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Albert Bandura is an American, who coined the social learning theory. This is a theory that suggests and explains how people can learn from observing others. For instance, one is capable of learning by imitating someone else. According to the theory, people can also learn from modelling and imitating others. The modelling process as per the theory involves; attention, retention/ memory, reproduction and motivation (Lefrançois, 2012). In originating this theory, Bandura put together two philosophies namely cognitive philosophies and the behavioural theory. This article focuses on the theory and its similarities as well as its differences with the other theories. It will also discuss the reasons as to why motivation is important to people as well as how people can be motivated to do a range of things including those that they do not like.
Comparison and contrast the Bandura’s Theory
Just like most of the other theories, Bandura’s Theory is a motivational theory especially when it comes to learning. It explains the ways in which people can learn. Through the theory, it is possible to understand the behaviour of a human being (Lefrançois, 2012). It is also possible to anticipate as well as change the behaviour. This is important for the purpose of motivation. One needs to understand the behaviour of people in order to be in a position to influence them so that they can act in a certain way.
This is made even easier by the fact that the theory helps in predicting the human behaviour. For instance, therefore, a manager can anticipate how an employee is likely to behave if given a certain offer. Other theories such as the expectation theory focus on understanding the expectations of an employee by the employer. The employer should offer what the employee expects and this will act as a motivation. It is about understanding and predicting the behaviour of the employer. The same case applies to the Maslow’s theory where one needs to understand the things that motivate the employee and those that no longer motivate them.
On the contrary, the behavioural theory suggests that learning comes by as the aftermath of associations created through reinforcement, punishment as well as conditioning. On the other hand, the cognitive learning theory postulates that learning is a mental process. The theory explains that the mind is influenced by some external as well as internal factors that then cause learning in a human being (Nooteboom, 2009). The two theories are different from the Bandura’s social learning theory which depicts that learning can be done by observing and imitating.
Reasons why people need to be motivated
In today’s world, it has become increasingly significant than ever to keep employees, and all the people in an organization motivated. The reason to this is the fact that people become more productive when they are motivated. They can produce more, be more creative as well as innovative. The ramification of this is that the organization will become more productive as a whole and will be better placed to keep up with the competition (Jones, 2013).
Therefore, the other reason as to why people need to be motivated is to increase the competitive advantage of an organization. The business world today is dominated by the high level of competition. Organizations are competing for customers so that they can make high sales and profits respectively. One way to maintain competition is to ensure that employees are well motivated as they are the most important resources in any organization.
Motivating people is also important in that it makes a better society. As a general observation, when people are highly motivated, they are usually happy and hence they contribute to a good society. They can co-exist well and together can be productive.
Can people be motivated to do what they do not like?
Each person has a preference of the things they would like to do and those they do not like to do. It may not be easy to motivate people to do the things they do not like to do since doing so is demotivating in itself. When someone is forced to do something that they do not like, they may feel demotivated. On the other hand, people may do something that they do not like in order to achieve something else. For instance, one could be employed in a job they do not like and they are looking for money to meet some other needs. In such a case, they may be motivated to do the job so that they can get the money. Therefore, the question of whether one can be motivated to do what they do not like may be two-way depending on the underlying circumstances. In other words, people can be motivated to do what they do not like depending on what they need to achieve and the surrounding factors which affect their motivation.
What types of things have motivated you in your past positions?
In my past positions, I have been motivated by a number of things which have helped me achieve my fate. One of the things that have motivated me is the urge to work at a managerial position. Working as a subordinate, I always wanted to climb the ladder and attain a management position. This pushed me to work hard so that I can get the promotions. The other factor that motivated me is the need to feel safe. Working at a higher position gives relatively more job security as compared to working at the lower position/casual positions. Finally, money has also been a motive. I have always wanted to earn more as this would increase my quality of life and also help me achieve a number of things in my life.
Motivation is important not only in a business organization but also in the society and in other organization as it makes people achieve more. In business, it is important to motivate people so that the organization can be more productive. Understanding the behaviour of individuals’ aids in determining ways in which they can be motivated. The social learning theory by Bandura can help understand the human behaviour.
Jones, D. (2013). Three leadership secrets revealed: 3 success methods to motivate people to action. Issaquah, Wash: Made for Success.
