhoods of the United States of America (Dressler, 2002). It is aimed at getting the full understanding of these problems in order to solve the problem of crime. By determining the baseline causes of crime in American neighborhoods, efforts to curb, crime can be taken. Taking these efforts from an informed point of view is vital in guaranteeing the successful prevention of crime in America.
The recent drops in crime rates all over the United State of America have been met with jubilant citizens. These citizens are happy that their societies are much safer than they had been before the surveys were conducted. However, reduced crime rates do not spell absence of any crime at all, seeing that many innocent civilians continue to be the victims of heinous crimes ranging from sexual assault to robbery with violence. This is a great impediment to society since it highlights the sad reality that the underlying causes of crime have not yet been addressed.
The current condition is similar to that of a physician prescribing medicine to soothe the patient’s pain, without actually curing the disease causing the pain. The need for the underlying causes of crime in the United States of America to be addressed is very great. Many civilians suffer because of a few individuals who wield no power per se, except the power of a gun or a club at hand. There is growing concern that the government, in collaboration with its security organs, is doing very little to address the menace of crime. These forces are primarily concerned about punishing the perpetrators of crime while paying lip service to the actual causes of crime in the United States of America today. The case of Florida is a good example of the sad reality concerning crime in the American society at the moment.
Causes of Crime in Florida
The causes of crime can be defined as biological, sociological or even psychological. This is because the underlying causes of crime depend on the biological and psychological state of the individual, as well as the social circles in which the individual resides . The deadly combination of these forces is capable of churning out extremely violent, hardcore criminals out of young men and women. Among the leading causes of crime in Florida and the United States of America, is peer influence. A vast majority of the perpetrators of crime, up to 90%, are young men who have been influenced negatively by the society in which they live. Peer influence takes advantage of two main aspects to guarantee success; that is weakness and poor judgment.
The nature of many young men and women pushes them into conforming to the socially acceptable standards in the various aspects of their lives. Many of these aspects include drugs, alcohol, sex, money and even fashion. The ability of the few rotten tomatoes among the young men and women to manipulate others into crime as a means of social conformity plays a central role in the propagation of crime.
Many youths believe that getting into crime will make them popular, will make them respected and will give them the money they need to conform in terms of drugs, sex, alcohol and fashion. The psychological and emotional weaknesses present in many of these youths prevent them from refusing to conform to ‘socially acceptable standards’. The fact that many of these youths are unable to control their own wills leaves them at the mercy of the many ‘wolves’, waiting to increase the numbers of their gang members.
Poor parenting is also one of the leading causes of crime in Florida and the United States at large. The power that a good household has in shaping the characters and mentalities of growing children cannot be underestimated. All human beings have an innate desire to belong, and this desire is extended to cover the desire to belong in a family (Crutchfield, 2000). Young children are especially vulnerable to this desire, and they wish to belong to a complete family. However, the recent rising trend in single-parent households plays an essential role in the propagation of crime. In Florida, a survey conducted found out that children who have grown up in fatherless households are more likely to commit crimes than children who have grown up in normal households.
The absence of a father figure to guide and mold the characters of men in their growth process results, in children raising themselves. Many youths, particularly young men, have been fooled into believing that joining a gang and killing many innocent people, is the way to prove oneself as a man. This has been detrimental in the fight against crime, seeing that many youths grow up with false notions of manhood: notions that revolve around crime, assault and violence.
The failure of parents to control, supervise and monitor their children’s habits also plays a role in crime. A family may be complete, but failure of parents to direct their children in the right paths results, in misguided children that can be easily lured into vices such as crime and prostitution. It is necessary that parents dedicate themselves to guiding their children in the right paths.
The distinct relation between poverty and crime rates cannot go overlooked. This is because it is normal to have high crime rates in neighborhoods or regions that experience high poverty levels. Poverty forces many individuals to live below the accepted standards that a human being should live in, in society. The absence, or lack thereof, of money to cater for the needs of individuals and families forces many of these members of society into crime. It is no secret that a crime has the potential of making quick, easy money, but is also no secret that it comes at a price.
Many individuals weigh their possible success against their chances of getting caught and possible punishment, and the result is a no-brainer. Many individuals think about their families staying hungry and without the basic needs and the thought of that force many of them into crime as a means of survival. Although human beings are very different from animals, the world is not much different from a jungle, and only the fittest survive.
