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The article ‘The Internet and child sexual offending: A criminological review’ was written by Anthony R. Beech, Ian A. Elliot, Astrid Birgden and Donald Findlater. The article outlines the already known process by which the internet is utilized by different individuals for child sexual abuse. The authors present the problem that is investigated in the article through analyzing the extent of sexual abuse among children. They analyze that sexual abuse on children is a global problem that raises a significant concern to criminal justice agencies.
In addition, while analyzing the conditions that might be contributing to the increase in the prevalence of the abuse, they land to the internet through which they state to be the main cause of child sexual abuse. This is not only in the abusive images of children but also the grooming of the victims of contact sexual assaults. The authors take the internet as the primary contributor towards new challenges that face traditional policies and as well legislative systems made to deal with sexual abuse among children (Anthony et al 2008).
Considering the article, the increased global usage of the internet, is identified in the article as the need and the rationale for the study. The authors go ahead to highlight that the digital information contained in the internet is neither located in one place nor administered by a single person. Therefore, the contents rendered through the internet are uncontrollable by nature. It is due to this reason that the authors undertakes the research aiming to highlight the level of misuse of the internet and the role it plays in promoting sexual abuse among children.
In addition, the need of the research develops after highlighting the different methods that the internet can be used to promote sexual abuse among the children. They highlight the different ways through which the sex offenders use the internet to carry out their sexual abuse behavior. The authors highlight these methods as; sex offenders disseminate images for their personal and as well commercial reasons. In addition, they intentionally use the internet to establish links and as well engage with other individuals with similar sexual interests in children. Lastly, the authors highlight that the sex offenders use the internet to engage in communications with children and as well discover possible children to abuse (Anthony et al 2008).
The authors state the research question through the aims that they have for the research. They state the aim of the research as examining the extent criminological literature that is based on the use of some abusive images of children in the internet and who access these images. On the other hand, the authors highlight the need of learning the provisions and regulations that are put in place by the United Nations and as well the Interpol.
In addition, the question of the research is developed through the examination of the different ways that are disseminated in the internet. Lastly the authors anticipate discussing and highlighting the different difficulties that are the law-enforcing agencies face while dealing with cases of children who have been sexually abused. As with the link of the online search of children who undergo sexually abuse, the authors base the question on the different methods that these sexual offenders use while locating the children and as well the dangers that are they pose while crossing over from the internet business to contact sexual offending on the children (Anthony et al 2008).
Developing the research question is important in any forensic research. This is because the research question acts as a guide towards the content that is to be covered in the article. As with the authors of the selected article, they use the aims of the research while developing the research topic. Aims make the research topic broad. While dealing with a broad topic and research question, the authors get an opportunity to highlight the different factors surrounding the topic. As with the article, despite the question being how the internet is playing a part in promoting sexual abuse among children, the authors take a step further to highlight the challenges that arise from sexual abuse to children and as well dangers that the affected children undergo (Anthony et al 2008).
The authors stated the research conducted as a qualitative research. This is through the different aims they have for their research. As with the authors, the main aim of the research is to have a qualitative analysis of sexual abuse among children. However, during their research, they apply some quantitative research through the analysis of the global users of the internet and as well while dealing with the numbers of sexual offenders who have direct sexual contact with children as from the internet. Qualitative research is applied extensively in the article through the different methods that the sex offenders use including how the images are disseminated as well as the laws and policies that have been put in place to deal with internet sexual offenders (Anthony et al 2008).
The authors support the need of the research from other literature. Internet World Stats Website is one literature that is used to support the need for research. It provides statistics on the global use of the internet and as well the growth of the internet use in different continents. Other literature sources that support the research are new challenges that face the policies that had been set aside to deal with internet sex offenders (Anthony et al 2008). Agencies dealing with sexual abuse of children are also providing need, for the research to be carried out as they have laws and regulations that govern the sex offender criminals.
Anthony R. Beech, Ian A. Elliott, Astrid Birgden, Donald Findlater (2008). The Internet and child sexual offending: A criminological review.
