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Racism is the discrimination of individuals based on their race. Ever since the beginning of civilized society, race has always been a contentious issue. Many at times, supremacist tendencies are a common feature of races, and especially so when the society in question is of mixed race. The racist nature of human beings was responsible for the beginning of the slave trade in the United States and Europe.
Fast forward hundreds of years later, the menace of racism still continues to haunt society while threatening to rear its ugly head once more. Countless spirited campaigns against racism have played a significant role in abating the issue, and some neighborhoods such as Howard Beach felt the hard pinch of racism as late as the 1980s (Wellman, 47). Being a neighborhood that is predominantly white and comprising of Italians and Jews with very few blacks is primarily responsible for the racist surges witnessed in the 1980s.
In the past, the South was infamous for its white supremacist notions that spearheaded the racist actions of these individuals. The outbreak of racism in the North, and in particular New York City was worrisome. This was specifically because the North was known to be of mixed race and this diversity led the people in these neighborhoods to be very accommodating of other races. The racist behavior of the perpetrators of these acts points to a larger social problem that plagued New York City in this time period (Sleeper, 33). The children were being raised upon questionable virtues that sought to exalt their race and look down upon other races, mainly the black race. It is necessary that the root cause of the problem is understood to facilitate a proper analysis of the problem (Brooks, 62).
In the night of December 19th in 1986, a group of young men were out riding in their car when it broke down. The men were Timothy Grimes, Curtis Sylvester, Cedric Sandiford and Michael Griffith. Once the car broke down, Curtis was left watching the car while the three other men looked for help in the nearest town. A three mile walk led them to Howard Beach where they enjoyed a pizza at the local pizzeria before deciding to move on in search of help. However, upon their exit from the pizzeria, they were confronted by a group of young men who hurled racial slurs at them and told them to get out of their neighborhood. Timothy Grimes pulled a knife on the assailants and was lucky enough to escape serious harm. However, his friends Cedric Sandiford and Michael Griffith were not as lucky. Sandiford was struck by a baseball bat and suffered serious injuries while Michael was knocked down by a car and died while fleeing from the vicious mob.
The attackers were arrested, and the main perpetrators were sentenced to prison, but the outcry and the racial division that this event had on the New York City community and the American society at large was at an all-time high (Sleeper, 24). The society in which these races lived peacefully with each other seemed to have died a natural death with the onset of these heinous acts. Many New Yorkers especially in the Howard Beach neighborhood were largely affected by this act and subsequent racial injustices.
However, the occurrence of these events seems to have had a lasting impression on the lives of many New Yorkers. There have been numerous efforts to reconcile the races involved in these acts, but the attempts served as fuel to an already raging fire. Many individuals in younger generations are now raised with racist tendencies enshrined in their minds and hearts. It is saddening that the parents of these children and youth that harbor racist views are primarily responsible. Children are a reflection of society, and more often than not, they highlight the successes and failures of parents, and of the society at large. Even when slave trade and racism was extremely rampant in the South, the parents and previous generations were to blame.
Holding on to outdated schools of thought on matters race is a key factor in supporting racism in the United States of America. The group of young men that attacked Michael Griffith and his friends is the product of racist thoughts and actions by their parents and the social structures they grew up around. Although this fact neither shifts blame from the perpetrators nor hides the fact that the young men were responsible for the actions, it is the greater problem that must be addressed (Wellman, 88). Having young men who are brought up believing that their race is better than another or that their race deserves better treatment than another is the reason why these young men attacked Michael and his friends.
However, the fact that Timothy Grimes also pulled a knife on the group of young men cannot go ignored. It begs the question why did Timothy Grimes have a knife in the first place. Was this group of young men one made up of criminal offenders, or was it just a coincidence? It is even argued that the fact that Timothy Grimes had a knife is the reason the problem escalated beyond control. However, the fact that Timothy Grimes had a knife, and was willing to use it, highlights the true plight of the black community in Howard Beach, as well as, the United States of America.
