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Strategy formulation process is the series of connected actions used in the development of the long-term plan for an organization with the short terms goals cascaded from the long-term plan. The process entails the establishment of the mission of the organization and the objectives. It also entails the selection of the strategic alternatives. Strategic planning entails the development of a long-term plan for the organization (Jeffs, 2008). Strategy formulation focuses on the development of the most beneficial course of action for the entire organization. Strategy formulation entails six steps whereby one defines the organization, sets the strategic mission, competitive objectives, competitive strategy, implementation and evaluation of the progress. The two processes in the planning are definition of purpose and implementation. All the stages are important in order for the organization to attain the strategic objectives that it has set. They have to be synced in order to attain required success.
Companies are increasingly going to the global market for the attainment of more influence and influence. Increased competition in the domestic market is the main source of impetus for the global organizations to open new operations (Jeffs, 2008). Global operations come with new challenges given the management of the diversity and the different regulatory and operational environment. In order for the organizations to attain the required growth and development, It has to work according to predetermine strategy.
Failure of the organization to focus its efforts on one strategy may lead to small units working on their own. The overall goal of the organization is also under threat from the lack of an integrated strategy. Development of a single approach to issues affecting global operations of an organization is impossible. It is also hard for the business managers to adopt a single strategy. Global integrated strategies give the general direction of the organization. Modifications can be done to suit the contextual needs. Born global companies focus on the global market from the onset. The company is developed with the global market in mind.
Environmental variables that an organization has to evaluate before going global are political, environmental, social, technological and legal (Jeffs, 2008). The political environment in the country, where the company plans on investing, ought to be conducive enough for the investment activities. Political goodwill in a country will determine the ease at which a company will operate globally. Political stability is important more so when the company plans to make significant long-term investments.
Environmental considerations include the regulations and impacts of the firms operation on the environment. Some countries have stricter regulations than others do. Social factors may increase the aversion of the locals towards a certain business. Therefore, the establishment of the business has to consider social factors such as culture and religion. Legal factors cover the regulatory framework for the business. Some regulation may cover aspects such as the taxation, the employment and labor relations. Economic factors cover the issues such as inflation, the level of development of the country, the cost of labor and other inputs.
Regionalization is the process of moving into the international market by focusing on small regions. Strategy focuses on the development of the business priorities that are relevant to some sections. In globalization, the focus of the companies is on the entire global market. There are no specific criteria parts. The globalization strategy does not accommodate diversity in that it does not have modifications for the accommodation of the site-specific aspects. Regionalization is more practical compared to the globalization (Jeffs, 2008). Globalization focuses on the entire world and assumes that what works in one area will work in the other. This mode of thinking is faulty since strategies are contextual.
Jeffs, C. (2008). Strategic management. Los Angeles: SAGE.
At its best, globalisation is a social phenomenon of the modern era that acts as a double edged sword. Globalisation has the power to improve the lives of humanity or add to the heap of social problems that most of the nations keep encountering. Globalisation has been growing rapidly in the last two decades alongside the growth in information and communication technology. As people access internet based communications channels, the physical distance between them is no longer a pertinent factor. Cultural interactions among the societies is now a common order of the day leading to both erosion and upgrading of the recipients culture. However, in most of the cases, the cultural improvements are always lesser compared to the amount of cultural erosion. This paper will focus on the issue of globalisation as a social situation.
Globalisation has a major effect on the cultural diversity of the societies. Globalisation has the potential of benefiting cultural diversity. At the same time, cultural diversity is a reality that poses a significant barrier to the modern era phenomenon of globalisation. Globalisation entails exportation or impositions of the contemporary social issue of western world. Sufficient evidence indicates that globalisation does not entail exchanges between the diverse cultural groups on the equal basis.
Often, globalisation is by large an imposition of cultural tendencies of the dominant culture on the less dominant ones. As a result, there is a creation of a homogeneous model that affects all the people involved in the process. The intensity of the imposition is directly dependent on the prevailing economic circumstances of the less dominant culture. The economic motive behind most of the globalisation drives ends up creating a society that is filled with subjectivity. The power behind technology and the inherent dynamism leads to a situation whereby the unjust society ends up being more unjust.
Culture is an idea that can be defined in diverse ways that encompass the most important aspects. However, for the sake of this paper, culture is basically a way of life that a society adheres to in the normal day activities (Ghauri & Powell, 2008). Therefore, culture is a practice that has been developed over time. The people hold the values that make up their culture dear to themselves leading to a predictable way of reacting to the issues (McGregor, 2008). Therefore, culture is a social issue that gives a people or society some sense of identity. Without a definite culture, a society would fail to measure up to their definition. Therefore, the ability to adhere to the culture and add on some improvements that are necessary with time is the most important aspect that safeguards the survival of the society and what it stands for.
Globalisation is a threat to the cultural values that hold a society together. Increase in information availability has led to the development of a cultural additions that threaten the authenticity of the practices held by a society (Ghauri & Powell, 2008). This means that in no time the unique nature of a culture will not be available to the future generations. The future generations will be holding into the imposed notions peddled by the media and other information outlets.
