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Article Analysis and Critique: The Internet & Child Sexual Offending

    
   
    The article ‘The Internet and child sexual offending: A criminological review’ was written by Anthony R. Beech, Ian A. Elliot, Astrid Birgden and Donald Findlater. The article outlines the already known process by which the internet is utilized by different individuals for child sexual abuse. The authors present the problem that is investigated in the article through analyzing the extent of sexual abuse among children. They analyze that sexual abuse on children is a global problem that raises a significant concern to criminal justice agencies.

In addition, while analyzing the conditions that might be contributing to the increase in the prevalence of the abuse, they land to the internet through which they state to be the main cause of child sexual abuse. This is not only in the abusive images of children but also the grooming of the victims of contact sexual assaults. The authors take the internet as the primary contributor towards new challenges that face traditional policies and as well legislative systems made to deal with sexual abuse among children (Anthony et al 2008).
 
    Considering the article, the increased global usage of the internet, is identified in the article as the need and the rationale for the study. The authors go ahead to highlight that the digital information contained in the internet is neither located in one place nor administered by a single person. Therefore, the contents rendered through the internet are uncontrollable by nature. It is due to this reason that the authors undertakes the research aiming to highlight the level of misuse of the internet and the role it plays in promoting sexual abuse among children.

In addition, the need of the research develops after highlighting the different methods that the internet can be used to promote sexual abuse among the children. They highlight the different ways through which the sex offenders use the internet to carry out their sexual abuse behavior. The authors highlight these methods as; sex offenders disseminate images for their personal and as well commercial reasons. In addition, they intentionally use the internet to establish links and as well engage with other individuals with similar sexual interests in children. Lastly, the authors highlight that the sex offenders use the internet to engage in communications with children and as well discover possible children to abuse (Anthony et al 2008).
 
    The authors state the research question through the aims that they have for the research. They state the aim of the research as examining the extent criminological literature that is based on the use of some abusive images of children in the internet and who access these images. On the other hand, the authors highlight the need of learning the provisions and regulations that are put in place by the United Nations and as well the Interpol.

In addition, the question of the research is developed through the examination of the different ways that are disseminated in the internet. Lastly the authors anticipate discussing and highlighting the different difficulties that are the law-enforcing agencies face while dealing with cases of children who have been sexually abused. As with the link of the online search of children who undergo sexually abuse, the authors base the question on the different methods that these sexual offenders use while locating the children and as well the dangers that are they pose while crossing over from the internet business to contact sexual offending on the children (Anthony et al 2008).
 
    Developing the research question is important in any forensic research. This is because the research question acts as a guide towards the content that is to be covered in the article. As with the authors of the selected article, they use the aims of the research while developing the research topic. Aims make the research topic broad. While dealing with a broad topic and research question, the authors get an opportunity to highlight the different factors surrounding the topic. As with the article, despite the question being how the internet is playing a part in promoting sexual abuse among children, the authors take a step further to highlight the challenges that arise from sexual abuse to children and as well dangers that the affected children undergo (Anthony et al 2008).
 
    The authors stated the research conducted as a qualitative research. This is through the different aims they have for their research. As with the authors, the main aim of the research is to have a qualitative analysis of sexual abuse among children. However, during their research, they apply some quantitative research through the analysis of the global users of the internet and as well while dealing with the numbers of sexual offenders who have direct sexual contact with children as from the internet. Qualitative research is applied extensively in the article through the different methods that the sex offenders use including how the images are disseminated as well as the laws and policies that have been put in place to deal with internet sexual offenders (Anthony et al 2008).
 
    The authors support the need of the research from other literature. Internet World Stats Website is one literature that is used to support the need for research. It provides statistics on the global use of the internet and as well the growth of the internet use in different continents. Other literature sources that support the research are new challenges that face the policies that had been set aside to deal with internet sex offenders (Anthony et al 2008). Agencies dealing with sexual abuse of children are also providing need, for the research to be carried out as they have laws and regulations that govern the sex offender criminals.
 

    Reference
 
Anthony R. Beech, Ian A. Elliott, Astrid Birgden, Donald Findlater (2008). The Internet and child sexual offending: A criminological review.





    

Sunrise at Philadelphia


    Sunrise at Philadelphia is an essay by Brian McGinty; it records what went down in Philadelphia in the year 1787. It gives details of the situation at the ground, and what the stakes were, it also discusses in detail the debating points that existed in the convention. The great convention that occurred in the year 1787 was a gathering of 55 delegates who ultimately wound up, and created the federalist government that is in use, in the United States today.

The convention was imperative as this was a time where several states felt the urge to come together to form one large union, but there was no existing forum that existed that truly represented their needs. The goal of the delegates was to change the way the government worked at that particular time under the article of confederation (McGinty, 2010). They had two options either to amend the Articles of confederation or to create a completely new system of government. After carefully deliberation, the delegates finally agreed upon the latter. However, it is imperative to understand that this was not a unanimous decision as there were some delegates who decided to vote for making some amendments to the Articles of confederation.

