World Culture Essays Examples & Outline

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World Culture Ancient Chinese Contributions


Ancient Chinese culture was a culture that can be looked at as successful. This conclusion can be made basing on the many inventions that the country has made over the past centuries. Inventions made by China not only contribute to the Chinese civilization but also in the world’s civilization. Therefore, the world is indebted of the high inventions that China has made. China’s inventions have a wide scope. They range from literature, science and technology. Some of China’s inventions include hot air balloons, paper making, map, compass, glazed pottery, silk, wheelbarrow and printing. These inventions have a high impact in the current economic status. The essay will focus on the four major inventions made by the ancient Chinese culture (Laufer, 2009).

The wheelbarrow is one of the major inventions made by the Chinese ancient culture. Farming, gardening and construction work, are some areas using wheelbarrow. In construction work, the wheelbarrow is used for moving bricks while in farming; it is used for carrying mulch. Its uses result from its feature of allowing the weight its contents to be distributed evenly between the wheel and its handles.

This application enables the user of the wheelbarrow to transport heavy materials while applying minimal energy (Laufer, 2009). This invention plays a critical role in farms and instruction sites that do not have electronic tools to transport materials required in the site. Unlike the current use of the wheelbarrow, initially it was used to transport things from one place to another that could not be easily transported by one person. This Chinese culture has a high influence in farming activities among many other uses in the present day (Coetsem, 1980).

Invention of paper money in the 9th century AD had a high impact in the nature of transaction that was being carried out between the Chinese. Before the invention, Chinese used gold, silver and silk. This was specifically for large sums. In addition, daily transaction that did not require large sums of money used bronze. Invention of paper money resulted from the invention of papermaking. As with many Chinese, paper making had a high influence in their activities, as they could be easily send letters to other people living in other regions far away from each other (Laufer, 2009). Invention of papermaking improved communication since many people could send letters easily. Paper money used by the Chinese in the ancient years had a high influence in their daily activities. This is an invention that has a high impact in the current society. Offices and schools use paper work.

A compass is another invention made by the ancient Chinese culture. This tool was used to fulfill some religious purposes. Determination whether a building under construction was facing the right direction was done using a compass. This is an invention that I believe to have a high impact in the day to day life. In the current word, it is used for navigation over the sea and using airplanes. The compass has been advanced to meet the current use. Incorporation of a compass as an electronic device adjusts it to the current uses. However, the idea of compass originated from Chinese culture. The map was another invention related to the compass. The map was used together with the compass in navigation where sailors from China to Arabia would use the tool to locate their position and as well the route to Arabia (Coetsem, 1980).

Toothbrush is another invention made by the ancient Chinese culture. The ancient toothbrush comprised of bristles that were the stiff. It was made of hairs taken from the back of a hog’s neck. It was later attached to a handle made of bones or bamboo (Coetsem, 1980). This early toothbrush was used highly in different continents since its applications spread over different geographical areas. The bristle toothbrush used resembles the type used today. This is an invention that I consider relevant in the today society. Another invention by the ancient Chinese culture was silk. Ancient Chinese had mastered a technique of silk weaving and engaged in the activity where they exchanged silk with equal amounts of gold with other people from the West.

Toothbrush and paper making are two inventions made by the ancient Chinese culture that I believe to have a high impact in my day to day life. These are two inventions that I use daily. I use paper work in school in writing my assignments and as well need the toothbrush to keep my teeth clean. Paper printing and record keeping uses papers. Money making also uses papers. There is an extensive use of papers in the current society. As a result, paper making is an invention by ancient Chinese culture that has a high influence in my life (Coetsem, 1980).

Concluding the research paper, it is clear that ancient Chinese culture has a high influence in the modern world. Their inventions play a major role and are used extensively by many people. The uses of Chinese innovations occupy a large portion of the daily activities of many people.

References

Laufer, B. (2009). Sino-iranica. S.l.: Bibliolife, Llc.
Coetsem, F. ., & Waugh, L. R. (1980). Contributions to historical linguistics: Issues and materials. Leiden.