Sunrise at Philadelphia is an essay by Brian McGinty; it records what went down in Philadelphia in the year 1787. It gives details of the situation at the ground, and what the stakes were, it also discusses in detail the debating points that existed in the convention. The great convention that occurred in the year 1787 was a gathering of 55 delegates who ultimately wound up, and created the federalist government that is in use, in the United States today.
The convention was imperative as this was a time where several states felt the urge to come together to form one large union, but there was no existing forum that existed that truly represented their needs. The goal of the delegates was to change the way the government worked at that particular time under the article of confederation (McGinty, 2010). They had two options either to amend the Articles of confederation or to create a completely new system of government. After carefully deliberation, the delegates finally agreed upon the latter. However, it is imperative to understand that this was not a unanimous decision as there were some delegates who decided to vote for making some amendments to the Articles of confederation.
There were several notable figures in the convention that took place in Philadelphia. The person that was leading the convention was George Washington and he was elected the presiding officer with no debate over his placement. In fact, George Washington was the most prominent person in the convention, at the time he was fifty five years old. He initially wished to spend his life in private; however, he was urged by his friends to reconsider the decision.
After some time, he felt that it was his duty to become a leader and a servant of the people. For this reason, he moved into politics, and he was eventually elected as the convention leader in the convention in Philadelphia. Some of the notable figures were Benjamin Franklin, James Madison as well as Gouverneur Morris who were extremely important persons in the development of the federal constitution. In fact, they were the main proponents in pursuance of a new and completely different style of government (McGinty, 2010). However, there were also some notable absences in the convention. Some of the people who missed the convention included John Adams, Patrick Henry, John Jay and Richard lee.
There were several issues that were debated at the convention; the first issue was the question of the type of government. This, in fact, was the most important issue that was debated in the convention. It was what had brought the convention together in the first place; there was a need to have either a new type of government or an amendment to the existing article. The exact agenda was to whether simply amend the articles, or create a new system of government that was completely different.
The question of whether there should be a national government was also a key point to be discussed in the convention. Delegates from South Carolina, for example, Charles Pickney argued that a national government might cause the states to cease in their existence. However, there were others who favored the National government system. For example, Virginia Delegate Edmund Randolp argued that the national government would not prevent the individual states from functioning but rather it would boost their activities by delegating some functions to the national government.
The question of whether the national legislature was to be a unicameral one or a bicameral one was also an important question that was discussed. There was no big debate as to the type of national legislature and almost all the delegates quickly agreed on a bicameral legislature (McGinty, 2010). The delegates also agreed that that the lower house was to be popularly elected. However, the long debate that occurred was in regards to what the houses would actually represent. There was a conclusion that the lower house should be population based while the upper house should be undoubtedly equal (McGinty, 2010). There was a rule of secrecy that was adopted in the convention room that what happened in the convention room does not in any way leave the convention room.
The delegates were able to set up a committee of the whole and ensured that the discussion was informal and that the delegates could be able to change their votes until when the convention ended. This was important as it ensured that there was an open minded-ness as well as frank speech. There were two groups that existed in the convention; there were the federalists and the anti-federalists. The federalists supported the adoption of the Federal government while the anti-federalists were persistent in trying to ensure that the states remained independent with some ratifications being made on the Articles.
At the time of the convention, there were many essays that were written and published by both sides. However, the most notable was the federalist papers that were written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison (McGinty, 2010). They argued that a federalist government would ultimately ensure that there was control and development in all states. This was because the Federal government would act as a collective bank where the states would borrow money for development. However, the anti-federalists also argued about the independence of the states and noted that the states might cease to exist with the introduction of a superior national government. Most notable essays were from New York governor George Clinton who often signed in as Cado.
Another issue that was discussed was that of the Bill of rights. Federalists disliked the idea that was put forward to add the bill of rights in the constitution. The fact that there was a bill of rights made the federalists hesitant to sign the document (McGinty, 2010). However, eventually they all signed the document with Rhode Island becoming the final state to sign the constitution in May of 1970. At the end of 1971, a bill of rights was eventually approved by the required ¾ of the states which ensured that it was enshrined in the new constitution.
Another contentious issue was the issue of slavery. The constitution was being prepared when slavery was at its peak there were many slaves in the United States, and most of them were concentrated in the Cotton farms, in the Southern states. Most of the southern states refuted the idea that slaves could be represented, and they argued that slaves were not human and, therefore, could not be represented.