    There were several notable figures in the convention that took place in Philadelphia. The person that was leading the convention was George Washington and he was elected the presiding officer with no debate over his placement. In fact, George Washington was the most prominent person in the convention, at the time he was fifty five years old. He initially wished to spend his life in private; however, he was urged by his friends to reconsider the decision.

After some time, he felt that it was his duty to become a leader and a servant of the people. For this reason, he moved into politics, and he was eventually elected as the convention leader in the convention in Philadelphia. Some of the notable figures were Benjamin Franklin, James Madison as well as Gouverneur Morris who were extremely important persons in the development of the federal constitution. In fact, they were the main proponents in pursuance of a new and completely different style of government (McGinty, 2010). However, there were also some notable absences in the convention. Some of the people who missed the convention included John Adams, Patrick Henry, John Jay and Richard lee.

    There were several issues that were debated at the convention; the first issue was the question of the type of government. This, in fact, was the most important issue that was debated in the convention. It was what had brought the convention together in the first place; there was a need to have either a new type of government or an amendment to the existing article. The exact agenda was to whether simply amend the articles, or create a new system of government that was completely different.

The question of whether there should be a national government was also a key point to be discussed in the convention. Delegates from South Carolina, for example, Charles Pickney argued that a national government might cause the states to cease in their existence. However, there were others who favored the National government system. For example, Virginia Delegate Edmund Randolp argued that the national government would not prevent the individual states from functioning but rather it would boost their activities by delegating some functions to the national government.

    The question of whether the national legislature was to be a unicameral one or a bicameral one was also an important question that was discussed. There was no big debate as to the type of national legislature and almost all the delegates quickly agreed on a bicameral legislature (McGinty, 2010). The delegates also agreed that that the lower house was to be popularly elected. However, the long debate that occurred was in regards to what the houses would actually represent. There was a conclusion that the lower house should be population based while the upper house should be undoubtedly equal (McGinty, 2010). There was a rule of secrecy that was adopted in the convention room that what happened in the convention room does not in any way leave the convention room.

    The delegates were able to set up a committee of the whole and ensured that the discussion was informal and that the delegates could be able to change their votes until when the convention ended. This was important as it ensured that there was an open minded-ness as well as frank speech. There were two groups that existed in the convention; there were the federalists and the anti-federalists. The federalists supported the adoption of the Federal government while the anti-federalists were persistent in trying to ensure that the states remained independent with some ratifications being made on the Articles.

At the time of the convention, there were many essays that were written and published by both sides. However, the most notable was the federalist papers that were written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison (McGinty, 2010). They argued that a federalist government would ultimately ensure that there was control and development in all states. This was because the Federal government would act as a collective bank where the states would borrow money for development. However, the anti-federalists also argued about the independence of the states and noted that the states might cease to exist with the introduction of a superior national government. Most notable essays were from New York governor George Clinton who often signed in as Cado.

    Another issue that was discussed was that of the Bill of rights. Federalists disliked the idea that was put forward to add the bill of rights in the constitution. The fact that there was a bill of rights made the federalists hesitant to sign the document (McGinty, 2010). However, eventually they all signed the document with Rhode Island becoming the final state to sign the constitution in May of 1970. At the end of 1971, a bill of rights was eventually approved by the required ¾ of the states which ensured that it was enshrined in the new constitution.

    Another contentious issue was the issue of slavery. The constitution was being prepared when slavery was at its peak there were many slaves in the United States, and most of them were concentrated in the Cotton farms, in the Southern states. Most of the southern states refuted the idea that slaves could be represented, and they argued that slaves were not human and, therefore, could not be represented.

Additionally, they argued that the slaves had owners and the fact that their owners were represented meant that also the slaves were adequately represented. Whether or not slaves would count towards the representation of the House of Representatives was a contentious issue. The decision that was decided upon was to count 3/5 of the slave population. By approving this, the framers promoted the notion and belief that indeed slaves were not human, and therefore they were not in any way equal.

    The convention decided to sit down and iron out the contentious issues that existed. Finally, many contentious issues were resolved and the constitution was ultimately signed. The signing of the constitution ensured that there was a federal government in place which would then run vis a vis the state governments (McGinty, 2010). The states were to remain independent with their own governments performing certain duties and functions. It is then after the signing of the constitution that Benjamin franklin expressed his optimism in regards to the new constitution by stating that ‘now at length I have the happiness to see that it is a rising sun and not a setting sun.’

    However, it is imperative to understand that the convention has been argued to be that of an unequal nature. This is because the convention mostly constituted of the wealthy, youngish and educated persons. In fact, more than a third of the delegates were slave owners. The poor, uneducated, as well as back country farmers were not represented in the convention. In fact, women, Indians and blacks were not in any way represented in the convention. The framers of the constitution argued that inalienable rights of women and blacks were not in any way important that national strength and order. For this reason, there are those that argue that the convention was unfair and unequally represented.

    References

McGinty, B.,(2010) Sunrise at Philadelphia. Print.