Having suffered endless atrocities in the slave trade days, the black community came to view injustice as a part of their lives. This community came to believe that the white community is responsible for their suffering and the only way to ensure the white community also suffered was by taking the law into their own hands. Although this racist incident was one in which black young men were attacked, it is also common to hear of young white men who have been attacked by gangs made up of black men. This raises doubts to the upbringing that children receive.
The social structures and amenities in which many children are raised also have a significant impact on the child’s view on racism. In a neighborhood that is predominantly white, mingling between white and black children is very limited (Brooks, 99). This results in a preconceived notion in the mind of the child that their race is the only race that is acceptable in their neighborhood or around their social amenities. The failure of children to interact with other children from different races can lead to the development of an inferiority or superiority complex in the children.
As is the case with the Howard Beach neighborhood, the development of a superiority complex by the white children led them to discriminate against Michael Griffith and his group of friends. On the other hand, an inferiority complex that Michael and his friends harbored is probably the reason why Timothy Grimes had a knife in the first place. Perhaps he felt the need to always protect himself. This belief coupled with the belief that the law exhibits racist bias can lead one towards extreme racist ideologies. A misconception of Michael and his friends by the white young men in Howard Beach could be the reason that they were attacked. Perhaps the young men felt the innate desire to protect themselves and their neighborhood from the likes of Timothy Grimes who had pulled out a knife amidst the confrontation (Wellman, 120).
The trial of the main perpetrators of the attacks on the black young men was the hallmark of fairness in the judicial system for the black race (Sleeper, 82). The sentencing of these young men to lengthy prison sentences proved that the law is devoid of bias and that it cuts across the racial divides that society has placed upon itself. However, the sentencing of a few individuals to prison only consoles the hearts of those who lost their loved ones or who were affected by the events. It is noteworthy that this sentencing does not address the underlying issues that are responsible for the development of racist views among children and adults.
The annals of history highlight injustices against the African American community and this has significant effects on the development of racist views in blacks and whites alike. Feelings of racial hate are common in the United States of America and the whole world at large, and such feelings can lead to events like the one in which Michael Griffith lost his life and other young men were injured. It is necessary to address the causes of racism in order to solve this problem.
In Howard Beach, the racial imbalance in the population is a cause for alarm. This racial imbalance is responsible for the feelings of condescension that the whites harbor towards the blacks. The young white attackers are quoted as telling Michael and his friends to ‘leave our neighborhood’. The feeling that the neighborhood of Howard Beach belongs to the white populace is the result of racial imbalance. The white felt that they cannot share their neighborhood with another race, and especially so a black race.
The fact that the white young men committed atrocities towards Michael Griffith and his friends cannot change. However, it should be acknowledged that no human being is born racist and that this is often the result of habit learnt from the society and from the family. The killing of Michael and beating of Sandiford were a big blow to the fight against racism in the United States of America, and it set back this fight a couple of steps (Brooks, 45). However, Howard Beach has turned a new leaf over the years and New York City is once again firmly set in the fight against racism. The new generations of children learn to accommodate different races at early ages, and this has been instrumental in the fight against racism. Howard Beach remains forever haunted by the scars of a racist past, but the desire to change this fact has driven this neighborhood into becoming one that is synonymous with love, peace and above all, racial accommodation.
Brooks, Roy L. Rethinking the American Race Problem. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. Print.
Sleeper, Jim. In Search of New York. New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A: Transaction Publishers, 1989. Print.
Wellman, David T. Portraits of White Racism. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994. Print.
“So What Are You, Anyway” by Lawrence Hill is a manifestation of racism as it occurs in modern Canadian society. Through this story, Hill aims to enlighten the readership on the casual nature with which racism is treated and addressed in Canada. Through the eyes of Carole during her encounter with the Nortons, we witness racism in its raw state. The Nortons are the typical example of individuals that feel they hold some form of privilege over others because of their skin colour. Racism leads to unnecessary conflict as well as emotional imbalance among the victims in society.
This story is Hill’s way of shedding light on the roots and results of racism. The Norton couple is the perfect example of people who still harbor racist ideologies and tendencies in 1970, which is the time setting of this story, despite the glaring fact that racial segregation ha ended by this time. In 1970, the racial prejudices that were characteristic of previous years are starting to lose their footing particularly in Canada. It is therefore a direct representation of individuals that are still racist today. It is as much a surprise to Carole as it would be today.