Additionally, they argued that the slaves had owners and the fact that their owners were represented meant that also the slaves were adequately represented. Whether or not slaves would count towards the representation of the House of Representatives was a contentious issue. The decision that was decided upon was to count 3/5 of the slave population. By approving this, the framers promoted the notion and belief that indeed slaves were not human, and therefore they were not in any way equal.
The convention decided to sit down and iron out the contentious issues that existed. Finally, many contentious issues were resolved and the constitution was ultimately signed. The signing of the constitution ensured that there was a federal government in place which would then run vis a vis the state governments (McGinty, 2010). The states were to remain independent with their own governments performing certain duties and functions. It is then after the signing of the constitution that Benjamin franklin expressed his optimism in regards to the new constitution by stating that ‘now at length I have the happiness to see that it is a rising sun and not a setting sun.’
However, it is imperative to understand that the convention has been argued to be that of an unequal nature. This is because the convention mostly constituted of the wealthy, youngish and educated persons. In fact, more than a third of the delegates were slave owners. The poor, uneducated, as well as back country farmers were not represented in the convention. In fact, women, Indians and blacks were not in any way represented in the convention. The framers of the constitution argued that inalienable rights of women and blacks were not in any way important that national strength and order. For this reason, there are those that argue that the convention was unfair and unequally represented.
McGinty, B.,(2010) Sunrise at Philadelphia. Print.
The author targets to reach activists and scholars in areas of racial discrimination. Through the development of the article, there are clear insights that the problems in the area were as a result of the demographic composition of the city. Since most people living in Bedford-Stuyvesant were blacks, the local authority ignored its issues concerning the sanitation and blamed poverty as a reason for poor living conditions in the area.
Reference to Past Research or Activism
The author, Brian Purnell, builds on previous research by other writers as well as documented records concerning the issues that affected the residents of Bedford-Stuyvesant. First, the author borrows immensely from the findings of researchers Harold Connolly, Clarence Taylor and Craig wilder (Purnell, 2007). The above named scholars define the city as one with different histories among them hope and optimism, racial ideologies and degenerative policies. The community newsletter from World War II also receives considerable coverage in the article. Brian quotes some of the reforms cited in the newsletter such as the recommended daily collection of garbage and change on the classification of the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood in the sanitation department.
There is also considerable reference to the 1960 US census paying attention to the areas that indicated possible evidence for racial discrimination in the provision of services. The census indicated that the areas that received better services such as three-day garbage collection and lower housing densities were occupied by white residents (Purnell, 2007). In the article, the author cites the story of Mrs. Hinge’s family on the poor living standards they had to deal with by living in Bedford-Stuyvesant.
Definition of Terminology
The author provides definitions of terminology and explanations to important aspects highlighted in the article. The definitions are important in ensuring clarity throughout the article. Important definitions include the full version of abbreviations used in the article. The definitions are made on specific abbreviations and help to prevent unnecessary repetition throughout the article.
Effects of the Author’s Language
Brian uses a rather analytical language in his writing. A reader develops confidence in the article, following the use of professional language. The author’s language creates the impression of the analysis that was carried to shed light to hidden facts about the state of Bedford-Stuyvesant. In his writing, the author does not take not declare his persona take on the issues highlighted in the article. He retains a neutral position throughout his writing, clearly supporting all the claims using credible evidence.
Support for Major Findings
Major findings such as the fact that the local authority ignored the situation in Bedford-Stuyvesant are supported by the use of the referential evidence. Also, the author uses his arguments and inferences to support important insights in the article. For instance, the author uses the 1960 census to support the claims that the main problem affecting the city was not poverty but discrimination on the basis of race. Also, the newsletter from World War II is used to support the claims that despite the fact that the residents had made several complaints seeking improvement of the living conditions (Purnell, 2007).
Article by Devorah Heitner
The article targets vast audience ranging from scholars, racial activists and scholars interested at analyzing critical issues such as racial discrimination. Among the relevant issues is an approach towards ending racial discrimination in the region by ensuring that the black Americans were considered during policy making and provision of essential public services (Heitner, 2008). The audience stands a chance to draw significant information concerning racial discriminations and how it can be handled.
