AIG & QinetiQ Case Analysis Essay Example & Outline

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AIG Case Analysis


Introduction
AIGThe American International Group (AIG) is a company that had its operations beginning in in 1919. Cornelius Starr started the company as an insurance agency in Shanghai, China. Having started in China, there is a notable expansion in the company in terms of its operations. This on the other hand led to the shift of the agency’s headquarters and as well having the ability to tap new markets (Cooper, 2006). During its initial years of operations as an insurance agency, the company’s management was under Starr. However, on 1962, there was the transfer of the management from Starr to Greenberg. After the transfer, there was an introduction of new policies.

These policies shifted the company from the original personal insurance background to a new high market corporate cover. With the new under Greenberg, there was more focus on selling of the company’s insurance packages through independent brokers (Cooper, 2006). This on the other hand had a high impact to the agents as they faced elimination in the company’s operations. More so, there was the elimination of the agent’s salaries in the company. Greenberg aimed at decreasing the company’s expenses. However, this move influenced the company’s sales negatively due to the elimination of the agents. Therefore, while considering the company (AIG), it is crucial understanding the start of the challenges faced in its operations.

A). Role-played by AIG’s corporate culture in the decisions made by employees and executives

Corporate culture, which refers to values beliefs and myths that companies develop over time, have a high influence on their performance and as well, their decision-making processes (Cooper, 2006). While considering to the case of American International Group, corporate culture played a great role in ensuring that the underwriters are knowledgeable. On the other hand, with the company’s corporate culture, sharing of knowledge from one staff to the other became free. With the free sharing of knowledge and ideas among the employees and executives, their decisions remain interrelated due and are able to work as a single company.


With the corporate culture in the company, there is a free interaction between workers in the company. This on the other hand gives talented employees to interact with their executives and as we other employees in the company. As a result, there is the creation of a positive work environment. This has a positive influence on decisions made by employees and executives pertaining their contracts with the company (Cooper, 2006). With the company’s dividends and bonuses (which is one of the company’s corporate culture), employees face a prompt of making decisions of remaining working in the organization. Therefore, it implies that the corporate culture of the company plays a great role in influencing employees and their executives while making their decisions in the organizations especially while interrelating with each other (sharing of ideas).

B). Ethical implications of the federal government bailing out companies such as AIG.

After the company received a bail out of $170 billion from the federal government, the company made plans of giving bonuses worth $165 to its employees. Having paid out to bonuses to its executive, the company developed some reluctance in paying back the loan from the federal government (Cooper, 2006). Some of the ethical implications continue on the company’s executives who engaged in unethical financial reporting and practices. This is according to New York Attorney general who conducted investigations on the officials. Despite the federal government’s bailout, the company is still in a transition. Its future remains undetermined after facing several years of financial problems. The company faces a responsibility of paying out federal loans.

Federal government’s patience on loan repayment remains as a determining factor on the success and stabilization of the company (Cooper, 2006). On the other hand, financial market stabilization also remains as a determining factor on the future of the company. However, since the government bailed out billion dollars to the company, it has an ethical implication of staying away from the company’s decisions since the company’s initial step of giving out bonuses to the company was not a crime.

Reference
Cooper, R. W. (2006) Research in Ethical Issues in Organizations Spitzer's Allegations of Unethical/Illegal Behavior: Has the Insurance Industry's Ethical Environment Really Changed Dramatically? New York: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.




 

QinetiQ: Corporate hiring and funding practices



1.Abstract

QineticRecently, the company QinetiQ is undertaking different technology programs that aims at determining the readiness of technology and as well its feasibility of latest inn0ovation programs such as the GPS chips. The company is undertaking the research programs on behalf of the United Kingdom government (Zeevalkink, 29 March 2012). In addition to the research programs, the company is promoting safer flights adopted by the Ministry of Defense. Over the last decade, the company is engaging in different demonstration programs with different security agencies in U.K. Risks reduction demonstrations and as well, some flight testing demonstrations are part of the demonstration activities used by the company while promoting the Joint Strike Flight program with the government. Joint programs with the government while using different shipboard and a high level of technology such as GPS, require a skilled workforce (Lokhandwala, 22 April 2014). Additionally, the company requires high funding to sustain its projects and as well training forums it offers to its employees. In the corporate world, hiring and funding practices play crucial roles towards project implementation.

2.Introduction

QinetiQ is a technology-based company located in United Kingdom. It provides support services primarily for defense and security services. Additionally, through different demonstration activities carried out in association with the government, it provides training services to the combats and as well grants opportunities for testing and evaluating new shipboards. The company’s operations are in different nations (Zeevalkink, 29 March 2012).

Internationally, the company’s profile is known for its independent research, special technology designs and integration, and as well evaluation of both military aircrafts and weapon equipment. Based on a technology background, the company provides special platforms and advisory services on information technology sensors and as well implementation of different marine and military defense engineering projects that focus on improving intelligence on crime detection and improving communication channels used by the military and other government defense agencies. Communication channels provided and integrated by the company have a characteristic of a high security level (Lokhandwala, 22 April 2014).

