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Aging in place is an approach to the palliative care whereby the old people are allowed to stay in the familiar home environment as opposed to being admitted in elderly homes for the assisted care. Most of the older citizens own their homes. The homes are often designed to accommodate the young life and the young families. Therefore, there are rarely instances when the homes are designed with the consideration of the aging dwellers. This is the case in houses designed according to the old conventional designs or the neo designs.
In order to make the homes suitable for the aging dwellers, there is need for home modifications. The modifications are meant to increase the self-reliance of the dwellers by easing their movement, safety by reducing the hazards and security by ensuring that the homes are free from invasion since the old people are easier targets for burglaries and home invasions (Benefield & Holtzclaw, n.d.). This paper will evaluate the role of home modifications as a means of enhancing aging in place.
Home modification adapts the living spaces such that the occupants re capable of living safely, working in a better manner without or with minimal assistance irrespective of their physical limitations (Benefield & Holtzclaw, n.d.). The changes in the homes can be as simple as the addition of grip bars or the extensive removal of the movement constraints such as stairwells and replacing them with the palliative friendly rumps.
The old people are in particular need of the home modifications. The majority of the senior citizens live in the homes that we constructed long ago with the main aim being the accessibility to all (Callahan, 1993). The homes may have been developed such that the stairs and the doorways were narrow. This design consideration may have worked when the owner was younger. However it might not work now that he or she is older and in need of assisted movement. What was normal when the homeowner was younger may be a hazard to him now that he is older.
Some of the designs may prove to be problematic in that the majority of the elderly homeowners may be forced to leave their home since it is no longer possible for them to live an unencumbered life. The problematic designs could make normal tasks such as the food preparation, showering or movement from one point of the house to the other highly problematic.
When home modifications are planned and executed in the keen manner, there is chance of the old dwellers moving freely within the house and conducting their activities without much need of assistance (Benefield & Holtzclaw, n.d.). Home modifications most part of the extreme make overs of the entire house since the designers have to focus on the creation of the best environment with the least hazards. All mistakes are proofed in order to reduce the exposure of the senior citizens to risks such as falling or tedious movements. It may even call for the relocation of some quarter such as the bedrooms to the more accessible ground floor.
Home modification can only be successful if it entails the interactions of the elderly people with the members of the design team (Pastalan, 1999). The main ideal of the interactions is the development of the perspective of the future dweller of the modified quarters. It is unfortunate if the elderly dweller of the modified home does not agree with the installed modifications for one reason or the other. Therefore, the elderly person ought to be included in the entire process of modification since all changes in the house center on his or her living. The modifications ought to be effective in the development of the ageing in place perspective as opposed to the assisted living approach (Benefield & Holtzclaw, n.d.).
Home modifications have to focus on the room to roam assessment whereby all the aspects of the room are assessed in order to create insight on the issues such as the safety of the rooms, accessibility and adaptability of all the installations to the future complications that the home owner may develop (Pastalan, 1999). Safety assessment focuses on issues of whether there are any installations or objects that are a risk or a hazard to the home dweller.
If there is any instrument that could be a source of risk, it is important to remove the hazard and replace it with something that would be more accommodative to the dweller. Some of the common sources of hazards include the overly smooth floors such that there is a risk of falling, rugs that increase the risk of falling or poor furniture arrangement that can lead to falls for the old citizen (Benefield & Holtzclaw, n.d.).
Adaptability of the room refers to the ability of the old member to reach the needs that he or she has with ease as opposed to the traditional designs that are organized according to the market heuristic. Some aspects of the entire house need to be adapted in a better manner for them to increase the ease and comfort of the home dwellers. Some of the adaptability could be conducted in the areas of the house that are used more often such as the kitchen and the bathrooms (Benefield & Holtzclaw, n.d.). The kitchen cabinets may have to be reduced to a lower level such that they are accessible. The actual level to be used could be configured to the needs of the old person hence the importance of the involvement of the senior citizen in the entire design process (Callahan, 1993).
Home improvement can be conducted in the house or even in the external environment. There could be a need to improve on accessibility to the house from the outside by increasing the level of access to the house (Pastalan, 1999). Some of the improvement on the external environment includes the increment of the level of lighting or the clearing of the shrubs that may pose a hazard to the old people.
Benefield, L., & Holtzclaw, B. Facilitating aging in place.
Callahan, J. (1993). Aging in place. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood Pub. Co.
Pastalan, L. (1999). Making aging in place work. New York: Haworth Press.
Ending homelessness is a platform that enables society to realize its full potential, while also improving the role of relevant bodies. The Salvation Army must adapt its approach to social change welfare by embracing the needs of a liberal society but at the same time retaining its unique personality of Christian beliefs in providing social care. A SWOT analysis and environmental scan reveal that economic and political misalignments can impend relationships and housing agendas between government authorities and the faith-based organization. The solution rests on embracing the new challenges and dimensions of social change by stressing a universality of human values while advocating for dialogue and policies, not polemics.
The salvation army aims at extending human needs as part of social change aspects in improving society. Ending homelessness requires advocacy and leadership in promoting programs geared towards establishing permanent housing. However, just like any other organization, the Salvation Army faces a myriad of internal and external opportunities and challenges that ultimately affects the implementation of social change programs such as providing permanent housing. A SWOT analysis will create a picture of pre-existing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that affecting current operations at the organization. Furthermore, a SWOT analysis is imperative in determining the direction the organization will take in improving its services. The table below provides a SWOT review at the agency.