Racial prejudice is one of the roots of racism. One of the earliest depictions of this prejudice is at the beginning of the story. When Mr. Norton arrives at his seat and sees the black doll, he says “A black doll! I never saw such a thing!”(pg. 100) This statement is the embodiment of racial prejudice. His exclamation at the existence of a black doll is a representation of just how racist Mr. Norton is. Mr. Norton’s prejudices cannot allow him to imagine the existence of a black doll, since in his mind dolls are only supposed to be white. To him, the black race is not worthy of having imitations, even in the form of dolls. This subliminal racism is the result of racial superiority complexes in Mr. Norton. They cause him to downgrade the abilities and independence of black people.
The fact that African-Americans were often the descendants of slaves also had a huge bearing on the development of prejudice (Bulmer & Solomos 1999). The notion that all slaves were forced to fulfill their masters’ wishes is also addressed in the story. This is exhibited in line 36 (pg. 101) where Mr. Norton seemingly objects Carole’s going to the bathroom at the time when the stewardesses are serving the meals. This is a representation of the slave trade period where white masters had the final say on matters concerning their slaves. Mr. Norton harbors some form of subliminal racism that leads him into believing that the whites can make decisions for the blacks, whether they like it or not.
The existence and wrongfulness of these racial stereotypes are what Hill sought to address through this literary work. The fact that Carole proceeds to go to the bathroom is a manifestation that black and mixed race individuals are now free to make their own decisions. The fact that Carole is a young girl, yet she still decides to do as she wishes represents the progress of freedom among the black and mixed race populations. Another one of these racial stereotypes is exhibited in the form of subliminal racism when Mrs. Norton asks Carole, “Is your mother Chinese?” in response to Carole’s answer that she would paint her mother’s face yellow. Mrs. Norton exhibits subliminal racism when she says “So you’re mixed? You’re a mulatto!”(pg. 103) She offends Carole by calling her a mulatto, a racial slur for mixed race individuals.
The results of racism are, more often than not, negative. The first is conflict between the couple and Carole. Mr. Norton exhibits polite racism when he hogs the arm rest and sprawls his feet across to Carole’s side. His downgrading of Carole due to her mixed race, alongside an array of scathing racial comments leads the onset of conflict. Carole snaps at the Nortons for insisting on determining the races of her parents. When the stress builds up to the breaking point, Carole finally calls out the Nortons for their behavior and moves to sit with the stewardess. The fact that the passengers as well as the stewardess all side with Carole represents the fact that racism has been eradicated in a majority of the population, with only a small number still harboring racist ideologies. The fact that racial segregation was still a burning issue in America is depicted in the behavior of the Nortons. Their racial insensitivity leads them into conflict with Carole.
Racism is also responsible for causing emotional stress among the victims on the receiving end of racial slurs and discrimination. In this story, Carole experiences reasonable emotional stress due to the racist comments of the Nortons. This is clearly highlighted when the narrator says, in line 19 (pg. 100), “Carole swallows with difficulty” and in line 53 (pg. 102) where Carole “…senses that the man is asking a bad question. It is as if he is asking her something dirty, or touching her in a bad place.” These actions cause emotional turmoil for Carole until “She wishes her Mom and Dad were there [with her].” These are highly uncomfortable scenarios for any individual, let alone a girl as young as Carole who is travelling alone. The invasion of her privacy by complete strangers that are racially insensitive is very uncomfortable for Carole.
This reading is an eye-opener. It highlights complex intricacies of racism in a very simple and straight-forward manner. Hill allows the reader to understand that racism is still existent today and has extremely negative effects, though the individuals doing this hardly seem to notice their insensitivity. Its roots as well as its results are filled with malice, prejudice and evil. Through this reading, the reader grasps the reality that no matter how much some individuals may try to cover it up, nothing good comes out of racism (Bulmer & Solomos, 1999). This is essential to addressing the remnants of racism in our present-day society. This reading discourages the use of racial slurs and racially insensitive comments on racial minorities. Just like Carole suffered at the side of the Nortons, many individuals from racial minorities continue to suffer from racism in society today. By having a firm understanding of the reading and the negative effects of racism, then one has the chance to eradicate racism, even if it is only within themselves.
