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Marxist theory is a critical appraisal of the western community that is comprised of the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie are the owners of the means of production. This small class of people has control over the majority of the resources in the community as it is indicated by the Pareto postulation. The proletariat are the masses that have little to offer to the capitalist system apart from their labor (Akers & Sellers, 2009). The Marxist theory states that the actual success of the society lies in the system of the oppression and so does the failure of the same.
Marxists systems alludes to the fact that the proletariat will always suffer in the event that they do not do anything to topple the rulers who are members of the bourgeoisie. The masses have to united and replace the systems of government with their rulers that are proponents of the establishment of the society that is classless and socialist (Akers & Sellers, 2009).
The perceptions of crimes according to Carl Marx centers on the power struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The explanation starts with the assertion that the bourgeoisie control the criminal justice system. The system may seem to be in service of the interests of the proletariat. However, Marxism assumes that the use of the system is often against the interests of the proletariat.
He asserts that the criminal justice system is not informed by the moral conventions of the society or the common good or consensus of the society. On the contrary, he offers a different approach that apportion the blame to the ruling class for their use of the set of criminal justice administration to propel themselves to their goals (Akers & Sellers, 2009). They bourgeoisie impose the moral interest on the other people while pursuing their goals in the real sense.
Do the assertions of Marxists hold about crime today?
Is the Marxists suggestion of armed violence a solution?
Is there are possibility of an uprising, toppling and replacement of ruler ship being effective?
Critical theory is school of thought that epitomizes the adept application of reason a den critical evaluation of the society whereby the members have to assess the society according to the knowledge gained. It evaluates the systems and the motivations or driving forces behind the society’s functions and developments. The main postulate of the theory is that the main impediment to the human success on liberation is ideology (Akers & Sellers, 2009).
Critical theory is an improvement of the Marxist theory hence is a neo-Marxist postulate. It was advanced in the Frankfurt school by the ideological nemeses of the Karl Marx movement (Akers & Sellers, 2009). The theory retains the social concern of the base and super stratum. This is the only remnant influence of the Karl Marxist movements since the rest of the ideological tenants were by large abolished owing to their impracticality and the abrasive nature absent the common tenets of the society.
Modern critical theorists moved away from the German idealism that pervaded the postulates of the initial towards the American pragmatism. Main critics presented against the critical theories is that they did not advance any ideal of their own (Akers & Sellers, 2009). On the contrary, they promoted a gadfly of other ideals of the society that had been advanced before. Therefore, the system of critical thinking had not been contributing to the eventual expansion of the ideology body but the criticism of the existing systems (Akers & Sellers, 2009).
The freehanded approach to the criticism was lacking in terms of the rigor and approach. It is, therefore, a composition of the initial ideals expressed as mere opinions of the members. Critical theory is just an expansion of the system theory without any predicated approach to the analysis. Critical theory is, however, a major contributor to the analysis of the situation, community and the ideologies from a more in-depth and inclusionary perspective.
What value do the original critical theorists add to the body of knowledge with their comparisons of ideologies?
Does the move towards American pragmatism contradict foundations of the Frankfurt school?
What applications areas use the field of critical theory more?
Akers, R., & Sellers, C. (2009). Criminological theories. New York: Oxford University Press.
"She gave a little cry of alarm but he pushed her down and began to kiss her again. Without the leg she felt entirely dependent on him. Her brain seemed to have stopped thinking altogether and to be about some other function that it was not very good at. Different expressions raced back and forth over her face. Every now and then the boy, his eyes like two steel spikes, would glance behind him where the leg stood. Finally she pushed him off and said, "Put it back on me now."
In this excerpt, Hulga has been pushed down by Pointer, who continues to kiss her. Hulga cries because of her weak legs, making ‘‘a little cry of alarm (O'Connor, 1).’’ Pointer has gotten hold of her leg, making Hulga so weak that she cannot support herself without Pointer. She also cannot think and becomes unconscious. She has never kissed before, making her worry about the situation, and expresses these feelings on her face. She tries hard to push Pointer out of her body and plead to him to put the leg back on her, but she lacks the strength to push Pointer out if her body. Ultimately, she manages to push him off and asks him to put the wooden leg on her (O'Connor, 1).
Subsequently, ‘‘without the leg she felt entirely dependent on him (O'Connor, 1),’’ means that Hulga is vulnerable without the wooden leg and cannot function normally. She cannot push Pointer off her without the leg. The leg acts as her source of strength. She even cries for help and of pain when Pointer gets hold of her wooden leg to see where the artificial leg was joined. The writer has used the wooden leg to depict the vulnerability of Hulga because she is too weak to push her boyfriend off her after she has been pushed down. After she has managed to push her off, she asks Pointer to put the legs back her (O'Connor, 1). This has been used to show the trust she has on him. Initially, she agrees to give him her wooden leg. This shows the trust she has on him because she is ready to have faith and trust with her body and property. Asking Pointer to put her legs back means that she expects Pointer also to entrust her. The writer has also used similes to depict how Pointer is keen when looking at her wooden legs. It is said that his eyes were like two steel spikes to mean that Pointer eyes were too bright, and he is very happy while looking at the leg (O'Connor, 1). Moreover, Hulga’s brain stopping to think has been used metaphorically to mean that Hulga is confused and becomes unconscious when Pointer begins to kiss her over and over again. She has never given anybody her leg and has never kissed anybody before. Doing this has surprised her and has also made her unable to think. In essence, expressions cannot race. The word expression has personified and given a quality of a living thing. In the text, it has been said that ‘‘different expression raced back and forth over her face (O'Connor, 1).’’ This shows how mixtures of feelings were all over her face when she is being kissed by Pointer and the feelings she had.
The involvement in the kisses represents the love theme that the writer tries to bring to the reader. When Pointer pushes Hulga down and begins to kiss her again, it means that the two love and have strong affections towards each other. The theme of love has also been expressed as a mutual association between two people. This has been shown when Hulga asks Pointer to put the wooden leg back on her as a way of giving back the love and trust she has given him. The metaphor and similes such as the brain stopping to think have been used to show what usually happens in love such as confusion and feelings of anxiety (O'Connor, 1). The wooden leg has represented Hulga as vulnerable because she feels entirely dependent on Pointer when she has given her leg to him, and the leg is also artificial.
O'Connor, Flannery. Good country people. ProQuest LLC, 2002.
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