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When on thinks about buying a new car, various issues have to be considered. One has to ensure that he has the right care that will offer him/her the required functionality (Heitmann, 1-54). There is also a need for the assessment of the repercussions of the action on the entire economy and viability of the companies that produce the vehicles. In the United States, the temptations to buy the international brands made in Germany, Japan, and other countries are high. However, to make the decision translates into the contribution of the individual to the eventual collapse of the American companies such as General Motors and Ford (Beadle, 49).
Collapse of such companies eventually affects the person since the jobs will be lost, and the economy will be affected since the increased unemployment rate will demand that there is more investment in the social care system. These investments will require the investment of the government and hence increment of the tax burden. Therefore, the actions of the individual consumers will be contributory to the entire economic outcome. Therefore, the decision to buy the locally produced vehicles or imported ones will affect the economic status of the country. It is no longer an issue of the investment in a property. It proceeds to be a more important issue covering a vital sphere of the normal human existence, which is patriotism (Heitmann, 1-54).
One may wish to buy a local car since he/she is patriotic and wishes to contribute to the entire economic performance of his/ her country. However, the car specific issues come into focus and the decision to buy a locally produced car may not be shrewd since the performance obtained from the local car is low and costs of sustaining it is too high (Ingrassia, 1-103). Therefore, the cost-benefit analysis indicates that the car made in the United States is not working as expected, and the performance measures are too weak (Beadle, 46). Therefore, the only issue linking one to the locally produced car is the country of origin and the dedication towards the purchase of a locally produced car out of fear that choosing the alternative course of action will be detrimental to the economy (Heitmann, 1-54).
Information on the foreign or domestic nature of the vehicles does not align itself according to the name of the vehicles or even the location. In 2005, of the 63 million cars produced, the United States of America accounted for the production of the largest percentage with 11 million followed by Japan with ten million Germany and China with 5.5 million. However, some of the cars produced in the United States are designed and designated the foreign labeling.
The other cars used for the domestic market were built in Mexico or Canada (Heitmann, 1-54). The federal requirements of the domestic vehicles are that they are made of 75% of the local materials. The vehicles made in the neighboring countries are domestic since the components are made in the United States (Ingrassia, 1-103). Therefore, the tag indicating the country that a car is made in does not determine whether it is a foreign car or otherwise (Beadle, 23). The decision to produce the domestic cars in the neighboring countries is by large the costs of producing a vehicle in the countries are lower compared to the cost of producing the vehicles in the local factories.
The foreign companies produce their vehicles in the United States using the American labor and plants and research work. Therefore, the value of producing the vehicle comes from the local population. It means that the production of the vehicles in the American factories does not make them domestic enough since the components may be imported (Ingrassia, 1-103).
The picture is even murkier with the closer look into the foreign companies. The majority of the motor corporations in the United States have an investment in the rest of the producers in the other countries. General Motors and other large motor manufacturers have controlling stakes in the Japanese automobile production companies (Beadle, 1-52). Therefore, to some extent the production of the vehicles can be considered domestic since the capital used to drive the companies is American.
The cross-border ownership removes the foreign and local classification. Use of parts made in the United States leads to the reduction of the assertion of foreign and domestic depending on the location of the production facilities. The automotive nepotism is all about the names of the vehicles (Ingrassia, 1-103). It entails making decisions on the motor origin according to the names of the vehicles. It means that the assertion of the vehicles that are needed by the population are the ones that have the American origins. This approach stands regardless of the location of the production facilities (Heitmann, 1-54). For the sake of the article, a foreign vehicle is the one with a foreign nameplate while a domestic car has a local on the nameplate. The processes of production and location of the production facilities are not the primary determinants of the classification (Türkcan and Ates, 154-172).
The decision to buy any vehicle does not always assume the economic rationale since it is possible that an American company benefits from the sale of a Japanese vehicle (Heitmann, 1-54). Therefore, the decision to buy a vehicle rests on the actual utility that it will accord the user. American cars that will be guzzling fuel are not advisable to buy since the decision to purchase ought to incorporate the costs of running the vehicle (Beadle, 52). Another consideration made in the acquisition of the vehicles is the cost and the stability of performance (Hiraoka, 496). This means that the criteria to buy the vehicle does not depend on the manufacturer but rather on the cost of maintaining it and comparative utility derived from it (Ingrassia, 1-103).
Cost of the car will depend on the quality of service derived from increased use of the vehicle. Use of the vehicle ought to be free from encumbrances. It also has to entail the least possible cost of running and maintenance. It means that the decision assumes by extensive the interactions between the user and the vehicle (Ingrassia, 1-103). Hence, the name tag does not determine the decision to purchase the car (Beadle, 46). Cost is a major factor. In most cases, the cars that have a high reputation in the market often fetch a premium price despite the set manufacturers’ price being reduced (Chung, Mitchell and Yeung, 199-218).