Bulmer, M., & Solomos, J. (1999). Racism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hill, L. (2000). “So what are you, anyway?”. Toronto: Harper Perennial Canada.
The traditional stereotype for the mid-19th century black person was that he was stupid and was not intelligent. In fact, in the year 1844, the Secretary of State argued that the African was incapable of self scare and sank into lunacy when he was burdened with freedom. Therefore, it was mercy for the whites to give him guardianship as well as protection from mental death (Rome, 2004). It is of the essence to understand that even after slavery ended, the intellectual capacity of the African American was constantly questioned. In fact movies such as Birth of a Nation questioned whether or not the black man was intelligent enough to run for government office or even vote (Roberts, 2006). The African American was also seen as superstitious believing in what the whites considered as ignorant beliefs. Thirdly, he was also seen as being naive and incapable of easy learning.
In the 21st century, there has been a change in the stereotypes; there are also other new stereotypes that have been established (Boyd, 2008). There has been criminal stereotyping of the African American. In fact, according to the former president of CBS News, television and movies often show African Americans under arrest, living in slums and being convicted for different crimes. An argument showed that African Americans that have committed violent acts often take up more than half of the different local news broadcast (Roberts, 2006). They often portray the African American as being sinister as compared to their white counterparts. The stereotypes have been published in the media and especially in movies (Andersen, 2008). Law enforcement have picked up these stereotypes and this is the reason as to why there have been cases of Treyvon Martin and also Michael Brown that have been gunned because of the stereotype.
Roberts, K. D. (2006). African American issues. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Rome, D. (2004). Black demons: Media's depiction of the African American male criminal stereotype. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Boyd, T. (2008). African Americans and popular culture. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Andersen, M. L., & Taylor, H. F. (2008). Sociology: Understanding a diverse society. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
The first amendment of the constitution of the United States of America focuses on the rights of speech to the people. The amendment allows all the United States citizens to state what they want to state without having to deal with any of the inhibitions that may be instigated against them (Bulmer & Solomos, 1999). Creation of the freedom of speech has led to different interpretation of the constitutional amendment. Some of the people cite the amendment even when they are expressing things that are often deemed less acceptable in the society according to the moral standards and ethical stipulations (Grunsell, 1991). However, since the morality is not enforceable, the people have been allowed to have a leeway of developing their own perceptions of the freedoms. The most notably the amendment has allowed the people to continue with their racial perceptions. In the United States, there is a guarantee of freedom of expression. In the event that a person wishes to hold a rally to castigate another race, he or she has the right to do so. In fact, the government will provide the person with the security such that the public does no attack them. This is the reason behind the high development of the Klu Klux Klan in the southern states that advocate for the white supremacy.
In as much as the freedom of expression is restricted to the statement that is not bound to incite the rest of the people, there are morality issues that surround the debate. The question of the government enforcing morality is not in the discussion. However, the government has made the environment conducive for the development of hater’s attitudes such that it is beyond the control of the police force (Bulmer & Solomos, 1999). This paper will focus on the amendment and the repercussions that it has on the peace and harmonies living between the majority and minority races. The paper will also look at the standpoint of the European government on the issue of racism.
The law prohibits against the limitation of the freedom of speech or press. It also guarantees the people the freedom of assembly and petition to the government on the important rights in the country (Grunsell, 1991). In the event that the people do not have the freedom to speak out their minds, there will be no need of holding political elections and campaigns (Jayasuriya, 1998). In the event that there is limited freedom of the press, it would be impossible for the masses to receive the information that they need from the government (Haugen, 2008). This is some of the positive effects of the amendment since it focuses on the way it can improve the access to information. Therefore, the amendment in itself is what makes up the American dream and ideal. However, some of the parts of the amendment are deemed repugnant to morality and justice since they allow some of the races to dominate over the others and claim supremacy (Hurley, 1998). The freedom of speech and assembly that comes from the amendment is a major source of the justification on majority of the racist movements formed in the country. Due to the crowd mentality, the racist movements may be unable to refrain from use of violence or incitement of the same in the society (Jayasuriya, 1998).