For instance, most of the people have come to appreciate the western mode of dressing as an accepted dressing code regardless of where they come from. Traditional education is no longer relevant to most of the societies in the world (McGregor, 2008). They have gladly neglected the traditional education for the more fashionable or acceptable western version of education. Indigenous languages are also being victims of globalisations such that they are declining at alarming rates as people favor languages that are widely used across the globe. This is an example of the erosion of culture that results from increased globalisation.
Imposition of negative aspects of the western culture is one of the most profound effects of globalisation (Guinness, 2003). Most of the people have come to accept the idea of liberalization that promoted by the western culture (Donnellan, 2002). For example, nudity or scanty dressing is increasingly becoming the norm in societies that were initially built on the ideal of maintaining decency. People are quick to ape the cultural notions of the major western cultures since that is what the media sells unto them (Teichmann, 2002). The value of decency ends up dying a slow death while the society that is supposed to uphold it watches.
Nefarious cultural impositions are also widely attributed to the increase of globalisation. While the media presents opportunities of growth to the people due to the information accessibility, there are instances when the society has to deal with the negative effects of information deluge. Children explore the vast mass of the internet and end up digging up sites that are detrimental to the development of socially upright people in the society. Access to nefarious pornography sites is easy for any child that has access to internet connection. As a result, the development of the child could be rushed such that they know issues relating to sex before they attaint the acceptable age (Donnellan, 2002). In most of the cases, there are instances where the children chose to try out whatever, they learnt from the sites in the real life hence breaking the morality standards set by the society.
Globalisation also affects the various cultural institutions. Institutions make up the second tier of the culture of any society. The institution of marriage is the most affected cultural institution given that western world sell the idea of marriage that is less common to the majority of the cultures in the world. Marriage institution in the western world is not as integral as it is in the other societies in the world. One can opt out of a marriage at any time hence the high rate of divorces in the western countries. However, other cultures believe in making the marriage work regardless of how uncomfortable the marriage is.
This is the reason that the divorces in the less dominant cultures in the world have lasting marriages. However, the creation of the notion that one can get out of marriage when he wants makes the zeal to make the marriage institution work dissipate. As a result, there has been a rise in the number of divorcees in the developing world something that was traditionally unheard off. Western influence on the institution of marriage is also rubbing off the Islamic nations. Muslim women are, increasingly, preferring as opposed to the religion sanctioned polygamy. This is an indicator that globalisation is a real threat even to the most rigid societies (Guinness, 2003).
In conclusion, globalisation has led to the development of social issues that are both foreign detrimental or otherwise to most of the societies (Teichmann, 2002). Mostly affected social aspect of a society is the culture whereby globalisation affects values, institutions and practices of a culture. However, globalisation has both positive and negative effects on the society.
Donnellan, C. (2002). Globalisation (1st ed.). Cambridge: Independence.
Ghauri, P., & Powell, S. (2008). Globalisation (1st ed.). London: Dorling Kindersley.
Guinness, P. (2003). Globalisation (1st ed.). London: Hodder & Stoughton.
McGregor, H. (2008). Globalisation (1st ed.). London: Wayland.
Teichmann, I. (2002). Globalisation (1st ed.). London: Watts.
Globalization was a term that was rarely used before the 1990's; however it is now common place. In many cases, it refers to an economic system where manufactured goods, intellectual property, raw materials and financial transactions can move freely across international borders. It also refers to the homogenization of cultural identity and language that in many cases accompanies this flux of materials, money and ideas. It is crucial to recognize that despite the growing strength of globalization, many of its side effects are poorly understood, and this is mainly because of the fact that most of them are often indirect. I have an enthusiasm for the environment, and I have been recently interested in the way globalization has slowly but steadily degrading the environment. This is the purpose as to why I chose this topic. This paper is going to describe how globalization has increased environmental destruction around the world a process in which it can do absolutely nothing to stop.
The first effect is the loss of biodiversity with different species from different areas mixing. In fact, it can be argued that an intense decrease of genetic diversity in agriculture is currently underway. In fact according to (Aristide, 2000), "the massive, anthropogenic die-off of a plant as well as animal species exceeds the usual extinction rates that have prevailed throughout most of the evolutionary histories". It is only rural areas that have managed to retain their biodiversity, and this seems like it will not stay for long given the fact multinationals are by day closing in on these areas. Further, due to globalization, various industrial and chemical wastes have been disposed of off in the soil resulting into the growth of what can only be described as noxious plants and weeds. The toxic waste has caused a lot of damage to the plants, and it has extremely interfered with its genetic makeup creating some peculiar plants.
In various parts of the world, forests are being cleared in a bid to pave the way for new buildings. It is important to understand that while humans rejoice on the potential of these global investments, they should also look at the potential effects on the environment. For example, there has been an addition on the non-biodegradable product, plastic, across the world. It is used when it comes to the packaging and preservation of goods intended for domestic use as well as export. Plastic has caused untold environmental pollution in the world.
