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There are several ethical challenges that are discussed in the six articles. Business without ethics cannot be able to go on in a clear manner and consequently, there is a need for an ethical leader in business, and it does not come easily. Challenges often rise, and they should always be met in a thoughtful and consistent way. It is of the essence to understand that choosing, which action to take in a business, is never easy and making the ethical decision may at times hurt the profits, however, a company or organization reputation can be said to be worth its weight in gold. The first ethical challenge in the first article is moral relativity.
It is of the essence to understand that in a globalized world, there are companies that have various person that have different ethnicities, as well as different nationalities. These different culture mat at times complicate the business dealing with the norms may at times vary from society to society. However, there is a need for corporations to set certain several ethical standards.
Therefore, the first ethical challenge is the management of different nationalities and different ethnicities having different norms that might clash ethically. The second article refers to the sale of goods, and a leader should be able to ensure that he or she sells what he or she has advertised. The goods should also be according to the specifications that are required by the market, and this will ensure that indeed they go ahead and ensure that the consumers are satisfied by the products.
The ethical challenge at times that occurs is whether a person should sell goods that he or she knows that is not to the market standard in order to make a profit. It is of the essence to understand that up until the financial meltdown that occurred in the year 2008, the business world often emphasized the different short-term results. The executives were able to receive extravagant compensation packages when it came to closing deals and no matter how the transaction affected the company in the long run. However, ethical leaders should be able to ignore easy profits, and they should however focus more on ramifications and even if it earns less money when it comes to the company. The third article talks about commercial papers, and it addresses negotiable instruments such as checks. There are times when it might seem easier to ignore the guiding principles regarding the negotiable instruments.
These principles might be overlooked in favor of profit. However, it is important to understand that ethics should play a role in the leader’s decision and ensure that he follows the rules and guiding principles. The fourth article deals with the business dealing with banks and handling of checks as well as other different financial instruments. There is a need to follow the guiding principles when it comes to these principles and ensure that the company goes forward in an ethical manner.
The fifth article talks about debt and letters of credit. There is a need for a leader to ensure that he or she pays his or her debt to the company and prioritizes loans as being important. This should be done without delay, and the leader should ensure a smooth transition. The sixth article talks about bulk transfers and how it imposes obligations on buyers that order the major part of the inventory of several certain types of business. The ethical dilemma is that there are leaders that can decide to pass the obligations that they have and go ahead and ignore the different types of principles.
The third article refers to negotiable instruments and it is a clear violation of U.C.C. The principles regarding negotiable instruments are bound by law and, therefore, if a leader goes ahead and violates this then, it can be described as being a violation of negotiable instruments. The first article also goes against U.C.C; this is because the leader should ensure that he or she sells the different goods in specification to the market. If the leader goes against the specifications that are put in regard to the market, then he or she can be said to be going against the directive of the U.C.C and consequently violates it. Lastly, in regards, the fourth article ethical dilemma also goes against the U.C.C code of bank deposits and collections.
There are several ethical challenges that go against the Bible. The first one is in regards to the entrance of several products into the market that do not meet several needed specifications. This goes against the weight principle in the Bible, where the Bible states there is a need for the proper weight to be given to the customers. Secondly, is it in regards to profit, it is of the essence to understand that the Bible’s principles state that there is a need for controlled profit. These Bible principles cut off in several ethical dilemmas. The leaders should ensure that they get controlled profit and not to be greedy.
Family Nurse Practitioners provide essential healthcare to individuals from infancy to adulthood. The training of an FNP includes dealing with acute illnesses such bronchitis and even the chronic ones such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity. According to Health Resources and Services Administration, HRSA, FNPs contribute significantly to the healthcare of underserved population who live both in urban and rural areas. By extension the FNP not only provide the basic healthcare to the patient but also support and condolence in a situation where the patient dies from the illness.
My ethical dilemma code is telling the truth versus deception. In many situations, FNPs find it difficult to reveal information to the patient especially when it is negative. For instance, a patient may be bed ridden for a severe respiratory condition and is only under the help of a life support machine. It becomes difficult to tell the family that the patient has minimal chances of survival. The solution to this ethical dilemma is revealing information to the family member on the progress of the patient while maintaining the hopes for survival. The patient also has the right to know about his/her health status. The progress of the healing should be given to the patient on a daily account. Collaboration with the family members and physical therapists may help in providing a formidable solution.