 

Culture Differences between U.S and China


Chinese and Americans have significant cultural differences. These differences manifest themselves in many different ways, and one feels it when he or she visits America if he or she is Chinese or when an American visits China. “The culture shock is outrageous, there seems to be an existence of a major rift between these two major cultures. The lack of understanding of these two different cultures has cost several tensions across military quarters as well as tourists visiting either China or America. In this discussion several cultural aspects such as individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance will be contrasted and deeply analyzed. The volatile situations that might arise as a result of these cultures will also be looked at in detail.

Culture Contrast 1-Collectivism/individualism

Chinese go to great lengths to ensure that the decisions they make are through consensus and that every participating member can agree. Therefore, the Chinese culture can be described as a collective society because everybody belongs to a certain group. These groups are important as they represent one’s culture and heritage. Chinese instead of presenting and asserting their privacy and separateness as independent individuals, they often tend to interact as members of the group. They present themselves as a group, village, tribe or a neighborhood.

Individual behavior is determined by group norms and in general the Chinese often display a high need when it comes to wanting social approval. Shaming is the primary instrument that the Chinese society enforces conformity. Therefore, the Chinese are subjected to immense society pressures as they have to live up to the society standards. This is in contrast to the American community which lifts up individualistic tendencies. The American society tends to hold individual goals and values close to heart as compared to group goals. Americans often see each other as being loosely linked, and they often value personal goals over those of the group. The American culture has a diverse population that is characterized with an emphasis on personal achievements, a rational assessment on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of relationships with other persons. The decisions made by Americans often tend to be individualistic as they focus on how the decision will affect them individually.

Culture Contrast 2-Power distance

Power distance is the extent to which few members of a society are conversant and expect that power is distributed equally unequally. Chinese tend to accept that inequality is a fact and that one cannot be able to change. The Chinese have a culture that has a high power distance; this is because they believe that the power and authority over people are facts of life. Consciously as well as unconsciously these cultures often teach their people that members are not equal in the world and that everybody has his or her rightful place in the world. “Leaders in the Chinese culture are often expected to resolve disputes as well as decide on all the difficult decisions.

The subordinates will comply to their leader’s decision rather than challenge him or her. They do not try to arrive at their solutions when they are dealing with conflict. Therefore, the Chinese culture seldom challenges the leader’s power. However, in low power distance countries, there is often an increased preference when it comes to consultation and subordinates. The subordinates often contradict their bosses. The America culture falls under low power distance culture; this is because the parties often openly work towards the resolving of any dispute stating with their points of view. The leaders in this low power distance culture often encourage independent thoughts as well as contributions to problem solving, and they often expect to be challenged.

Culture Contrast 3-Uncertainty avoidance

“Uncertainty avoidance deals with the society’s tolerance towards both uncertainties as well as ambiguity. It shows to which level a culture programs its individuals to feel either comfortable or uncomfortable when it comes to an unstructured situation. “Uncertainty avoidance cultures in most cases try to minimize the possibility of such situations by having strict laws, as well as rules. “Low uncertainty avoidance cultures tend to tolerate ambiguous situations and are comfortable in situations that are uncertain Chinese people in many cases try to avoid uncertainty and risk in all their daily activities. In China, saving face is imperative, and most people are often reluctant to intentionally mislead others. The American culture has low uncertainty avoidance as compared to the Chinese culture. They are open to change, and they can cope easily with ambiguous situations. The American culture because of having low uncertainty avoidance has more relaxed personal as well as professional interactions. The American culture tolerates deviance from a group and acceptance the defectors as compared to the Chinese culture. Innovation and change in the American culture is not only accepted by the populace, but it is also encouraged.

Volatile Situation

The collision of a US spy plane with a fighter jet from China in the South China sea can be described as a volatile situation. The collision exacerbated both military and political tensions between the two countries. The American spy Jet was monitoring military communications in China and the two military Chinese Jets were monitoring it. The difference in the two cultures did not help the situation. This is because the in the negotiations there were several cultural rifts that made it impossible for the two sides to effectively negotiate.

Conclusion

In conclusion, there exist a lot of significant differences between the American and Chinese Cultures. These differences occur in the sphere of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and collective/individualistic tendencies. There is a need for these two cultures to tolerate each other and accept that indeed they should learn how to live with each other despite the cultural difference that exist between them. Failure to do this will raise the already escalating volatile situation between Chinese and American cultures. The acceptance of these different cultures and the attempt to learn these cultures will be of the essence, and it will ultimately improve the Chinese-United States of America relations.