On the other hand, Systems, Studies and Simulations (S3) is as well a technology-based company located in Huntsville, AL. in United States. Systems, Studies and Simulations, globally known for providing technical services to the US’s government, engage in security software simulation and development. The company engages in both hardware and software integration and as well simulation with an aim of promoting risk management and secure flights used by different automation corporations in U.S (Brown, March 01 2011).

Despite providing technology solutions to the government customers, the company integrates a business approach in its operations where it provides both costs estimations and resource management services. These services are important during corporate governance since they give managers and company owners a planning platform in their operations. The company provides both automation and logistic services to the society aiming at improving competence while dealing with different information technology aspects.

Therefore, QinetiQ and Systems, Studies and Simulations companies require high funding practices that sustain their technology research and automation training to respective governments. Additionally, labor workforce in both companies requires a high competence in information systems. The paper is a research on the comparison between the two companies focusing on their funding and hiring practices.

3.Background

QinetiQ began its operations on July 2001. Formation of the company was after reformation in the ministry of defense that resulted into the research and evaluation agencies. The company’s operation focused on science and technology laboratory branch of the ministry of defense. In 2003, the company began its operations in association with the government where the managers agreed a long contract with the government of carrying out technology research on military systems and weapons (Zeevalkink, 29 March 2012). Additionally, in the agreement, the company was to engage in evaluating and testing military aircrafts and marine shipboards. Research carried out by the company focused on latest technology innovations that promoted safety and promoted risk management while dealing with information systems integrated by the ministry of defense.

QinetiQ’s profile believes that it has the capability of providing defense solutions to the government based on their high technology innovation and competence. Engineers and scientists working in the company’s laboratories and research centers aid defense, aviation ad marine automations manufactures in pushing their information systems and technology boundaries through their training services. Conversely, the company is increasing its operational boundaries through its licensing platform. Through licensing of its technologies to other manufactures, the company has a capability of integrating its innovations to other defense agencies such as NASA and as well US Department of Defense.

Systems, Studies & Simulation Inc. on the other hand as highlighted earlier provides technical services and solutions to different businesses (Lokhandwala, 22 April 2014). The company’s incorporation was o 1991. Its operations in technology and information systems have a basis on its two business units (training services focused on consumers and Sector Education and Training Authority services that focus on government defense branches; NASA and department of defense).

Hypothesis

As highlighted earlier, the paper focuses on comparing the hiring and funding practices used by QinetiQ. The hypotheses for the research paper are;

1.QinetiQ success over S3 results from the implemented funding and hiring policies. This is the alternate hypothesis in the study.
2.The null hypothesis in the research paper is; despite QinetiQ success, its corporate funding and hiring strategies in comparison with S3 are not as effective as the later.

4.Literature review


4.1.Corporate hiring practices

Corporate hiring refers to the process undertaken by the management while integrating new employees in the organization. Studies indicate that the hiring process is a recurrent process in s a company. Integration of new information systems and technology in a company leads to an increased need of new employees in the company. The process begins when the company advertises for a job vacant to the public. Hiring process is an integral role played by the management in ensuring that employees working for a company maintain a high competence while carrying out their duties in the company. As a process, hiring involves different stages promoting interaction of the management and the employee applying for the vacant opportunity. The following are common hiring practice processes used by different companies;

a.Vacancy application

It is the intermediate step after advertising for a vacant in a company. During job application step, corporate managers receive applications from different prospective employees. After receiving applications, hiring managers review the applications using different applicant tracking systems. These systems provide automated platforms for managers to control and overlook the hiring process.

b.Interviewing applicants

Research carried out on by United States Media Room indicate interview step of hiring employees in a company is another vital step that ids in promoting confidence among employees prior to undertaking their roles in the company. It incorporates managerial screening of employees in the organization and as well interpersonal interviews with the managing directors of the company. Study conducted on interview step of hiring practice in a corporate setting indicated that bad interviews in a company do harm to the management itself.

c.Medical check-ups and individual skills assessments

Companies use these steps as additional screening to their interpersonal interviews. Medical check-ups play a role in determining an employee’s adaptability to the working conditions in the company. Companies dealing with risky automated machines require healthy employees capable of handling the equipment. Additionally, talent tests conducted during the hiring process aim at determining employee’s job competence while working in the company. These tests are important for companies as they give them good matches for the vacant positions.

d.Corporate check-ups

These are series of checks after skill tests. They include; credit checks, background checks and as well reference checks. Corporate background checks are research process undertaken by board of managers on a prospective employee before absorbing them in the company. It is a search on other companies worked and aims at determining the individual’s experience. Studies indicate that many technical companies highly rely on the background checks in their hiring practices. On the other hand, credit checks engage the managers in reviewing the credibility of an applicant. Research carried out on corporate practices indicated that during the credit checks, employers often focus on the names and security information of an applicant.