There are potential costs and benefits associated with revealing of information. One of the most painful aspect is when the family learns that the patient is not in a position to get well. There will be self-denial since no one is ready to lose a beloved one. The benefit will be mental preparedness if the worst (death) happens. By telling the truth on how the progress of the patient, many times the family member may deny it or oppose it. This is because there is the common fear of losing a beloved person. Denial of the information makes the family members oppose my stance despite professionalism. In conclusion, most patients need to be told the truth about their health condition. Truth telling should take in the consideration about psychological harm it may influence the patient and how to deal with it.
Tuckett, A. G. (2004). Truth-Telling in Clinical Practice and the Arguments for and Against: a review of the literature. An International Journal for Health Care Professionals, 11(5), 500-513.
Advanced practice nursing may prove challenging for many nursing practitioners. In tricky situations that conflict with law and ethics, it may cause a dilemma among nurses on what is the best practice. For instance, in patient competence, a lot of consultations must take place with respect to the best decision.
Terminal illness dilemma
In the case where the patient competency needs to be assessed, various options come in to play. First, the attempted suicide situation conflicts with ethics and law. APN nurses are compelled to make the most favorable decision at all cost, with fewer chances of mistakes (Stoppe, 2008). It is within the U.S laws that very person has a right to refuse or accept medication. In the terminal illness dilemma, I discovered the huge chances of futile treatment. Futile treatment such that treatment was likely unsuccessful due to the patient’s unwillingness (Killion & Dempski, 2006). Therefore, psychiatrists and law parties have to be consulted. Psychiatrists perform capacity test on the patient’s ability to make rational decisions.
Further, in an abortion dilemma, quality of life becomes the main focus. In considering the quality of life, ethical standards must be placed in order to achieve the best interest. Unfortunately, in pediatrics, the life of the unborn is hard to assess since it is in the future (Votroubek & Tabbaco, 2010). Therefore, it is hard to express the quality of life preference. However, through thorough assessment of the patient’s perspectives and consulting other involved parties, the best decision can be achieved. With a neutral stand, nurse practitioners should strain to arrive at the best decision (Hamric, Spross, Hanson, 2008).
Pain treatment with regards to substance abuse has proved challenging for many APN nurses. For instance, nurse practitioners find it difficult to assess the pain insinuated by the patients without paving way for drug abuse (Brown & Kaplan, 2012). However, psychological interventions can be used to reduce drug use to reduce pain. Psychiatrists and other relevant social workers can support nurses in treating pain patients without exposing them to drug dependence (Hamric, Spross & Hanson, 2009).
Ethical dilemmas are an ongoing discussion among most medical practitioners. It is hard to meet religious, cultural and legal ethics all at once. Nurse, Advanced Practice Nurses should be well educated on how to handle ethical dilemmas.
Stoppe, G., & European Dementia Consensus Network. (2008). Competence assessment in dementia. Wien: Springer.
Killion, S. W., & Dempski, K. (2006). Legal and ethical issues. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Brown, M. A., & Kaplan, L. (2012). The advanced practice registered nurse as a prescriber. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Votroubek, W. L., & Tabacco, A. (2010). Pediatric home care for nurses: A family-centered approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Hamric, A. B., Spross, J. A., & Hanson, C. M. (2009). Advance practice nursing: An integrative approach. St.Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier
The health sector is very sensitive since it deals with human lives. The necessity of ensuring proper healthcare services are provided efficiently, led to the development of professional ethics. In America, the American College of Healthcare Executives advocates for health practitioners to abide by the set code of ethics. These codes of ethics include general standards of conduct and specific standards of behavior that are aimed at guiding healthcare providers in their professional relationships.
The thesis of this essay is to examine the influence of individual ethics pertaining to decision-making in the healthcare industry. Moreover, this essay evaluates the level of ethical standards required for professional self-assessments for health providers.
Ethical self-assessment enables healthcare providers to identify the areas that they have a strong ethical ground. Self-assessment enables healthcare providers to critically examine areas that create an ethical dilemma and how to deal with these situations. Furthermore, an individual ethical assessment provides opportunities for further reflection.
However, self-assessment ethical measures are limited by the fact that they cannot be quantified. Thus, they require high levels of professionalism and moral uprightness. In my self-assessment mentor ship, I learned there are various responses that can create ethical “red flags”. Red flags are ideological constraints that create an ethical dilemma (American College of Healthcare Exercutives, 2014). Thus, red flags enable one to identify where there are chances of developing an ethical problem. For instance, I learned that there are set phrases that are used in different hospital situations to avoid unethical behavior. The conversation phrases between a healthcare provider and fellow staff or patients should be compatible. It is essential for health care providers to be aware of the ethical standards within which they should base their professional conversations. This is in order to avoid impeding on other party’s ethical grounds (fellow staff or patients).