Many individuals have to look for a means of survival in order to guarantee that they will live to see another day (Zimring, Hawkins, 2009). The high unemployment rates do little to curtail the spread of crime among the population, seeing that many individuals do not have employment that keeps them away from crime. The correlation between high unemployment rates and crime rates is outright visible, and there is a need to provide employment to many idle youths who have the potential of venturing into crime.
The affection that many Americans have to material things goes back a long time in history. This affection is not restricted to Americans only, but to the entire global population. The desire to live in good houses, drive good cars, wear fashionable clothes and live an extravagant life has a great influence on the minds of many Americans. It is not surprising then that many young Americans rarely dream of career success, but instead, of being rich.
It is the dream of many, but very few have the opportunity to witness their dreams become reality in a legal and honest manner. The bulk of the population, which is forced to contend with settling for way less than they had hoped for, is forced to look for a way of making their dreams realities, as well (Longford, 1958). Many of these individuals engage in crime as a form of getting the money they are incapable of getting legally. The result is a crime-infested society that sees countless crimes in fraud, petty theft, and robbery with violence and even burglary. This pushes the crime rate in Florida, as well as the rest of America, a couple of notches higher than it was.
Deprived neighborhoods have some of the highest crime rates in Florida. The absence of social amenities and luxuries that other, more affluent, neighborhoods enjoy forces many youths into crime. The realization that these neighborhoods are unlikely to change into the neighborhoods they ought to be, leaves only one option for many young men and women-break out of the poverty chain and move from the neighborhood.
The fact that this is a difficult feat to achieve in the right and legal manner leaves many opting for crime (Reamer, 2005). The effect that these neighborhoods have on the crime rates is very significant. It instills within the youths, a desire to breakout of the poverty chain they live in at whatever cost. Some of these youths opt to develop their talents, especially in sports and athletics while some opt for crime.
The few who make it through the use of their talent successfully breakout of the poverty chain, but the many who fail to succeed end up frustrated and still in the poverty-ridden neighborhoods they desperately wanted to leave. Many of those who fail, end up as gangsters or mobsters in their towns and neighborhoods. The result is a big boost to the crime rates of the society in which they live.
The need to have equality in all the neighborhoods, in America, is a pressing one. It is instrumental in removing the feelings of discrimination and favoritism that many individuals in deprived neighborhoods feel. The alleviation of these feelings will play a great role in the fight against crime, seeing that individuals in these neighborhoods have one-less incentive to venture into crime as a ‘career’ than they did before these feelings are removed. This will help to reduce the crime rates in Florida and the United States of America (Burkhead, 2005).
The case in Florida is not much different from that of the United States in general. Other factors among them deprived neighborhoods, corruption, poverty and unemployment also play a key role in the propagation of crime not only in Florida, but also in America.
The causes of crime in Florida are the same causes of crime in the United States of America. The states of America are all similar in their economic patterns. Although some states are richer than others, in every state there are the privileged citizens and the underprivileged citizens. The incentives to commit crime are similar in all states and so the causes of crime are the same in all the states of America.
The research into crime and its causes are aimed at understanding the causes of crime, not in one of the states of America, but in the whole of America. It seeks to unearth the underlying causes that push many youths into the world of crime. It seeks to look at the baseline causes of crime in all the states of America and determine if the causes are the same.
This research was conducted to highlight the causes of crime. The primary audiences that it is targeting include the Federal government, the State government, schools and youth. These organs are the key players in the propagation of crime, and possibly the key players in curbing crime, as well. It aims to enlighten these players on their roles in propagation of crime, and suggest possible ways they can help in the fight against crime.
The variables in this study remain to be crime and the causes of crime. Crime is the dependent variable while the causes of crime are the independent variables. The nature of crimes that are committed in the United States of America is very diverse. However, the underlying causes of crime are all the same.
Sources of Data
Some of the data sources include journals, research papers, and books that highlight the causes of crime in the United States of America. Census reports from the government will also be used to highlight the population composition of crime prone areas. These reports will also identify the areas most affected by crime and the possible triggers of crime in these areas. Crime reports by security agencies such as Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) will be instrumental in understanding the causes of crime.
Data Collection Instruments and Procedures
Data collection for this study will depend on content analysis of the data sources used. The bulk of information that will be collected on crime rates and the causes of crime will most likely be in the form of reports; warranting the application on content analysis as the preferred method of research analysis. The causes of crime in the United States of America form the unit of analysis for this study.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
The causes of crime in the United States will be sought out following a baseline approach. The causes will first be grouped as sociological, psychological or biological. This will narrow the varying causes into three groups. These causes will then be analyzed to determine if some are sub-causes of others. This will produce the main causes of crime in the United States.