Purchasing of the foreign automobile models affects the eventual economy. However, most of the major brands from the foreign companies have adopted and approach of setting their production facilities in the United States. These production facilities make the products that come out of the assembly line more American (Heitmann, 1-54). Therefore, the ideal criteria for the selection of the vehicles ought to be the utility derived from the vehicles (Chunyan, Shuli and Dan, 346-350). If a vehicle promises more service for fewer costs, it ought to be purchased regardless of the place of production. Secondly, if the car has a lower acquisition and maintenance costs, it can be obtained irrespective of the location of production (Beadle, 142). The availability of the auxiliary services should lead to the purchase of the vehicles produced locally.
Beadle, Tony. The American Automobile. New York: Smithmark, 1996. Print.
Chung, Wilbur, W Mitchell, and B Yeung. 'Foreign Direct Investment And Host Country Productivity: The American Automotive Component Industry In The 1980S'. J Int Bus Stud 34.2 (2003): 199-218. Web.
Chunyan, Zhao, Wang Shuli, and Ling Dan. 'On The Comparative Advantage Of China's Auto Engineering Industry'. Systems Engineering Procedia 3 (2012): 346-350. Web.
Heitmann, John Alfred. The Automobile And American Life. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2009. Print.
Hiraoka, Leslie S. 'Foreign Development Of China's Motor Vehicle Industry'. International Journal of Technology Management 21.5/6 (2001): 496. Web.
Ingrassia, Paul. Crash Course. New York: Random House, 2010. Print.
Türkcan, Kemal, and Aysegul Ates. 'Vertical Intra-Industry Trade And Fragmentation: An Empirical Examination Of The US Auto-Parts Industry'. The World Economy 34.1 (2011): 154-172. Web.
Argumentative problem: Are alternative energy cars a viable idea today
Develop and argumentative essay for or against the above named problem. However, do not include counter arguments or solutions. Each topic represents an argument followed by supporting evidence to back it up.
3. Background information
4. Use of alternative energy cars to reduce oil dependence cost
5. Grid parity issues for alternative energy
6. The merits of an electric car over normal diesel and petrol cars
7. Reduction of green house gas emissions into the environment
8. Dealing with the oil problem in non-oil producing countries
9. The future of alternative cars
Set up and state the claim or position of the writer towards the topic
Introduce the main ideas
Highlight any relevant concepts that may be of use in the development of the paper
State the thesis statement
Lay the foundation for the argument
Define the key terms
Explain the major theories in for the argument
State the argument to support the position taken
State the supportive evidence
Explain the evidence
Relate the argument to position taken
Provide a recap for the arguments raised in the essay
Relate the arguments to the position taken towards the topic
Provide a strong closing statement
Apparently, the highest percentage of vehicles use and have been using diesel and petrol for fuel. However, this source of energy comes along with several drawbacks such as environmental pollution; without neglecting the critical issue of cost. Just like any other innovation, the idea of using alternative energy cars is subject to opposition while still a considerable percentage acknowledges the view. Cost efficiency and convenience are among the major concerns raised by researchers opposing the idea of alternative energy cars. The topic on alternative energy cars has been at the top of the list on a number of environmental forums and conferences targeting the sustainability of energy through the globe. The invention of alternative energy cars is ultimately a new down for the whole world for a number of reasons. This has led to the thesis: the government should give incentives towards the production of alternative energy cars to promote economic growth in the US.
Under the broad topic of management of energy crises and sustainable development, there are several issues that have hit the headlines. Among the major issues is how to supplement oil and petroleum products, which are the major sources of energy. Recently, the level of inflation rose owing to the shortage of oil and petroleum products. From a critical point of view, there are enough sources of energy. If this is true, why is there a shortage in the production of energy? There are two possible responses for this question. Either the energy sources are under-exploited or the number of consumers is beyond what the sources can suffice.
There is high pressure on global leaders to seek alternative sources of energy as a result of the rising cost of energy. Alterative energy cars use clean energy generated from wind solar as well as nuclear power. The idea behind alternative energy cars is to develop efficient cars by not using a large amount of material, recycling old car parts and ensuring the use of every molecule of fuel without any wastage. These guarantees reduced emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Essentially, the reason as to why the world is still suffering from pollution and shortages in the supply of energy is because the government and prominent stake holders in the field of business have closed their eyes against this great opportunity that would result in high growth.
Use of alternative energy cars to reduce oil dependence cost
The introduction of cars that use alternative energy is a major strategy towards reducing the overreliance on oil and petroleum products. This will intern reduce the cost that non-oil producing states incur every year in importing petroleum products. For instance, Middle East harbors approximately 72 percent of all the oil reserves in the world. Oil production is within the control of a few states which form the OPEC. This monopolistic production of oil means that most people rely on a common source for their supply of oil products. On the contrary, alternative sources of energy such as solar and wind are available in every state. Every state shares an equal chance of exploiting this power as long as the necessary equipment is available.