Lefrançois, G. R. (2012). Theories of human learning: What the professor said. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Nooteboom, B. (2009). A cognitive theory of the firm: Learning, governance and dynamic capabilities. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Winning is different from the perspective that one person holds. In some cases, a person could be seen as a winner even if he did not come at the top. However, in most of the cases, winning is the process by which a person or an argument comes at the top due to its popularity amongst a certain community (Moore and Parker, 1-26). Therefore, winning is the process of being the best that there is among a certain group of people or concepts.
A winner has to work hard if it is a person and be valid if it is an argument. Winning arguments appeal to the sense of logic, ethic and emotion. The winning person in a competition has to prove that he or she is better than the rest of the competitors. Being the best in a competition requires the display of hard work and proper development of ideals. Winning is an integral part of human existence. It defines the survival in the communal setting. This paper will focus on the arguments on creation vs evolution vs human integrity and come up with the correct perspective on the winning argument. The paper will argue on the issues with the positive and negative arguments being weighed to determine the overall winning position (Moore and Parker, 58).
All communities in the world have different opinions on the organ of the human beings and other creations. According to the popular myths, there is an involvement of a deity that made them and gave them power to control the different creations. The Supreme Being is the controller of the universe and he has to give a go ahead in all aspects for them to happen. The most popular theory on creation is the biblical account.
According to this account, God created a mane (Adam) and placed him in the Garden of Eden. The myth assumes that the creation of man was according to the image of God. The woman was made from the man. The deity was only involved in the creation of man and woman. The other things on earth were commanded to be (Rieppel, 147).
The commanding gives the deity a supernatural power that places him above all the other creation. He is more of a magician with a magical wand that does his tricks. If god was the creator of the earth and other thins on it, why does he hide from the people in a special place? Why does he become so focused on the development of the human race for fellowship then end up hiding from them?
The creation theory on human existence does not given any conclusive evidence. It is based on the premise of the power of a deity who is so secluded that he seems surreal. The Christina account of the creation is based on a culture and setting of the Jews. It does not explain the origin of the rest of the people that did not know of the account before the spread of Christianity (Rieppel, 14-83). The other communities in the world had their theories of origin that have some similarity with the Christina account. How did the Christian account on creation become the absolute truth? The loopholes in the accounts on creation and the unexplained origin of the deity make them doubtful.
Human integrity theory is an improvement on the theory of evolution and natural selection. The theory argues that there was a directed and intelligent process that predisposed the evolution of some of the things. It argues that the intelligent and ordered way of life was under the control of some intelligent person and not a chaotic process. This theory bridges the gap between the theories of creation and evolution (Wilkins et al., 45). The theory agrees with the tenets of evolution theory. However, it does not agree with the chaotic nature of the selection process. It proposes that the human integrity was used to direct the process of evolution. The main issue with the theory is that it does not have the sense of originality. It is a fusion between the two theories. Therefore, it lacks the originality and exclusiveness.
Evolution account is more based on evidence that can be presented and evaluated for its merit. According to the evolution theory, the origin of the human beings and other forms of life came from the big bang. According to the big bang theory, the activity led to the combination of matter that existed before that later led to the development of the most basic form of life. The advancement of the life led to the evolution into complex forms and the same life that we have come to know. The theory espouses the role of natural selection (Rieppel, 145-217).
Natural selection is the process of the nature eliminating the weakest animals or creations. The process of natural selection is an evident phenomenon in the jungle. The theory also espouses the development of adaptations that help the animals and other forms of life survive. The forms of life are so adapted to the environment that one may miss the process and the necessity of the adaptations (Rieppel, 73). The adaptations can be seen in the environment. For instance, human beings living within the tropics have adapted to the environment in order to increase their chances of survival. The people living outside the tropics are adapted to the environment such that their skin color pigmentation is not similar to the one in the people living within the tropics.
Therefore, the theory of evolution has factual evidence that help in the development of the convincing argument on the accuracy and reality in the theory. Compared to the rest of the theories, its arguments are based on the evidence that can be seen by the audience. Evidence based argument is better and more convincing compared to the argument presented before.
Moore, Brooke Noel, and Richard Parker. Critical Thinking. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2007. Print.
Rieppel, Olivier. Evolutionary Theory And The Creation Controversy. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. Print.