Development on Past Research or Activism
The author makes references to major documents on the airing of television programs African American in the 60s. Kernel commission’s report receives considerable coverage in this article. The author discusses major concerns raised in the report which include the recommended changes on the federal policy and improvements on healthcare, housing, schools and employment opportunities for the African Americans (Heitner, 2008). The media played a major role in redefining Bedford-Stuyvesant (Heitner, 2008). The author quotes a number of newspaper articles that citing important progress of the activists in fighting to prove that African Americans had equal capabilities as the Americans.
Definition of Terminology
Towards the end of the article, the author takes time to make significant definitions of terminology and insights raised in the article. One important definition is that of the uprisings quoted in the article. In the definitions, the author lists the main uprisings which further clarify the content of the article. There is also a brief explanation on WNEW previously mentioned in the article. The definitions are specific on certain areas that may not have been addressed adequately in the article.
Effects of the Author’s Language
The author uses reflective language in writing this article. At the beginning of the article, the author describes the reaction of a tired worker watching a program that featured African Americans for the first time in his life. The language allows the reader to visualize the actual situation being described in the article. On several occasions, the author takes a personal stand and gives his own opinion on the topic.
Support for Major Findings in the Article
The author provides a clear reference on the sources of significant findings in the article. For instance, statistical data on the demographic changes in Bedford Stuyvesant is clearly referenced. Throughout the article, the author is keen to provide clear evidence for major facts such as the claims that the media played a major role in dealing with the cases of racial discrimination cited in the article (Heitner, 2008).
Purnell. (2007). Afro - Americans in New York Life and History; ProQuest Direct Complete. pg. 61
Heitner, D. (2008). The Good Side of the Ghetto: Visualizing Black Brooklyn, 1968–1971.texas: university of Texas press.
"For Esme, with Love and Squalor” is a short story written by J.D. Salinger. Its publishers were The New Yorker on April 1950. It is among the popular American short stories. The short story is one of the best stories written by Salinger. Its production was during the world war. It displays a high level of loss, hope and has an emotional connection between people faced by world war and the reader (Salinger 45). The story evokes mixed feelings of sadness and joy and as well fear and reassurance. Salinger uses different characters in the short story while demonstrating events and situations faced by victims during World War II. The paper is an analysis of the short story.
Salinger uses different styles in the book. Narration is one writing style used by the writer. He uses first person and third person in the short story. The story opens with a first person narration. This informs the reader that he received an invitation to the wedding anticipated taking place on April 18th. The narrator describes his intentions and desire of attending the wedding, but the reader gets a chance of learning that the narrator was in a dilemma since his mother-in-law was visiting him on the same period (Salinger 50). Use of first person narration gives readers an opportunity to learn the thoughts and distinctive humorous voice colors.
First person narration in the short story appears in the beginning of the story and as well while ending the story. This has a significant effect on the reader while introducing thoughts of the narrator and as well while concluding the narrator’s thoughts and ideas. Partly in the story, the narration shifts from a first person to a third person (Peterson 39). This through the transition, a feeling of alienation and distance is evoked in the readers’ mind. The alienation feeling instilled in the reader’s mind originates from the shift from the narrator’s mind to a point where the reader learns the thoughts without interaction with Sergeant X (first person narrator). Use of first person and third person in the short story has a role of evoking emotions on the reader.
In the story, there is a variation of tone. Using tone, the story has two sections. These sections resemble day and night due to their transition. The first section of the story is lighthearted and chatty (Salinger 60). This is through the first person narrator where he interacts with the two children. This section evokes a feeling of terrific-seriousness and realism in the reader’s mind. It is an incredible part while reading the short story full of fun and as well introducing a touching feeling to the reader.
Humor in this section is through the sweet exchange between narrator, Esme and Charles. On the other hand, there lies the other section which is a horse and has a complete different color. In this section, the author shifts his tone and the reader can easily feel the change through the shift from first hand narration to a third person narration. Dialogue involved in this section is different since it does not evoke feelings of lightheartedness in the reader. In the second section of the story; it is full of sarcasm and ends with cruelty. This is distressing to the reader after reading the first section of the narration. The transition change in tone in the narration is important to the reader as it introduces feelings of sadness and joy after reading the story.