The research into the causes of crime has yielded a number of causes that have appeared in all the states of America. It is noteworthy that a majority of these causes are sociological, with very few being psychological.
Among the psychological causes of crime in the United States of America are poor judgment and psychological weakness. Many of the perpetrators of crimes are, more often than not, the handymen or women. The crime bosses do very little to soil their hands. The fact that many of these individuals give into pressures to join criminal gangs, is enough evidence of the apparent psychological weakness that many of these individuals suffer.
Their inability to stand their ground is responsible for their recruitment into crime. Many individuals that venture into crime do it as a means of survival, and rarely view their actions as crimes. Their actions are centered on their survival, and as long as they are not caught, they do not view their actions as criminal offences. This is the most common flaw that criminals share.
The sociological causes of crime are the main causes of crime. These causes can be further divided into causes within the institution of the family and causes within the society in general. The causes of crime that stem from the family include lack of love to children, generational cycles and poor parenting. The failure of parents to show their children love results in many children looking for avenues of overcoming the feelings of neglect they bear.
More often than not, the avenue is crime. In many families, crime also seems to be a ‘hereditary’ aspect of their lives. Many individuals, who have ever been convicted of or taken part in crimes, have at least one family member that has experienced the same thing. It is not possible to prove whether this is a genetically hereditary trait, however. The high rates of absentee fathers push many young men into crime. These fathers are absent either due to abandonment, neglect or serving jail terms. These factors contribute to crime by affecting the institution of the family.
The general aspects of society that are responsible for crime include corruption, media violence, deprived neighborhoods and poverty and unemployment. Corruption in government security agencies plays a primary role in criminal activity. The inability of security agencies to tackle crime effectively due to vices such as bribery and conflict of interest is a common feature in America (Tipp, Buggey, 2001). Many security officers receive bribes from criminals or have stakes in criminal activities such as drug trafficking.
This makes the fight against crime a difficult one. Many young children get their perceptions of violence from the media. From the deep affection of the American public towards crime-fighting superheroes to movies and video games that depict violence, many youths itch to live out these fantasies. The result is a group of youth that will commit crimes as a result of the actions they witness.
Deprived neighborhoods are huge influences on the lives of many youths. The fact that the youths in these neighborhoods are incapable of accessing some basic social amenities leaves many of them frustrated. The inability of the government to provide these amenities is countered with a youth force ready to engage in crime to obtain that which the government has failed to provide. Another common feature of these neighborhoods is high unemployment and poverty rates. These only serve as incentives for the youths to commit crimes, seeing that many desperately desire to escape poverty.
The decreased levels of crime over the past two decades are a blessing to the American society, albeit with a catch. This is because even though the crime rates in America have dropped, crime still remains a constant headache to the government and citizens alike. Many individuals continue suffering at the hands of a few individuals that have taken up crime as their ‘careers’. Insofar as punishing criminals is concerned, the government performs remarkably well.
However, addressing the underlying factors that are responsible for crime in society are waters the government is reluctant to sail. This is because the government is in charge of these issues, and admitting these problems would mean the government will be its own critic. Many of the sociological factors that are causes of crime can be dealt with squarely by the government, but stiff resistance from the government is a hurdle that still must be overcome.
The states of America are all identical when it comes to their criminal genes. Each state may have different crime rates and different age groups of criminals, but the underlying factors remain the same. The problem of child neglect is one that America continues to grapple with daily. The looming collapse of the institution of the family plays a keynote role in the perpetuation of crime in America. Many children are molded and raised up by society, rather than by their parents. In the event that the society is one rotten with countless vices, it does not take a rocket scientist to project the future of these children. The desire of parents to fulfill their dreams in their academics, careers and businesses, at the expense of their children, leaves many children to raising themselves. This is a role that any rotten society hardly passes out on taking. The lack of good role models in the family and society plays a central in encouraging crime within the youths of America.
The growing popularity of violence in society is also a leading factor in the propagation of crime in society. Many children grow up witnessing violence in their societies, and in different forms of media, to the point that it no longer surprises them. Many children now perceive violence as a part of society that they have to accept and possibly adopt. The result is a large number of innocent youths engaging in violent acts either to prove themselves as strong, or to mimic what the media fraternity has taught them to hold as true. Cases of assault continue to rise with each passing day, highlighting the precarious position society is in today.