Wilkins, S. W. et al. 'On The Evolution And Relative Merits Of Hard X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging Methods'. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 372.2010 (2014): 20130021-20130021. Web.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an American behaviorist, inventor, psychologist and social philosopher. Skinner was born on March 20, 1904 and passed away on August 18, 1990. According to Skinner, there was nothing like human free will; this was just another illusion. Skinner believed that every human action is connected to the other, with the latter being the result of the consequences of the former action. Therefore, if the human being experiences bad consequences as a result of his or her former actions, then the individual might not repeat the former action (Neurug, 2013, 146). However, if the individual experiences good consequences, without a doubt the individual will repeat the former action without hesitation. In his study of human behavior, Skinner came up with the Skinner’s learning theory. Many of the ideas in the theory are based on the reference to Thorndike’s law of effect. In this essay, the main discussion is on the fundamental principles of Skinner’s learning theory and its significance.
Skinner’s learning theory has been of great significance especially in the education systems that embrace his teachings. Skinner and his fellow learning theorists hold on to the fact that every human being is born a blank state. Therefore, one gains their personality from the type of conditions one encounters in their life. Skinner and his fellow learning theorists’ arguments were different with that of Sigmund Freud, who believed in the notion of instinct (Neurug, 2013, 146). According to Freud, in the life of a human being, there are two instinctive governing forces: reproduction and self-preservation. Freud derived his instinctive theory from a German poet Friedrich von Schiller’s expression that love and hunger are the forces that move the world. Skinner also believed that the most influent causes of behavior are based on the environment in which an individual lives. Learning theorists also hold on to the fact that an individual adopts a behavior through classical conditioning, social learning, operant conditioning or modeling.
Learning theorists agree that an individual’s genetic build up and biology can have some effect on the behaviors of the individual. The emphasis of the theorists is the impact of positive or negative reinforcement, modeling and joining of the unconditioned stimulus with conditioned stimulus. Operant conditioning is the most common type of conditioning and takes place when a behavior is repeated and, therefore, increasing the chance of occurring again (Neurug, 2013, 147). Skinner and his fellow theorists looked deeply into operant conditioning and came up with its principles. The principles of operant conditioning include positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Positive reinforcement increases the chance of one repeating the same action while negative reinforcement involves a stimulus when removed after a response increases the chance of one repeating the same action. Punishment, on the other hand, involves the application of a stimulus to decrease a certain behavior (Neurug, 2013, 147). Punishment is an undesirable method of changing the behavior of an individual since it may bring about undesirable effects.
Another principle of operant conditioning is schedules of reinforcement, which includes using ways in which a stimulus can be planned to reinforce behavior. The scheduled reinforcement is dependent on frequency of responses and time elapsed. An individual may also be discriminate and respond to some stimuli and fail to respond to others. Generalization is another principle of operant condition, and it involves the stimuli similar to a conditioned stimuli taking on the power of conditioned stimuli. A behavior may also end up being extinct due to the lack of reinforcement. Behaviors can also undergo spontaneous recovery after being extinguished after a brief period. Learning theorists also believe the behavior of an individual is influenced by the kind of people the individual associated with (McLeod 2007). The impact of the people with whom an individual associates with in most cases happens without the individual even discovering.
Simple changes like body language, glances and gestures and voice intonation can affect the individual greatly. Theorists believe that reinforcement forces are so strong, and that’s why the behavior of an individual is consistent from side to side. Medical therapists have come up with a way if using Skinner’s theory of learning in therapy. Operational conditioning in behavioral therapy utilizes reinforcement, modeling, punishment and other techniques to alter behaviors. There are a few strategies used by medical therapists to enforce behavior therapy. Token economies involve the use of currency to bring desired behaviors, and the tokens can be exchanged to bring different desires (McLeod 2007). Contingency contracts are signed forms between the client and the therapist outlining the behavior change recommendations and goals. The agreements also include punishments in case the recommendations and goals are not met. Modeling involves learning through observing and following the example of others.
In conclusion, Skinner’s learning theory has a number of uses in the education industry and also for behavior therapy (McLeod 2007). In education, the theory plays a great role and is considered as one of the important teachings for children as they grow. If a child does an activity and gets punished, then their chances of doing the same activity reduce. However, if the same child does another activity and does not get a punishment, rest assured the child will repeat the action again and again. Skinner’s learning theory is being used widely to treated behavior treated disorders. Research is on-going to view if the theory is effective for treating conditions like autism and substance abuse, which are mental disorders. The theory has been in use for a couple of years treating the medical conditions, but therapists are still researching to discover the full potential of the theory treating the mental conditions. With enough research, Skinner’s learning theory can be utilized more especially in treating medical conditions.
Neukrug, E. (2013). Theory, practice, and trends in human services: An introduction. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
McLeod, S. A. (2007). Skinner - Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
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