In the story, characters play different roles. The narrator (Sergeant X) plays a great role in demonstrating the transition faced after war (Peterson 58). The author introduces him as a young man with dreams of joining the army. His character is admirable and as well brave. However, this does not last. After the war, he changes his character and. The reader feels the transition through the change in narration in the story. He changes to a battered, troubled and scared soldier. His humorous and gentle nature changes to sardonic cruel nature after war. Dialogue tone change demonstrates the change in behavior. The character has a role of demonstrating some effects of war (Peterson 64).
Similarly, Esme, brought out in the story as a young kid forced to grow up before her time, demonstrates a shift in behavior and idea (Salinger 78). Initially, she has a youthful nature and her behavior resembles that of a youthful character. However, the kid inside her escapes and she adopts a mature behavior. This is evident when an idea that she’s “extremely interested in squalor” (79). She has a role of instilling a touching feeling to the reader when her inner sadness emerges during their entire conversation. In addition, she evokes a feeling of innocence on the reader’s mind (Salinger 79).
Charles, brother to Esme, plays a role similar to his sister’s. The author introduces him as a young boy full of innocent behavior. He is in a state of blissful innocence regarding to the death of their father. The reader is able to learn his real nature when the narrator in the story starts thinking about the little boy’s feelings. In the story, Charles plays a role of demonstrating the innocent nature of children and as well blissful ignorance regarding the surrounding the child’s environment (Salinger 83).
Salinger had several themes while writing the short story. The leader is able to learn the theme of youth through the characters used in the story (Slawenski 87). On the other hand, his tone in “kids say the darnedest things!” gives the reader a task of learning the theme of youth. Warfare is another theme in the short story. It has negative impacts as seen in the story. In the story, there is destruction of the protagonist through the experience in the war. On the other hand, effects of losing parents as with the case of Charles are evident in the book. Despite the failure of participating in war, they face its negative impacts. Lastly, the author aims at demonstrating the theme of love through Esme where he introduces her that she had a strong interest towards squalor. Family love is clear when the narrator gets concerned about Charles feelings (Slawenski 90).
Squalor’s short story is highly significant and relevant in demonstrating different themes. Effect of war is one major theme in the short story. On the other hand, innocence of children and as well youthful, behavior among characters is evident in the book.
Salinger, J D. Nine Stories. New York: New American Library, 1954. Print.
Salinger, J D. For Esmé -- with Love and Squalor. London: Penguin Books, 2010. Print
Slawenski, Kenneth. J. D. Salinger: A Life. New York: Random House, 2012. Print.
Peterson, William S. John Betjeman: A Bibliography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2006. Print.
The author argues that behavior change interventions that are delivered by text messages to mobile telephones can be described as being increasingly common. It is of the essence to understand that mobile ownership is exceptionally high, and the popularity of text messaging as the preferred means of communication has increased and consequently it has ensured comprehensive access to different target groups. In the 21st century, alcohol-related morbidity as well as mortality have presented what can be described as a major health challenge. This has especially affected the socially disadvantaged people. It is often estimated that around 85% of all alcoholics do not access professional help. Therefore, there is a need to build an intervention that will help reach this target group. This study did a test on men that were aged 25 years to 44 years and lived in areas of high social deprivation.
The method that was used included the sending of text messages to the respondents. The feasibility study recruited 67 participants with thirty-four men being randomized and put into the intervention group whereas the 33 others were put in the control group. I do believe that this was the right method to use especially given the fact that there was a need for a control group in which the results would be compared to. I also support the two recruitment strategies that were used by the researcher. The first was the letters of invitation from GPs, and the second was the respondent driven sampling (RDs). All the participants had phones that regularly received and sent messages. The researcher did a commendable work in ensuring that indeed every person had a phone, and even two participants who had outdated phones were given new phones. Further, I also applaud the fact that the study was approved by the East of Scotland research. The study participants were aware that they were taking part in a research and they provided informed consent by text message following a discussion with the research fellow. Further, it is also of the essence to note that the participants were informed by mail in regards to several different things. Short message that were not delivered to the telephone immediately were re-sent after several trials. If the message at all could not be delivered, it was recorded as a delivery failure and the program would consequently send the next message in the same sequence. It is of importance to note that that the data that was captured on the SMS message was recorded.