With globalization has come the rise of industries. These industries often produce wastes and in many cases these wastes are directed towards rivers, oceans and lakes. This has caused widespread destruction in the marine environment. Air pollution as a result of these industries has also been a major concern, and this can be seen cities like Beijing where there is constant smog because of the pollution from the industries.
On the other hand, despite its effect to the environment, globalization has had what can be described as far-reaching effects on the lives of human beings in the 21st century. It has led to faster access to information, healthcare as well as emergency responses. Communication and innovation have especially been impacted by globalization as it has revolutionized the way people communicate with introduction of social media and other platforms in which the world can communicate in a fast and easy manner. In fact, apart from playing an important when it comes to bringing people of different and diverse cultures together, it has been able to usher to the world a new era of economic prosperity opening up vast channels of economic development.
In conclusion, globalization has led to economic growth and in turn it has led to increased development and has made different societies live sustainably and to deal with waste products in an environmentally friendly way. However, on the other side, globalization has been argued to create great environmental damage as sustainable development has refused to take root. In addition, globalization has created a health risk that has been associated with environmental damage. The ozone layer is being wasted at a fast rate and industries are polluting oceans, lakes and rivers and in turn destroying the marine life that exists in these waters.
I believe that the health risks and impact of environmental damage are seldom borne on the people that cause them. Poor countries in many cases contribute relatively little when it comes to pollution that causes environmental and climate change; however, they are the ones that often suffer the economic as well as health costs. Further, I believe that the globalization will allow trade liberalization to proceed without necessarily taking into account key environmental issues such as the effective control of pollution as well as resource use. There is a need for the different governments to prioritize environment conservation and this will go a long way in ensuring that the environment is taken care of despite globalization taking place.
Aristide, J-B. (2000), Eyes of the Heart: Seeking a Path for the Poor in the Age of Globalization. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press
American experienced a period marked with the clamor for heading out to the rest of the world and investing there. Globalization gained the momentum in the 1990s due to the perceptions of the administration of the day (Kirton & Von Furstenberg, 2001). Clinton’s administration perceived that globalization had the potential of harmonizing the global behavior, politics, and customs. Therefore, it was the ideal approach towards the creation of a single approach to issues widely applied across the world. President Clinton enthusiasm concerning globalization was not as widespread. Most of the people wondered whether the approach was either inevitable or desirable. They could not place the new phenomenon in any category (Anderton, Brenton & Whalley, 2006).
The Clinton administration adopted a different approach to the global politics. The United States of America was bound to be the only superpower with the end of the cold war. The Americans perceived the geopolitical system in a different light now that they were the sole superpowers. The administration veered from the common approach to the geopolitical system. The issues in question were no longer focused on the security. There was a renewed focus on the economic performance of the world. There was also a perception that the entire world could be organized into one system in the event that there was cooperation in terms of trade.
Clinton assumed an approach to governance that required that the United States government assist the nations that were affected by the economic crisis (Anderton, Brenton & Whalley, 2006). Aversion among the people arose from the uncertainty of the chances of success that the nation had about the entire plan. They did not want a recurrence of the outcomes of the first globalization clamor. The approach adopted by the administration of the day led to the increased popularity of the regime among the big businesses. However, the approach also led to the development of political tensions between the leadership of the party that were tired of the protectionist approach used by the government.
Analysis of the system’s effectiveness led to the understanding of what informed the president’s decisions. The administration pushed the establishment of American investments in the foreign countries (Goldfield, 2001). The clamor for the investments led to the realization of a rebound of the economy from the recession of the early 1990s (Goldfield, 2001). Therefore, the issue of globalization resonated with the majority of the people since there were tangible results indicating that the model worked. It was no longer possible for the critics of the administration to refute the effectiveness of the model since it had indicated its functionality.
Globalization was received with different attitudes all over the world. In some parts, the American version of globalization was accepted since the people focused on the imminent economic gains of accepting the revolution (Kirton & Von Furstenberg, 2001). On other parts, the concerns were more linked to the social and cultural perspectives. This aspect manifested in the aversion and arguments of the leaders. The majority of the defenders of the ways of the community focused on the imminent influence of the pop culture on their traditions. They viewed the development as the main source of threats to the cultural values and practices that they upheld (Anderton, Brenton & Whalley, 2006).
Globalization did not only arise from America. Globalization meant that the participant countries would open up their borders to the rest of the people. As the anti-globalization, crusaders were ranting about the effects. It had already caught up with the people with the majority of Americans willingly assuming the traditions of the other countries. The free exchange was on, and there was no way of halting or slowing its development. Significant organizations such as the world trade organization arose in the United States with the majority of the people focusing on the opportunities that the development brought as opposed to the dangers that it posed. Therefore, the 1990s was the foundation of the modern day globalization (Anderton, Brenton & Whalley, 2006).
Anderton, B., Brenton, P., & Whalley, J. (2006). Globalisation and the labour market. London: Routledge.
Goldfield, D. (2001). The American journey. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Kirton, J., & Von Furstenberg, G. (2001). New directions in global economic governance. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.
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