There are arguments that adopting alternative sources of energy does not eliminate the problem of cost since production of such energy requires heavy investment. However, the daily cost of producing a product can never be compared to an investment that will yield greater benefits in the future. While the claims are true, using alternative addresses the future cost of acquiring energy (Black and Veatch, 2012). Once a country establishes its stations for alternative power generation, it controls the production so as to suffice its needs.
Importing energy is subject to constraints such as artificial scarcity and irregular price changes. Such factors are beyond the control of consumer countries, which render them helpless and they always fall victim of increase in the cost of fuel. Again, the investment on alternative energy might be high but only occurs once. Using alternative energy cars allows countries to control their energy production so that it matches their consumption needs. Providing incentives for the exploitation of alternative energy is a sure way of freeing the United States from over dependence on oil for energy and in turn allow room for economic growth.
Grid parity issues for alternative energy
A reliable source of energy must meet the grid parity requirement. use of alternative sources of energy is a new invention in the commercial world; there are doubts on whether the energy can meet the grid parity requirements efficiently. The issue of grid parity has been at the top of the list in various energy forums. Estimates from the international energy renewable energy agency show that onshore wind is at parity with fossil fuels electricity. There are also prospects that, by 2020, solar power might be at grid parity in some regions of the globe (Schalk, 2013). It is true that some alternative energy sources like solar and wind may not meet the grid parity in some regions. This is due to some geographical factors such as terrain and climate experienced in the area.
In modern society, people need that the energy must be available in highly refined form and must be available on demand (Wiser and Bolinger, 2012). Wind and solar power can be refined into electricity hence meeting the first condition. However, the two sources of energy are not consistent in every part of the world. States are required to identify strategic locations that experience strong winds and sunshine. In addition, maximizing power production during the seasons when these resources are at their pick is mandatory. The above argument does not rule out alternative sources of energy. The use of such energy sources calls for optimization during the period when the sources are available. If the government provides incentives for the generation of alternative energy, solar and wind power could meet the grid parity with other sources of power.
It is advantageous to use an electric car than a standard diesel and petrol cars
The use of electric cars is gaining preference in some countries owing to varying factors such as environmental and financial benefits. To begin with electricity is a clean source of energy which does not emit waste gases or residues. For instance, when electricity is used in the kitchen there are no emissions and formation of soot on walls. Similarly the use of electricity will reduce the gaseous emissions from vehicles. Clean energy is not only beneficial to the environment, but is also of benefit to the engine and car parts. A few years ago, the production of alternative energy cars was a sole concern for world changers. However, the need to use alternative energy cars is gradually extending beyond environmentalists and those who have a great desire to change the world. As a result, the market for alternative energy cars is larger than it was a few years ago. Using alternative energy sources is a sure way of reducing emission of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere.
The electric car consists of fewer moving parts and there is no combustion in its system. Therefore, the car experiences less wear and tear. Such a car is highly durable and does not require regular servicing and maintenance. Unlike a regular diesel car, this experiences wear and tear as a result of movement of its parts. Most motorists and car owners are familiar with situations where their vehicles run out of fuel in the middle of a forest and they are forced to seek alternative means of refueling. With electric cars, the situation is different. The fact that this car does not need refilling makes it highly reliable even when the user intends to travel over long distances. Although the cost of purchasing an electric car today may be higher than that of a regular car, the price is likely to go down soon. Just like any other product the price at initiation is always high but decreases as the product gain momentum in the market. The soundless environment of an electric car provides the most comfortable driving experience especially for people travelling over long distances. In additional the highly efficient car is proximal towards economic growth in the US.
Energy security is another important feature that is worth noting when looking at an electric car. Even though people have been relying on petroleum products as a major source of energy, it is important to realize that this source may eventually get exhausted. Basing the argument on the rate at which people are exploiting the natural oil reserves, it is clear that they will not last a lifetime. Since the electricity can be generated from different renewable sources such as solar wind and water, it is almost impossible for the world to run out of electricity. In the case where natural oil reserves get depleted, car owners will be subject to extremely high prices and frequent shortages. From the above discussion, it is clear that electric cars have several advantages over regular diesel and petrol cars. Regardless of the things a user gives priority; electric cars are leading in terms of financial savings and convenience. Using an alternative energy car also makes the car owner a hero since he/she takes part in the conservation of the environment, which is a critical issue for economic growth.
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere
The core objective of producing alternative energy cars is to try and curb environmental pollution, which is caused by emissions from vehicles. There are different types of alternative energy cars inclusive of biodiesel cars, ethanol cars, hybrid cars, and hydrogen cars. The names emanate from the fuel that the car uses. Biodiesel is a mixture of diesel and vegetable oils that have fewer carbon emissions than regular diesel. In addition, the fuel is highly efficient which gives motorist an advantage since their vehicles consume lesser fuel than when they operate on regular diesel.