The study demonstrated the value of process evaluation by effectively monitoring the delivery of text messages as well as ensuring the assessment of the text message questions. In particular, it provided a concrete method of assessing the extent of the participants engagement with the different interventions. The monitoring process showed when the participants received, opened and read the messages. The responses that were given demonstrated engagement with cognitive antecedents to reduced drinking. In fact, most of the messages can be described as being lengthy and well thought out. Nine of the 36 messages that were sent to the study participants asked direct questions. Thirty participants 86% responded to the questions, and this provided a measure of engagement to the study. More than half of the participants replied t seven or more of the nine questions whereas two of them replied to all the nine questions.
I believe that this feasibility study was important as it identified an effective means for a detailed process evaluation and complex intervention were delivered electronically.
This SMS method often offers many advantages; it often collects real -time data in a way that is unobstructed. On the other hand, the content analysis from the text messages was able to confirm the fidelity that existed within the delivery of the intervention. This method was extremely important as it measured the extent of engagement with the different components of behavior strategy, and it can be able to identify ambiguity in messages. This method can be able to contain novel ways in which valuable addition to the conventional techniques can be used especially in the process evaluation.
The second study can be described as the process evaluation of a large multi-center trial in order to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in the middle school children. The purpose of the article was to report the process evaluation on the different findings that concerned the extent to which the healthy nutrition intervention was implemented in the healthy trial. In the study, it was determined that the overall fidelity of the implementation of nutrition strategies improved from the baseline until the end of the study. In fact, by the last two semesters the nutrition process evaluation goals were all met. According to the study, the most challenging goals to implement was the serving of fiber goods, and this include grain based foods as well as legumes. On the other hand, the easiest goals to achieve were the implementation of lowering the fact content that was offered in foods and the offering of healthy beverages. The forming of a strong relationship between the food service staff and the research dietitians was identified as an important key strategy when it came to the meeting of healthy nutrition goals.
The process evaluation differed across the two studies in tow different ways, the first regarding the text messaging usage used direct questions whereas the second one was regulated by behavior. The results from the first research were in direct correlation with the questions asked on the phone. However, the second research involved the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in order to gather information. There was the use of structured interviews that were conducted by trained staff with the managers of the food services. There was also the monitoring of behavior regarding the eating habits of the children, and this was done by the dieticians. There are also several similarities that exist between these two researchers. Firstly, it was made sure that these two researchers were ethical, and there was also the availability of routine check- ups in order to evaluate how the research was going on.
The first major limitation of the first research regarding sending text message is that currently MMS messages cannot be tracked, and consequently the results were only based on the delivery of the SMS messages only. This in the research accounted for about 53% of the total messages sent in the intervention package. The fact that the research was only a feasibility study meant that the research participants were few, and therefore it was difficult to establish the reliability of the experiment. The second research about evaluation of nutrition also had its share of barriers. The most prominent barrier was the costs that were associated with the making of changes. There was also low reception amongst the student in regards to the new foods as well as beverages.
Article Critique 1
Ethics and integrity in United States police are not new concepts and typify unique concerns facing the police force and subsequent organizations. The article by Rosenbaum (2016) revisits the issue of ethics in the police force and considers an ethical organization as one which is governed by professional codes of ethics in improving accountability and transparency in private and public operations. Rosenbaum (2016) is of the view that training in police organizations embeds discipline and the application of the rule of law in the use of force. Furthermore, management structures and the implementation of policies and procedures rests on leadership structures that facilitate supervisory oversights. From an ethical perspective, oversights help limit or eliminate cases of police corruption and misconduct, but crucially, police officers, like any other employees, must embrace departmental policies that advice on rules of misconduct through effective training (Rosenbaum, 2016). Police behavior is fundamental in measuring the levels of integrity in a department as it helps shape public expectations.