In cases where self-assessment ethics are insufficient due to an ethical dilemma, health practitioners can discuss with their organization’s ethics committee to discuss the ideal solution. Therefore, the ethics committee plays a major role in identifying arising issues that limit the effectiveness of healthcare services (Burns e.tal, 2012).
The effect of professional ACHE standards on your ethical decision-making
The ACHE code of ethics uncovers various red flags that enable the health care providers to avoid unethical behavior. These red flags create a standard mechanism for addressing challenging ethical conflicts for healthcare providers. On the other hand, the ACHE provides a conflict management system in situations where ethical conflicts arise (Schneider & Barbera, 2014).
The ACHE standards are resourceful in streamlining one’s self-assessment. This is because they enable one to distinguish different ethical situations and identify red flags, which in turn lead to a personalized self-assessment ethical measure. Ethicist, professional health providers and the public formulate these ACHE codes of ethics (American College of Healthcare Exercutives, 2014). Therefore, the codes of ethics are aimed at providing the best interests for both the healthcare providers and the public without limiting either of the two party’s ethical rights. Therefore, the set codes of ethics enable one to achieve principles of justice, fidelity, beneficence and respect for self-determination.
How do your individual ethics affect your decision-making?
Individual ethics such as personal religious beliefs and religious conviction can limit one’s decision-making in compelling situations. Personal values determine what is moral and what is immoral. Therefore, individual ethics can lead to an ethical dilemma in the healthcare sector. However, personal values should be matched against the set codes of ethics and proper intervention by health advisors is necessary.
Individual ethics enables the healthcare providers to draw the line between professionalism and self-values. Further, individual ethics enables healthcare providers to distinguish between what the patient wants and what is the best for him. For example, a clinical situation may present where the patient and his/her family want certain health procedure undertaken. However, according to the health practitioner in charge, the desired health procedure is not the best option. In such a situation, individual ethics enables the healthcare provider make the best decision even if it is not in the favor of the patient (Burns e.tal, 2012).
Nevertheless, the clinical situation where the patient’s decision does not agree with the health practitioner’s decision various situations may arise. For instance, the patient might be misinformed; therefore, patient education is necessary to address the patient on the best way forward. Further, the patient education may persuade the patient to change his decision or the patient may still be bound to his decision. Forcefully undertaking a health procedure without the patient’s consent is against the law and it is unethical since it is disrespecting the patient’s cultural values (Schneider & Barbera, 2014). Therefore, there are situations that lead to ethical dilemmas and individual ethics should enable the healthcare provider to choose what he thinks is the best way and not to ignore the patient.
In order to improve my ethical decision making in the future, it important to engage with the ACHE in case of any arising ethical dilemmas. Further, health practitioners should work collaboratively with the nurse educators or nurse administrators in case of ethical challenges.
American College of Healthcare Exercutives (2014). Ethics Self-Assesment. ACHE.
Burns, L. R., Bradley, E. H., Weiner, B. J., Shortell, S. M., & Kaluzny, A. D. (2012).Shortell and Kaluzny's health care management: Organization, design, and behavior. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Schneider, B., & Barbera, K. M. (2014). The Oxford handbook of organizational climate and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The biological parents have the right to retain their child back. They underwent rehabilitation as ordered by the courts. The child also had the right to be taken into foster care, to be loved by the time when her parents were still addicted to drugs and could not provide the needed care for her (Philosophynow.org, 1). During such times, the parents could not manage to provide appropriate care for their daughter. Under this school of ethics, it is assumed that the parents had the rights to visit their child, and performed all that could best interest their daughter. Moreover, the foster parents are aware that usually they are only a transitory circumstance. They should have stayed alert on this any time to avoid any misconception (Philosophynow.org, 1). Besides, it was not the fault of the biological parents to neglect their child by failing to provide the needed or proper care. This is because they did not plan when they were still infants immature to get addicted to drugs.