The causes of crime in the United States of America include poverty unemployment, peer influence, psychological weaknesses, deprived neighborhoods, media violence, poor parenting, corruption and generational cycles. The sad reality remains that these problems cut across all 50 states of the USA, as a testament of the deep rooted nature of the causes of crime in America.
America finds herself at a very critical time in history. The causes of crime are no longer platonic, but instead have become traits that many in society today consider social norms. Crime now gets plenty of praise and is regarded as a means of survival by a significant number of youth. This highlights the danger society faces. Seeing that many of the causes of crime are deeply rooted in society, the fight against crime in the USA is now tougher than it previously was.
The society has reached a point of inflection, in which it must question its morals and social norms if the fight against crime must be won (Farrington, Welsh, 2007). The recent drops in crime rates do not count for anything; if all the government does is punish criminal offenders. Too much of anything is poison, and the government has focused on punishment for too long a time. The time has come for the government to consider a different approach to tackling crime. This new approach dictates addressing the causes of crime in the United States of America.
The government should consider introducing programs that teach the youth how to deal with peer pressure into the education curriculum as early as grade school.
The institution of the family must receive more attention from the government than it previously did. The government pays a lot of attention to the plight of children in the event of a divorce or death of parents. It is time that the government also pays attention to the upbringing that children in America receive.
Unemployment continues to be an impediment to the fight against crime. The government should create more jobs than it already has, to stop idle youth from engaging in criminal activity.
Equality is a central factor of American culture, seeing that it is also enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. This equality should not stop at people, and neighborhoods must also be made equal. The government should ensure that all neighborhoods in America have access to the same facilities and social amenities (Bohm, Walker, 2005).
The government should set up more stringent regulations governing the display of violence in different forms of media, among them the internet, television and videogames than the present ones. The government must address corruption in security agencies to help in the fight against crime.
Bohm, R. M., & Walker, J. T. (2005). Demystifying Crime and Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press.
Burke, R. J., Tomlinson, E. C., & Cooper, C. L. (2011). Crime and corruption in organizations: Why it occurs and what to do about it. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.
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The Internet is the most crucial technology in the world with a very high global advantage in terms of communication (ayavel Sounderpandian, 2007). With the introduction of internet, global communication has improved dramatically in different ways of communicating such as emailing, chatting, and financial transactions. Everything has its good and evil. Thus, the internet also poses a lot of security threats and fraud being the main disadvantages of internet. The security issues have been increasing with most transactions going online, the threats of having individuals who are curious or Internet talented with the technical information hacking into systems of government, banks and so on has increased dramatically.
Internet usage is widely accepted around the world it has not only improved our lives but also professional and personal developments in different ways, students are known to use the Internet to carry out research, gathering information and adding information to the subjects they are learning . Also professionals use the internet to carry out information necessary for their use, it also serves as a way of communicating and saving contacts of relatives and friends who live abroad permanently, and the most popular is its use to provide entertainment may it be games, social networking, watching videos, movies, quizzes.
Criminal activity that involves the perpetration of fraud through the use of the computer or the internet can often take many different forms. In fact, one of the most common forms is hacking, where a perpetrator often uses sophisticated technological tools in order to remotely access a secure computer or internet location. Federal law defines internet fraud as the use of a computer in order to create a dishonest misrepresentation of facts as an attempt to induce another to do or refrain from doing something that causes loss. The criminals can create fraudulent misrepresentation in a number of ways. The first is that they can alter the computer input in an unauthorized way, secondly, they can embezzle company funds by altering input data, and lastly, some of them can rewrite software codes and uploads them into the banks mainframe in order for the bank to provide the users with the their identities. From this point, the white collar fraudsters can make unauthorized credit card purchases.
The law is not too strict on White Collar crime, there is, for this reason, a need to ensure that legislation in this field is enhanced and especially relating to internet fraud. It is of the essence to understand that the world is transacting almost all their business through the internet and consequently, if not protection under the law exists, then there will be a huge problem in regards to increased case of fraud. Currently, most white-collar crimes are investigated and prosecuted by federal authorities. However, the defendants do not usually face long sentences and especially in the case of internet fraud. For this reason, for this reason, and the risk that they cause on a business, I would support legislation on white-collar crime. This will ensure that it decreases significantly, and the perpetrators understand the repercussions that will meet them when they carry out internet fraud.