From a biblical perspective, Eccl 2:3-10 calls for the creation of value systems within society to eradicate corruption, and when applied in the police force, there is a need to end corruption with the soul and ensure there is no suppression of the masses. However, it is no longer “Breaking News” when police officers are castigated for their racists and discriminatory approach in the masses. Rosenbaum (2016) is of the view that integrity concerns exist at the micro-level (officer) and meso-level (precinct), owing to variations in social and cultural assessments that leads to minorities being castigated and processed in unconventional manners as opposed to their ‘majority’ counterparts. Biblically, this aspects attunes to the suppression of the masses, inequality and the destabilization of social values that create anarchy.
Article Critique: 2
Reed (2015) reviews a 1999 courts case; Henson v. Commonwealth, 20 S.W.3D 466, 469 and examines the use of coercion during police interrogation. In the analysis, it is evident that police officers in Arizona used force against Henson in their quest for evidence. Reed (2015) argues that police officers in the U.S. use subjective and objective coercion to gain confessions, and in most cases, the culprits or witnesses end up making forced confessions. Arguably, the majority of the admissions during interrogation are involuntary since police interrogations are geared towards creating a psychological barrier that blurs the lines between a defendant's free choice and justice (Reed, 2015). Deu 1:16-17 states “…..shall hear all cases against all small and great; respect people in judgment: shall not be afraid to face man: for the judgment is God’s”. In this case, the use of force during interrogations in the name of gaining a confession goes against natural laws that advocate for jurisprudence and the need for impartiality (Reed, 2015). It was evident that the Fourth Amendment, which entails the Due Process Clause was not applied during the interrogation process, and this is against constitutional democracy. Inevitably, the reliability of the evidence comes to question, and the morality of the practices goes against Christian values of gentleness and reverence.
Article Critique : 3
Cooper, Heldman, Ackerman, and Farrar-Meyers (2016) examine the privatization of American systems and considers the approach as a profit-oriented venture that places profits above individual freedoms. The privatization of American prisons has been reflected by the increasing number of incarceration and recidivism. With over a quarter of the U.S. populations behind bars, private jails experience instability and overcrowding and bring a shift from prisoner reform to financial gains (Cooper et al., 2016). Interestingly, private prisons were introduced as a state alternative to limit overcrowding and reduce incarceration costs, but the current situation in private prisons is another case of deja vu in the American prison system. Cooper et al. (2016) are categorical that the language of contracts and reports of private entities call for the maximization of profits, and if more arrests become economically and financially viable, they more arrests are made.
Moreover, recidivism, which is meant to ensure no rearrest, is the sole aim of prison corporates that want to improve profits. However, Schultz (2015) in his article on prison privatization supports this idea of privatizing state prisons as he considers this to be the only solution to tackling prison mismanagement. Ideally, with an increased number of incarcerations, and overcrowding privatizing prisons ensure that prisoners will have better living conditions and supervision will be adequate since there is enough money coming in (Schultz, 2015). Arguably, prison privatization is not a new concept, and since the late early 19th century, increased prison costs meant that new funds are required to keep the prisons running. With government priorities shifting to improved housing and management of other social strains, privatization offers correctional institutions and the judicial system more money to handle inmates. However, Cooper et al. (2016); Schultz (2015) agree that privatization only acts as a stepping stone to extend political and economic gains, and not to serve the interests on the inmates, more so their rights. Ideally, implementing prison policies that only factor in the financial benefits of the system act as hindrance to improved social status. Moreover, there is no need to establish private prison if the aim is to extend political goals as they will only act as precipice to increased discrimination and racism that continue to plague the U.S. criminal justice system.
Cooper, R., Heldman, C., Ackerman, A. R., & Farrar-Meyers, V. A. (2016). Hidden corporate profits in the US prison system: the unorthodox policy-making of the American Legislative Exchange Council. Contemporary Justice Review, 19(3), 380-400.
Reed, A. (2015). The Use of False DNA Evidence to Gain a Confession During Interrogation is Classic Coercion: Why Such Coerced Confessions Should Not be Admissible in a Criminal Trial. Ky. LJ, 104, 747.
Rosenbaum, D. P. (2016). Special issue on police integrity: an introduction. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 39(2).
Schultz, C. (2015). Prison Privatization: Driving Influences and Performance Evaluation. Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science, 3(1), 5.
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