     

For Esme, with Love and Squalor


    "For Esme, with Love and Squalor” is a short story written by J.D. Salinger. Its publishers were The New Yorker on April 1950. It is among the popular American short stories. The short story is one of the best stories written by Salinger. Its production was during the world war. It displays a high level of loss, hope and has an emotional connection between people faced by world war and the reader (Salinger 45). The story evokes mixed feelings of sadness and joy and as well fear and reassurance. Salinger uses different characters in the short story while demonstrating events and situations faced by victims during World War II. The paper is an analysis of the short story.

    Salinger uses different styles in the book. Narration is one writing style used by the writer. He uses first person and third person in the short story. The story opens with a first person narration. This informs the reader that he received an invitation to the wedding anticipated taking place on April 18th. The narrator describes his intentions and desire of attending the wedding, but the reader gets a chance of learning that the narrator was in a dilemma since his mother-in-law was visiting him on the same period (Salinger 50). Use of first person narration gives readers an opportunity to learn the thoughts and distinctive humorous voice colors.

First person narration in the short story appears in the beginning of the story and as well while ending the story. This has a significant effect on the reader while introducing thoughts of the narrator and as well while concluding the narrator’s thoughts and ideas. Partly in the story, the narration shifts from a first person to a third person (Peterson 39). This through the transition, a feeling of alienation and distance is evoked in the readers’ mind. The alienation feeling instilled in the reader’s mind originates from the shift from the narrator’s mind to a point where the reader learns the thoughts without interaction with Sergeant X (first person narrator). Use of first person and third person in the short story has a role of evoking emotions on the reader.

    In the story, there is a variation of tone. Using tone, the story has two sections. These sections resemble day and night due to their transition. The first section of the story is lighthearted and chatty (Salinger 60). This is through the first person narrator where he interacts with the two children. This section evokes a feeling of terrific-seriousness and realism in the reader’s mind. It is an incredible part while reading the short story full of fun and as well introducing a touching feeling to the reader.

Humor in this section is through the sweet exchange between narrator, Esme and Charles. On the other hand, there lies the other section which is a horse and has a complete different color. In this section, the author shifts his tone and the reader can easily feel the change through the shift from first hand narration to a third person narration. Dialogue involved in this section is different since it does not evoke feelings of lightheartedness in the reader. In the second section of the story; it is full of sarcasm and ends with cruelty. This is distressing to the reader after reading the first section of the narration. The transition change in tone in the narration is important to the reader as it introduces feelings of sadness and joy after reading the story.

    In the story, characters play different roles. The narrator (Sergeant X) plays a great role in demonstrating the transition faced after war (Peterson 58). The author introduces him as a young man with dreams of joining the army. His character is admirable and as well brave. However, this does not last. After the war, he changes his character and. The reader feels the transition through the change in narration in the story. He changes to a battered, troubled and scared soldier. His humorous and gentle nature changes to sardonic cruel nature after war. Dialogue tone change demonstrates the change in behavior. The character has a role of demonstrating some effects of war (Peterson 64).

    Similarly, Esme, brought out in the story as a young kid forced to grow up before her time, demonstrates a shift in behavior and idea (Salinger 78). Initially, she has a youthful nature and her behavior resembles that of a youthful character. However, the kid inside her escapes and she adopts a mature behavior. This is evident when an idea that she’s “extremely interested in squalor” (79). She has a role of instilling a touching feeling to the reader when her inner sadness emerges during their entire conversation. In addition, she evokes a feeling of innocence on the reader’s mind (Salinger 79).

    Charles, brother to Esme, plays a role similar to his sister’s. The author introduces him as a young boy full of innocent behavior. He is in a state of blissful innocence regarding to the death of their father. The reader is able to learn his real nature when the narrator in the story starts thinking about the little boy’s feelings. In the story, Charles plays a role of demonstrating the innocent nature of children and as well blissful ignorance regarding the surrounding the child’s environment (Salinger 83).

    Salinger had several themes while writing the short story. The leader is able to learn the theme of youth through the characters used in the story (Slawenski 87). On the other hand, his tone in “kids say the darnedest things!” gives the reader a task of learning the theme of youth. Warfare is another theme in the short story. It has negative impacts as seen in the story. In the story, there is destruction of the protagonist through the experience in the war. On the other hand, effects of losing parents as with the case of Charles are evident in the book. Despite the failure of participating in war, they face its negative impacts. Lastly, the author aims at demonstrating the theme of love through Esme where he introduces her that she had a strong interest towards squalor. Family love is clear when the narrator gets concerned about Charles feelings (Slawenski 90).

    Squalor’s short story is highly significant and relevant in demonstrating different themes. Effect of war is one major theme in the short story. On the other hand, innocence of children and as well youthful, behavior among characters is evident in the book.

    Work cited

Salinger, J D. Nine Stories. New York: New American Library, 1954. Print.
Salinger, J D. For Esmé -- with Love and Squalor. London: Penguin Books, 2010. Print
Slawenski, Kenneth. J. D. Salinger: A Life. New York: Random House, 2012. Print.
Peterson, William S. John Betjeman: A Bibliography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2006. Print.