It is important to looks at the foundations of the amendment since the implications that it has today may not seem to be similar to the ones envisioned by the founders of the nation (Haugen, 2008). The American farmers, who were the founders of the nation, were wary of the government given their experiences with the British government. The farmers had been subjects in a government that was not entirely focused on the creation of the freest environment. The farmers demanded that the freedoms be put in writing such that they would have a high sense of permanence (Hurley, 1998). However, the expression of rights was not always straightforward and some of the people had to look for new perceptions on the clause. The farmers chose to express their concerns in a manner that they deemed fit at the time. The amendment states that there government will not limit the freedom of expression. However, few people believe that the amendment’s stipulations were meant to be very absolute (Memmi, 2000). There are some forms of expressions that have been ruled out such as lying under the oath or subjecting the children in pornography. However, the allowance of some of the rights has led to the loss of the dream that the ancestors had of the nation where all the people will be equal in the eyes of man and god. Racism is such an expression sanctioned by the law that defeats the purpose of the nation. Absolute criminalization of slavery can be termed as a graduation to another form of slavery whereby all the races are equally liable (Memmi, 2000). The issue of racism shifted from the crop fields and lumberyards to the minds of the people whereby the notion that one of the races is better than the other was shifted to the minds. In the mind and sometimes in groups, people still hold the notion of the race. In as much as there is no law prohibiting harboring of such notions, the ethical stipulations of the society indicate otherwise.
Racism is undesired among the majority of the American people. There is a desire for the development of a new way of doing things that accommodates all the people. However, this development can only be attained if the law supports it (Sanders, Myers & Lacey, 1995). However, the law still inoculates the racists from prosecution since it was a result of the mistaken expression by all the people. Freedom of speech ought to be fostered in the event that it does not interfere with the right of the next person. However, some of the racist movements often make other people uneasy concerning themselves and their color. The question is whether the movements contribute to the common good of the society or it is a preclusion that makes some of the people feels more important than the rest. Therefore, the freedom as it is does not contribute to the common good of the society or the development of the entire society.
Another argument that can be put across against the use of freedom of expression to promote racist can be taken from the biblical teaching that were used by the founding fathers to solve some of the issues that faced them (Miles, 1989). It is imperative that a person ought to do that which he or she expects another person to do unto him. Racist expressions do not follow this epitome. Therefore, there is failure in adhering to the foundation that the founding fathers referred to in the creation of the nation.
The freedom of expression debate and its influence in spreading of the racism needs more focus since the status quo favors the right of the individuals to express themselves freely. The law demands that the merit of a case be examined on the scales of justice. The law measures the case according to the interests of the person and those of the society. The interests of the society act as the counter balances. The issues of the freedom to express oneself freely on matters relating to the race calls for a trade off between the interest of the society and the personal liberty. The scales of justice are often bound to rule in favour of the individual even if the actions of the individual are tantamount to public disruption such as rallies held to espouse on some racial perception on a section of the society. Freedom of expression cases may favor a person while there is a disruption of the normal way of the society. Racists are a minority in most parts of the country (Williams, 2004). Therefore, their expressions always affect the personal life of the majority that does not hold the view.
A person’s expression on the issue of race should be kept private since the public proclamation of the standpoint does not augur well with the majority of the people. It also interferes with the psychological security of the minority race that is often under the attack. The other reason behind the need for the establishment of the freedom of expression in matters touching on race comes from the fact that the freedom of expression on racial matters leads to the development of the perception among the younger children that the minority races are less human.
In conclusion, inculcation of the perception leads to future law breaking since the people that hold the perception have grown from a background when the involvement of the rest of the races is discouraged (Merino, 2009). Whenever the racists have to interact with other races, they often have difficulties and may end up breaking some of the laws on discrimination in public spaces. Therefore, the freedom of speech and expression on matter touching on race has a negative effect on the eventual development of a law abiding society since some of the laws restricting some of the practices may be inadmissible to people raised from a racist background.
Bulmer, M., & Solomos, J. (1999). Racism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grunsell, A. (1991). Racism. London: Gloucester Press.