1. international charity charter
2. well know advocacy campaigns
3. local marketing strategies that improve campaign imagery
4. available donors and stakeholders who improve advocacy and service delivery Weaknesses
1. a small number of repeat volunteers
2. lack of visible long-term partners
3. lack of adequate staff and resources
4. new leadership required
5. limited autonomy in local charters
1. branding campaigns
2. availability of faith-based learning institutions that require community services
3. monthly contributions from members
1.the presence of other local charity organizations
2.2. increased operation transparency from other organizations
3.3. The economy
4.4. existing donor demographic is aging and dying
5.5. increasing poverty levels
It is evident that the current position held by the organization as an international charity establishment lays the foundations for practices towards creating social change. The organization operates under an international charity charter that currently establishes leeway in the extension of human services (The Salvation Army, n.d.). It suffices to state that the charter agreement is at the center of all operations, thus making it possible for the organization to include donors and other partners in extending social services. Ending homelessness is that the center of social change policies at the organization, and the charter makes it possible for the Salvation Army to garner funds from multiple volunteers, partners and government agencies (The Salvation Army. n.d.). Moreover, improve market campaigns have enhanced the image of the company, but issues of transparency and competition from other faith-based organization threaten the future of the agency and its stakeholders. The Salvation Army has instituted a strategic framework that seeks to establish itself as a leader in improving human needs by 2030 (The Salvation Army. n.d.). However, with increasing calls for transparency, the organization needs to strengthen its leadership structure. Leadership promotes effective governance and policy implementation, and in ending homelessness, the organization must restructure the current bureaucratic system to fall in line with modernization and new business models and practices.
A transformational leadership structure is necessary at the agency if social change is to take place and this calls for the adoption of technology, and new economic models in creating permanent housing for homeless persons (Mago et al., 2013). However, the threat of local charity organizations, coupled with calls for increased operational transparency and globalization is set to derail the agency (The Salvation Army, n.d.). As a nonprofit organization, the Salvation Army does not have to report its operations to the government, and this might affect future interactions with government stakeholders. In this respect, the board of directors must restructure its operational mandates to provide financial reports to government partners if not all government agencies (Grant, 2016). Globalization is nothing new to the agency, but it continues to strive in balancing between ethics and Christianity. As a faith-based organization, the Salvation Army ascribes to Christ and ‘Knowing Him’ as fundamental values, but globalization has led to a shift in homelessness trends where people from all cultures are affected (Mago et al., 2013; Homan, 2016). The agency must stress calls for an international commitment that goes beyond religion and human ethical practices based on natural laws of inclusiveness and tolerance (Mago et al., 2013). Moreover, the threat of the increasing role of local charity organizations can be rectified by embracing mutual partnerships that advocate for regional and regional standards in ending homelessness.
Partnerships in ending homelessness are crucial, but organizations must understand the environment in which they operate (Homan, 2016). The aim here is to create permanent housing after extending temporary shelter to the homeless individual, but various factors will affect partnerships with relevant stakeholders. A PESTLE analysis of the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental conditions is necessary if the organizations and its stakeholders are to bring about change and advocate for policies towards permanent housing (Grant, 2016). Politically, the Salvation Army is an international NPO and thus subject to government regulations. In this case, this affects internal operations since all policies towards social change must be in line with government agenda policies. In the end, this means aligning all activities with internal standards established by government agencies, hence hampering its strict adherence to religion and social ‘cause’ agendas (The Salvation Army, n.d.). Traditionally, this affects its coordination with other faith-based institutions that place religion and social services beyond the politics of social change.
External factors such as globalization, which is an economic aspect, can affect relations between the organization and stakeholders in the implementation process considering that some stakeholders might be aiming for commercial benefits instead of a focused spiritual perspective (Grant, 2016; The Salvation Army, n.d.). However, the organization’s reliance on grants and property sales creates a revenue generating structure that improves internal operations, more so the extension of social services such as building more permanent homes. Socially, the community might pose some concerns for the organization and its stakeholders, especially resistance to change, unemployment and drug addiction. The above social concerns are community weaknesses that negatively impact the provision of permanent housing for homeless people since not all people will be open to shifts in geographical locations. According to Mago et al. (2013), drug abuse and unemployment can affect transitions to the new life as many people are hocked to drugs, making it impossible to create employment avenues to improve the sustainability of the change.
The implementation of strategic policies such as providing permanent housing depends on a raft of internal and external factors. The Salvation Army and its stakeholders must align programs and advocacy plans with contemporary perspectives such as globalization. The organization must combine its unchristian doctrines with ethical notions that go beyond culture, but embrace human dignity.
Grant, R. M. (2016). Contemporary strategy analysis: Text and cases edition. John Wiley & Sons.
Homan, M. S. (2016). Promoting community change: Making it happen in the real world (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage
Mago, V. K., Morden, H. K., Fritz, C., Wu, T., Namazi, S., Geranmayeh, P., ... & Dabbaghian, V. (2013). Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 13(1), 94.
The Salvation Army. (n.d.). The Salvation Army | Homeless Services. Retrieved September 10,2018, from https://www.salvationarmyphoenix.org/homeless-services
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