There has been the growth of E-business in the world. Almost every company has a website, and most financial transactions are being carried out online. E-business describes the applications and systems that involve web technologies in the running of a business. It provides the foundation for companies to run internally and externally sufficiently through linking with the suppliers, as well as the partners. This leads to improvement of the business performance. E-business might involve wireless technologies, mobile, customer relation management as well as social media. (Chapman, 2011, p. pg 4)
However, e-business encounters some limiting aspect related to technology, security as well as fraud. For instance, technology invasion alters lives and performance of businesses and other companies too. These technology systems include computer as it assists the managers on how to conduct the company and aid faster growth in rather volatile as well as the competitive market. E-business is dependent on technology in many aspects. (ayavel Sounderpandian, 2007, p. pg6) Infrastructure problems like the server problems could affect the business in a number of ways like shutting down the website.
Invasion of some of the effects such as viruses bears a great risk to the business since it could delete valuable information and data at the same time. Some software's at the same time is capable of bringing about some clinches to the whole system. Some of the attacks from the hackers interested in stealing the sensitive customer information or temper customer site pose a considerable risk to the e-business running people. However, since online consumers are frick if they encounter such problems they should not continue with the service unless the problem gets resolution.
There are various risks related to theft and fraud that might be dangerous to internet transactions. The e-theft could be done from anywhere in the world. For example, in United State joint survey by the FBI as well as Computer Security Institute(CSI) comprising of 500 companies, some companies 42% reported use of their information that was unauthorized and 32% reported loss of vital information due to security breaches. These pose a major threat to the companies since most of the companies lack sufficient security system and controls to prevent or detect such thieves. Data integrity could be accidental, they, however, rise from communication and system errors. Some of the technological systems lack human intervention to monitor reason ability thus communication error could be significant (Mambi, 2010).
There exists set laws that govern the businesses from such hackers and e-fraud thieves.
These problems could be solved in the civil court where the company that files the case collects its evidence then proceed with taking the proprietor of the fraudster to the court. The person filing the case should also be careful since the fraud could erase the evidence through complex cracking system. Without the evidence, there could be no case to be filed. A victim of crackers has certain laws that govern such case according to the white paper. These laws include the US Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) which aims at protecting the business data from damage like denial of service attacks. (Mambi, 2010, p. pg5) The U.S Electronic Communication Privacy Act (ECPA) it restricts unauthorized access to electronic facilities, communication services and unlawful access to some information without authority. This Act prevents authorized access to the wire as well as an electronic communication. There is also “trespass to chattels” that might occur when one meddles with personal property to possess the other without authority.
However, one of the most significant issues is how the funds can be recouped. It is important to understand that the principle of restitution is extremely important in any formal system of criminal justice. It holds that there is a need to ensure that the victim is restored to his or her prior state of well being. There are several cases that have enforced this policy. For example, the use of fraud by a lottery scheme that was marketed for the elderly led to the loss of tens of thousands of dollars. Civil forfeiture laws were used in order to seize approximately $12.4 million that had been hidden in different U.S investment accounts that were held in the names of Cayman Island corporations (Lee, 2009). Also, in the criminal prosecution that occurred regarding the Canadian gemstone scheme in the case of United States v. Euro-Can-Am et al., there was the freezing of accounts and the payment of about one million dollars to the United States for restitution to the scheme’s victims.
Occupational crimes are on the increase, and they often occur in the company by the employees. It includes thefts of company property, misuse of information and vandalism. In business, the greatest threat is from the inside that is; employees who would want to cause some problems through tampering with the database and sometimes take sensitive information. Such threat from the inside shows greater threat to e-business than the threat from outside like crackers. There is a need to prevent occupational crime. In order to prevent such unauthorized threat from the inside, there is a need to be keeping protected passwords and altering passwords. The employees should be granted limited access needed to them.