Haugen, H. (2008). Racism. Detroit [Mich.]: Greenhaven Press.
Hurley, J. (1998). Racism. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
Jayasuriya, L. (1998). Opinion: Old Racism, New Racism. AQ: Australian Quarterly, 70(5), 4.doi:10.2307/20637758
Memmi, A. (2000). Racism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Merino, N. (2009). Racism. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Miles, R. (1989). Racism. London: Routledge.
Sanders, P., Myers, S., & Lacey, M. (1995). Racism. Brookfield, Conn.: Copper Beech Books.
Williams, M. (2004). Racism. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Racism in the United States of America has always been an issue that has been under-looked and over-looked in different ways. The main problem with racism United States is no different from racism in any other part of the globe. The undermining of the blacks and the supremacy of the whites is a global issue that has been existence for the past few centuries. However, with the change in trends in the world, the issue of racism has been reduced, and whites and blacks have learnt to cope with each other. However, in some part of the U.S blacks are still undermined and treated as lesser people in the society. “How it feels to be black in America’ is an article that tackles the issues that black people have to face and have been facing for a few decades. The declaration of the end of the slave trade was supposed to be a sign that mistreatment of the blacks and white supremacy coming to an end (Bonilla-Silva 2013). In this essay, the discussion revolves around the issues raised in the article concerning blacks.
In the past few decades, there have been actions against blacks that clearly show that blacks are undermined in the American society. The actions have in a great way shown that even after slavery was banned it still exists in a different form than it existed a century ago. African Americans or blacks in America have been the victims of shooting by police officers simply because they look suspicious. There has rarely been a case in which a white individual has been shot in such controversy that blacks encounter (In Gallagher and In Lippard 2014). It is very surprising that blacks or African Americans are the ones who end up suffering the victimization. Considering that the United States is a multicultural and multiracial society, blacks are on the suffering end due to their skin color. Rankine states that in the world right now, to be specific in the United States, no individual is free of racism.
It is so hard to live in America without racism since there is a potential that one person will either say a racist statement or think like a racist. Therefore, the problem of racism is still engrained in the American culture. In one statement in the article, the author states that whatever is news to whites is the experience that blacks have encountered for decades (Griffin 2011). One of the most recent cases of the murder of a black teenager ended up with the police officer who shot the teenager being let free by the court. The case was between the police officer, George Zimmerman, and Trayvon Benjamin Martin, the black teenager (Whitaker 2011). During the case proceedings, one could even think that Zimmerman was the victim. The action taken by Zimmerman is just an example of the victimization that black teenagers have to undergo in the American culture.
In conclusion, the situation has grown from bad to worse for African Americans or Blacks. It has become harder even for a black individual to walk in an alley or even in an open space with a hood on without raising the attention of the patrolling police officers (Selzter 2009). Even in supermarkets, a black guy in a hood can easily be approached by a police officer and asked for identification. However, if a white guy enters the same supermarket, still wearing the same hood, no one can approach them under suspicion that they are up to any harmful actions. However, it is about time that this culture comes to an end. In this century, focus should be placed on more important issues affecting America than investigating innocent black guys just because they are dressed suspiciously (Terkel 2005). The United States is facing many issues that the government needs to stop focusing on racism. The fact that there are no individuals that can be termed as native Americans anymore creates equal individuals for any inhabitants of the country. Therefore, all races are entitled to the same opportunities, and no one should be discriminated on a racial basis.
Bonilla-Silva, E. (2013). Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
In Gallagher, C. A., & In Lippard, C. D. (2014). Race and racism in the United States: An encyclopedia of the American mosaic.
Griffin, J. H. (2011). Black like me: The definitive Griffin estate edition, corrected from original manuscripts. San Antonio, Tex: Wings Press.
Seltzer, R. A., & Johnson, N. E. (2009). Experiencing racism: Exploring discrimination through the eyes of college students. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
Terkel, S. (2005). Race: How blacks and whites think and feel about the American obsession. New York, NY: New Press.
Whitaker, M. C. (2011). Icons of Black America: Breaking barriers and crossing boundaries. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood.
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