The court was appropriate in placing the child in the hands of the foster parent for her care. It was also right ethically according to the ends based thinking for the court to give back the child to the biological parents (Münnix, 34). The decision of the court was to make the child now adapt to her new environment of being with her natural parents. The ends based thinking also considers that the decision made should result in the highest benefit. In this situation, taking the child back to her natural parents had to be given more weight (Münnix, 34). This school of ethics is worthy of use in real-life dilemmas because it considers the results of a situation and a practical consideration of the consequences are considered first before solving the dilemma. Aristotle advocates for care and virtue. He would have, therefore, approved this solution because the solution considers elements of care when considering the results.
The care-based school of ethics advocated for the law in this situation, but solely in the interest of the natural parents. Taking a child away from their biological parents because of drug issues is empathetically unfair and unethical and can lead to other major problems. Parents, who had not been lucky to get their child back, have experienced sadness and helplessness in their lives (LeBar, 642). Dealing with drug addiction is not an easy process. It calls for high commitments, self-belief, support and hard work, even after these undertakings, one can relapse. Losing the child to the foster care gave the parents the motivation and strength to reconsider their lives with the determination to get their child back. It was, therefore, the care they had to their child that enforced them to sacrifice their time in the cure and court proceedings to get her back into their lives. The decision of the court was, therefore, ethical basing on the care-based thinking.
Nevertheless, it was unethical on the side of the foster parents because they took their time to protect the child and loved her as their daughter (LeBar, 642). The consideration of care and virtue in this solution would have made Aristotle approve it. The school of ethics can be applied in the real world because of its approaches to integrity and considering virtue to those involved (LeBar, 643). The similarity between the schools of ethics is that they both consider care in solving the dilemma. The difference is that care-based considers mainly the issue of care and integrity to the parents while ends-based emphasizes on the consequences of the situation in solving the dilemma.
LeBar, Mark. 'Virtue Ethics And Deontic Constraints*'. ETHICS 119.4 (2009): 642-671. Web.
Münnix, Gabriele. 'Against Prejudice: Justice As Virtue In Advance'. Teaching Ethics (2014): n. pag. Web.
Philosophynow.org. 'Ethics In Society | Issue 102 | Philosophy Now'. N.p., 2015. Web. 30 Oct. 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015, from https://philosophynow.org/issues/102/Ethics_in_Society
Nurses make decisions every day that affects the lives of their patients and these decisions must take into account the rules and ethical standards as prescribed by the nursing code. The degree of accountability expected of health professionals demand that nurses must understand the various legal, ethical, and professional issues that they will face in the course of their careers. This article, therefore, seeks to highlight just a few of the ethical and legal responsibilities of nurses with regard to the provision of care services to a patient.
Keywords: Legal, Ethical, Professional Responsibilities, Nursing.
Legal and Ethical Responsibilities in Nursing
Understanding the legal and ethical requirements of the nursing profession is one of the many fundamental necessities that a nurse needs to master if s/he is to survive in the profession. According to the American Nurses Association (2015), provision 4 of the Code of Ethics states that the "nurse's primary commitment is to the patient, whether an individual, family, group, community, or population" (Spring, 2015). Therefore, the three primary professional duties of nurses are confidentiality, autonomy, and care for all patients. These are professional duties that can also become legal duties when policies that guide them are not followed (Furlong, 2007).
Similarly, the constitution of the United States recognizes the inherent right of its citizens to get quality medical care. The code of ethics of nurses implores them to uphold this legal provision, and this entails not discharging the patient until adequate medication has been received. This provision is also supported by provision 8 of the Code of Ethics which emphasizes on the promotion of health diplomacy, reduction of health disparities, and the protection of human rights (Spring, 2015).
Nurses are also called upon to observe high standards of integrity and honesty (Browne, 2017). A patient receiving care in a home care setting may not be able to get the same medical attention as a patient based in a medical facility. The onus, therefore, is for the nurse to let the patient know the shortcomings of receiving treatment at home (Browne, 2017). It may be the decision of the patient, but ultimately, nurses lay down the facts so that when a patient makes a decision, s/he is acutely aware of the implications. Other times the nurse may be required to make the decision especially when the patient incapacitated or, for any other reason, cannot be counted upon to make an informed decision (Browne, 2017).
Browne, C. (2017). Ethical Responsibilities of Nurses. Retrieved September 18, 2017, from Chron: http://work.chron.com/ethical-responsibilities-nurses-10778.html
Furlong, E. (2007). Right or Wrong: Legal and Ethical Issues and Decision-making. Nebraska: Jones and Bartlett .
Spring, S. (2015). Code of ethics with interpretative statements. Retrieved September 18, 2017, from American Nurses Association: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEth...
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