It would be essential to revoke authorities especially when the employees leave the company. (Lee, 2009, p. pg6) There should be annual training to the workers to make them aware of the hackers also learn on cyber crime awareness. This would show the seriousness of such matters, and the employees would be able to not to take it lightly. There should also be procedures such that, upon report of unusual activity on the computer database or server, the individual does not spoil or temper with the forensic evidence and the management would also be informed and could deal with the problem also the IT experts could proceed with the investigations. (Information Resources Management Association. International Conference, 2004, p. Pg 65)
Another problem that face the security of the business would be Denial of service through launching assault that would destroy the service offered to customers. These attacks lead to loss of the revenue when the companies key server that co-ordinate the system would be brought down leading to the customers delay placing their orders. There might also be negative publicity especially when the website changes. This is quite great threat to the e-business and if, not dealt with would destroy the business. This crime is often as a result of avocation crime; avocation crime is different from the occupation crime as avocation crime often occurs when one is not at work. These crimes are dangerous as they often go undetected. Occupation crime can also occur when one embezzles funds and denies it. This process refers to repudiation.
Most at times, White-Collar crime is often hard to prosecute because it is extremely sophisticated, and there is little evidence for the crime. Further, most White-Collar crime perpetrators are often anonymous, and it becomes extremely difficult for a person to prosecute them. For example, E-mail provides some security threats since everyone would complain of spam. However, those responsible for the spam and spyware that sometimes takes vital information cannot be prosecuted because they are anonymous (Information Resources Management Association. International Conference, 2004). The same applies to persons that create viruses for the purpose of disabling computers and retrieving important data; it is often hard to prosecute them on the basis of anonymity.
To prevent such security threats then a number of processes and procedures should be considered by the affected companies. First, there is communication or transmission security that comprise of the use of (secure sockets layer). Secure Socket Layer provides secure communication between the web servers and the server client. There is also some consideration towards a web server security that include, removal of the CGI scripts since they not to be used commercially. Those automatic directory listing should be switched off and some examination of the program source in case of vulnerability. However, White Collar crime can only reduce through proper legislation and protection from the government.
Ayavel Sounderpandian, T. S. (2007). E-business process management: technologies and solutions. Pennsylvania,: Idea Group Inc (IGI).
Chapman, R. J. (2011). Simple Tools and Techniques for Enterprise Risk Management. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
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Lee, I. (2009). Selected Readings on Information Technology and Business Systems Management. New Jersey: Idea Group Inc (IGI).
Mambi, A. J. (2010). Ict Law Book. a Source Book for Information and Communication Technologies & Cyber Law in Tanzania & East African Community. Oxford: African Books Collective.
Hate crime can be termed as a criminal activity that is targeted at a particular individual or group. These crimes can be violent or non-violent, but always have a motivation behind them. The common motivations for such crimes include race, sexual orientation, hatred, gender and even religion. In addition to the motivations, they also adopt certain forms, the most common ones being harassment (sexual or otherwise), abuse or insults, bullying and even use of images such as through graffiti. The recent surges in crimes that exhibit all the hallmarks of hate crime warrants a review of the key motivators of hate crimes to determine whether claims that hate crime has increased are true or false. This paper looks at the key motivators of hate crimes in the USA, as well as other parts of the world, and seeks to establish the causal relationships, if any, between them and the perpetration of hate crimes.
Racism is the oldest known motivator of hate crime. While the crimes committed as a result of racism have not always been known as hate crimes, racism remains the single most motivator of such crimes. The existence of racial prejudices in every race has been a key contributor to the perpetration of hate crimes (Jacobs and Henry, 366). Being an amalgamation of diverse cultures, the USA is home to Asians, Europeans, African Americans, Africans and even Latinos. This co-existence has often led to the development of friction, based on racial undertones, between these races. The racial stereotypes of certain races have also been a stumbling block to the eradication of hate crimes. This is because the stereotypes that the individuals hold are the root sources of hate crimes.
Another subject that has been critically linked to racism is the killing of ‘innocent’ teenagers and individuals of either race (black and white) by police officers. These individuals are ‘innocent’ because until a fair trial is conducted, they are presumed so. The killings of Michael Brown, Gilbert Collar, Tamir Rice, Rodney King and Reginald Denny have all been high-profile cases. While the Police maintain that they are objective in their duties, civil society sees things in a different light. While these cases may not necessarily be termed as hate crimes, the existence of racial undertones cannot be ignored. In addition to this, such actions increase the possibility of retaliatory attacks, which add to the existing tally of hate crimes. It is also a saddening statistic that a hate crime is committed in the United States every one hour. This only goes on to paint a clear picture of the spate of hate crimes in the country.