The other category is that of ethanol-fueled vehicles, which run on a mixture of gasoline and a grain propellant. The E85 is a popular brand that uses ethanol and it is highly environment friendly. The brand uses 85 percent of ethanol and 15 percent of gasoline ensuring minimum emissions into the environment (US department of energy). Hybrid cars use a combination of gasoline and electric power. This car has a gas tank and an electric battery which are equally functional. This feature makes ethanol cars have high engine efficient which enables car owners to save a lot on fuel expenditure.
The last category is the hydrogen cars which are believed to have vast capabilities. Since the water is a renewable resource, there is an assurance of continuous availability of hydrogen. The main benefit here is that cases of fuel shortages are solemn. From basic chemistry, a reaction between oxygen and hydrogen yields water in gaseous form. This is unbeatable evidence that hydrogen cars are friendly to the environment. Using hydrogen cars would be an absolute solution to the problem of pollution, which dominates almost every part of the globe. From the above, it is clear that most alternative energy cars are highly friendly to the environment if not completely free of harmful emissions. Therefore, using such cars would be an absolute remedy for pollution emanating from vehicles which constitute of 50-90 percentages of air pollutants (Meghan, 2010).
Dealing with the oil problem in non-oil producing countries
The oil problem is highly pronounced in non-oil producing countries which rely on OPEC members for the supply of power. Nonetheless, there are conflicts and misunderstandings that exist among OPEC member, which are inherited by those that depend on them for oil supply. Problems concerning oil reserves mostly result in inflation as prices of oil increase. Since oil and petroleum products are a major source of power, a hitch in its production affects the whole world from the sovereign states to the third world countries. Adopting the production and use of alternative energy frees non-oil producing countries from the skirmishes and conflicts that exist among OPEC members.
Most petroleum and old products are either used in vehicles or industries. The use of petroleum products in vehicles renders almost every state victim to the oil problem. Adopting alternative energy vehicles could free these states from this menace. The reason most motorists fall victim of rising oil prices is because there are no other options or alternatives to turn to. Alternative sources of energy resolve the monopolistic use of oil and take care of cost and shortages.
The use of oil brings about pollution during its use and sometimes during storage or transportation. There have been a few instances where aquatic animals died as a result of oil spillages into the water. The introduction of alternative sources of energy aims to eliminate the problem of pollution by ensuring that people use clean energy. This does not mean that oil and petroleum products will be no longer in use. The idea is to convert oil into a clean source of energy by ensuring complete combustion or replacing it with better alternatives when necessary. From the above argument, it is correct to infer that alternative energy cars are a channel to resolving the oil problem which has been dominant in almost every state. With effective implementation of alternative energy production, non-oil producing states are assured of better and independent economic growth and development without relying on OPEC members. The states will also benefit from the creation of new job opportunities and better industrialization which in turn results in economic growth.
The future of alternative cars
It would be insufficient to conclude the argument without addressing what people should expect for the future of alternative energy cars. The practical production of these cars requires more sophisticated technology than the traditional cars which are purely mechanical (Blanco, 2009). Alternative energy vehicles use highly efficient energy sources. Therefore, there is a need to ensure that the vehicles can make use of the energy efficiently and safely. It is also important to appreciate the fact that some fuels such as hydrogen are known to be explosive in nature. There is a need to ensure that manufacturers put up sufficient measures to cater for emergencies and conduct enough research of what might transpire of these cars. Even so, alternative energy cars have high potential of dominating the market particularly due to the raising concerns on environmental sustainable development. The demand for alternative energy vehicles is likely to increase by a large percentage.
In conclusion, alternative energy cars are a channel to a clean environment and efficient transport. The introduction of these cars has several benefits to individual states and the entire globe. Some of the benefits include eliminating the oil problem in non-oil producing state and reduce oil dependence cost. Some of the issues surrounding alternative energy cars include grid parity issues for alternative energy, merits of an electric car over standard diesel and petrol cars reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the environment and prospects concerning the future of alternative cars. From the above argument, it is evident that the alternative energy cars are of great benefit to the entire world. By providing incentives for the production and exploitation of alternative energy the United state government will open channels for economic growth.
Black and Veatch. Cost and Performance Data for Power Generation Technologies, Black and Veatch Corporation: Kansas. (2012).
Blanco, M.I.“The economics of wind energy”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Elsevier, Vol. 13. (2009).
Kersten, F.et al. PV Learning Curves: Past and Future Drivers of CostReduction,
Proceedings of the 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 5– 9 September: Hamburg.(2011).
Wiser, R. and Bolinger. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report, US DOE.Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Washington, D.C. (2012).
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