The Constitution of the USA is very keen on freedom, and especially so the freedom of the individual. The existence of personal freedom as right has contributed in its own way to the perpetration of hate crimes on the basis of sexual orientation (Craig, 90). In the liberated world of today, many Americans have made their peace with the existence of a thriving LGBTQ.
(Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning) community. However, this has not gone down well with the vast majority of conservatives. This fate, unfortunately, is not special to the American society, since it is also prevalent in European nations such as Russia. Just like the USA, the LGBTQ community thrives in large cities, and suffers immense hate crimes in the provinces. In some cases, the situation has gone so far as to involve the beating and lynching of members of this community.
This has, naturally, come under heavy criticism with civil rights activists touting the existence of the freedom of association. The fact that gay marriage has been legalized in the USA has bolstered the efforts to reduce hate crimes against the LGBTQ community. In addition to this, the passing into law of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crime Prevention Act of 2009 has provided clout for the protection of the LGBTQ community. Unfortunately, these efforts are still facing heavy resistance. Many openly gay individuals have been insulted, mocked in public and even harassed. While the law provides the capacity to prosecute such crimes, many such victims choose to remain silent on the matter. If anything, the number of hate crimes committed based on sexual orientation has not realized any significant drop. This only goes on to paint the true picture of the society on the matter of sexual orientation.
Religion is a fundamental aspect of any society. This is because it is the counterweight that balances all the negative aspects of society. In addition to this, it continues to serve as a source of inspiration and hope for many faithful in society. It is rather saddening, however, to see religion used as a platform for committing hate crimes. The matter of religion and hate crimes is two-pronged. First, individuals are discriminated based on their faith, that is, whether one is a Muslim, a Christian, a Jew or an Atheist (Craig, 92). The seemingly never-ending conflict between Christianity and Islam has been used as a scapegoat for conducting hate crimes as well as terror activities.
In predominantly Muslim or Christian societies, the minor religion has been on the receiving end of hate crimes particularly in the form of insults, and in some severe cases in the form of harassment and war (Perry et al., 176). The devastating September 11 attack on the twin towers in the USA on the basis of religion was the breaking point of the relationship that Christians and Muslims enjoyed. Needless to say, this attack increased the likelihood of religious hate crimes against Muslims occurring. Between the years of 2008 and 2012, hate crimes against Muslims witnessed a high rate of 13.9 crimes per 100000 people (FBI). This translates to a total of 761 crimes committed (FBI). This has dealt a great blow to the peace and co-existence efforts touted by the American nation. Jews have also not been left out of this situation. They have constantly been looked down upon so much so that between the years 2008 and 2012, a total of 4457 hate crimes had been committed against Jews in the USA alone (FBI,). This is clear evidence of the suffering that Jews undergo.
Secondly, religion has constantly played a critical role in the matter of sexual orientation. This is because all religions, save for Atheism and its likes, have a prescribed sexual orientation. Because of this, the LGBTQ community continues to face increased cases of hate crimes from different religions (Herek., et al 200). This has only served as a driving wedge between the LGBTQ community and the rest of the American as well as global society, as well as increased the occurrence of hate crimes.
Gender and Hatred
The battle of the sexes, as it is commonly referred to as, has been a big influence of hate crimes. This is essentially because in the spirited efforts to prove which sex is superior, hate crimes are inevitably committed. The most common forms of gender-based hate crime are abuse, insults and harassment. Unfortunately, the feminine sex has largely been on the receiving end of these attacks (Gerstenfeld, 220). Many women continue to be abused, and harassed, especially at the workplace. This has resulted in the increase of hate crimes not only in the USA, but also across the globe.
Many employers today are facing sexual harassment suits in court, serving as evidence to the fact that gender-based hate crimes are on the rise. Workplace bullying has also been heavily associated with gender. The individual that is perceived as weak, regardless of sex, is often bullied by the superiors and peers, as well. This, just like other forms of hate crime is also on the rise today, especially with the growth of the corporate and private sectors across the globe. Hatred has also been a constant source of hate crimes. The existence of hatred between certain religions, communities or races serves as a constant source of hate crimes. This is because each community or group seeks to obliterate or eliminate the other, hence the existence of perennial hate crimes. This greatly works against the said groups, since they propagate hatred whose origins they have no idea, and in the process end up committing more hate crimes. This is also a leading cause of the increased prevalence and occurrence of hate crimes.
Hate crimes are a sad but real reminder of the society as it is. In the battle for survival, every group seeks to ensure its own survival, without necessarily considering the survival of the other group. This has been a constant source of the conflicts, stereotypes and perceptions that continue to propagate hate crimes. The inability to appreciate and accept each other as complete and unique individuals or groups plays a central role in the occurrence of hate crimes. Realistically and logically speaking, hate crimes are very much on the increase. From terror motivated attacks in countries like Pakistan, Kenya and even the 9/11 attack to sexual orientation discrimination in Russia and the United States of America, no society is immune to hate crimes.
This, however, is not what is worrying, but rather the recent increases in hate crimes that have been witnessed. These increases paint a gloomy picture of the future, seeing that they can only highlight a racially, religiously and sexually divided society. The absence of harmony in these key facets of society can easily result in chaos and tumult. It is necessary that as a society, steps are taken to ensure that this recent increase in hate crimes is curbed. Being a global village, it is only logical that someone else’s problem today will be mine tomorrow. It is based on this that there is growing need, more than ever, for hate crimes to be addressed. In addition to addressing their increase, proper steps need to be taken to address the underlying issues that result in the perpetration of these crimes (Craig, 97). This is because the best way to cure the cancer of hate crimes is to start the treatment from the root cause of the problem. This is the best way to deal with the increase in hate crime.
Craig, Kellina M. "Examining hate-motivated aggression: A review of the social psychological literature on hate crimes as a distinct form of aggression." Aggression and Violent Behavior 7.1 (2002): 85-101.
FBI,. 2014. 'Hate Crimes'. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/civilrights/hate_crimes.
Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B. Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2013. Print.
Herek, Gregory M., et al. "Hate Crime Victimization Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults Prevalence, Psychological Correlates, and Methodological Issues." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 12.2 (1997): 195-215.
Jacobs, James B., and Jessica S. Henry. "Social Construction of a Hate Crime Epidemic, The." J. Crim. L. & Criminology 86 (1995): 366.
Perry, Barbara, Brian Levin, Paul Iganski, Randy Blazak, and Frederick M. Lawrence. Hate Crimes. Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers, 2009. Print.
While the invention of computers and the computing technology was viewed as a great platform for business and exchange of social norms, it was accompanied by malicious activity. The emergence of cyber crimes posed a threat to internet users as well as government databases. As a result, the law against computer and online crimes was constituted to control the crimes. Over the years the law has been used to combat cyber crimes and ensuring that internet users are safe. Nonetheless, the challenge of cyber crime is still persistent owing to the continued advancement in technology.
Following the invention of computing technology and the internet, there has arisen another form of crimes that are being executed over the internet or computer networks. The internet serves as a major catalyst to cyber crimes (Marjie, 2013). It does this by providing anonymity and possible access to personal or government data. While some of the people involved in computer crimes intend to gain financially, a good number of the convicts do it for status or bragging rights. In addition to compromising privacy offenders, execute serious crimes such as cyber terrorism, identity theft and sex crimes. The law against computer crimes was set up to protect genuine internet users and ensure gainful use of the internet (Al Rees, 2006).
Chapter 15 and 18 of the United States law comprehensively cover computer and online crimes. The law addresses issues such as unfair or deceptive acts, credit card fraud, injunctions against fraud and money laundering (Marjie, 2013). While the federal law, against fraud was constituted in the year 1986, several amendments have been made to increase the scope of the law and keep it up to date with new criminal activities executed online (Marjie, 2013). The law requires proof that a person accessed another person’s data or computer without authorization followed by malicious use of the data obtained (Marjie, 2013). Other crimes include cases of harassment over the internet with the intent of causing emotional trauma.
Through the amendments, the government has managed to cover a good percentage of cyber crimes. However, the government alone cannot combat computer fraud. Computer crimes can only be eliminated if users can identify potential threats (Cornell University, 2004). This way users will not fall victim of the offenders’ tricks. Informed users in conjunction with the law will eliminate cyber crimes.
The act of computer fraud and internet crimes is highly vital in enhancing law enforcement. Part of law enforcement concerns the protection of personal information from malicious people such as terrorists (Al Rees, 2006). Strong laws against cyber and computer crimes impact positively on the general law enforcement.
Al Rees, (2006). Cyber crime laws of the United States.
Cornell University. (2004). 18 US code and 1030- fraud and related activity in connection with computers.
Marjie, T. B. (2013).Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime: An Introduction, Third Edition. Pearson Custom Publishing, Upper Saddle River, NJ
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