Additionally, in some companies as highlighted in the Daily Mirror, credit checks involve showing an employee’s debts and settlement histories. In fact, many hiring practices use resumes. Consequently, companies often request for references who can easily attest the employee’s skills and qualification to the job. Reference checks play a crucial role in determining the actual competence of an individual. Information provided by references during the hiring process may be biased. Conversely, companies that rely on the references during their hiring process end up landing on incompetent employees. However, in other cases, reference checks are an important practice during hiring. It aids in accessing an individual’s skill competence as provided by previous employers.

As highlighted earlier, hiring practices in a company are very crucial in its performance. Additionally, it is a process governed by different laws and policies. These policies aim at promoting fair and maintenance of ethics during the overall process. Ethics governing recruitment in different organizations help in protecting employees and as well promote the maintenance of professional standards (Earnest, 2011). However, despite the stipulated policies governing the practice, there are as well common dilemmas facing hiring managers. In some cases, the dilemmas extend beyond the recruitment policies and require individual manger’s decision-making skills in determining the competence of employees. Some of the common ethical dilemmas facing corporate hiring include;

1.Failure of reviewing and hiring candidates in a company based on their merits and skills. As seen earlier, this causes harm to the management as it leads to incompetence of the candidate while undertaking their roles in the company. Additionally, as in other organizations, biased hiring practices may result to poor performance of a company (Earnest, 2011).

2.Advertisements are important in the recruitment process. They play a role of informing candidates on available positions in a company. Failure of maintaining ethics while making job advertisements leads to misleading advertisements for jobs in the society. Misleading job advertisements leads to limited candidate applications and as well misrepresentation of the positions (Earnest, 2011).

3.Discrimination practices. Most corporate managers engage in discrimination-based practices during the recruitment process. Discrimination during hiring leads to unskilled employees finding their ways to the company. Additionally, as a biased practice, employment discrimination has basis on candidate’s background, gender and as well physical appearance. The United States Constitution provides all individuals and employees as equal. Conversely, managers should not engage in discrimination acts based on their gender, race and as well background. The law prohibits and promotes individual employee’s safety while in the corporate world. As an ethical challenge facing recruitment practice in companies, the law seeks managers to promote and integrate employees based on their skills and qualifications (Earnest, 2011).

Challenges facing corporate recruitment practices

Other than the ethical issues facing policies in corporate hiring, as well other critical issues face different companies despite maintaining their professional standards and ethics while conducting the hiring process. Currently, the following are the common challenges facing hiring practices;

a.Optimization of the mobile recruitment strategy

Currently, many companies in United States and United Kingdom are carrying out their recruitment and interviews through mobile phones. Additionally, mobile phone usage in the two nations is rising at a high rate. Consequently, as reported by a research on mobile usage globally, above 91 percent of the two nations use mobile phones while facilitating their daily activities. On the other hand, about 25 percent of internet users use their mobile phones (Earnest, 2011).

With the highlighted facts, it appears that mobile interviews optimization is an important practice in corporate recruitment. However, unlike computer use, mobile internet use is slower. Some of long typed questions pose challenges to candidates using mobile phones since typing while using the gadget is slower (Earnest, 2011).

b.Increased skill gap

According to reports made by Job Preparedness Indicator tests, the number of competent employees is decreasing at a high rate. The decrease attributes to an increased manager’s expectations on the employees. Reports indicate that only about 17 percent of employees currently seeking for opportunities demonstrate the required skills. As a result, many companies are experiencing a wide gap between employee’s skills and job requirements.

Surprisingly, despite incompetent employees leading to a downfall of a company, bad hire sets companies back almost by $45,000. Therefore, inappropriate hiring practices are expensive practices in a company. Increased skill gap between employees and job description leads to time wastage by managers while giving orders and supervising the hired employees. Additionally, with the competitive nature of U.K and U.S economies, slight resource wastage leads to continuous loss by the company (Blowfield, 2011).

c.Visualization of company’s profile

In the corporate world, there are extensive changes the hiring policies and practices. Currently, visual media integration in the recruitment process is a leading challenge in the hiring process. Research carried out on visual media use in the economy indicated that almost 60 percent of companies globally use video interviews during their hiring processes. Consequently, companies are competing on making their career platforms visual aiming at attracting viewers.

Trends in corporate hiring

As reported by Forbes’s research carried out on the current trends in the hiring policies and practices in U.K and U.S, corporate recruiting is getting hotter daily. The change in the recruiting strategies adopted by different companies attribute to integration of information technology systems during the recruitment process. The following are some of the trends reported in recruitment practices;

a.Social sourcing

As highlighted earlier, skill gap is an increasing challenge in the corporate world. As a result, managers are sourcing candidates from the web aiming at determining high competent candidates (Blowfield, 2011). Consequently, aiming at increasing their recruiting competitive advantage in the economy, many managers are using social platforms such as LinkedIn Recruiter tool. The tool is vital in a company since it aids in better sourcing of candidates.

Additionally, in technical companies such as QinetiQ, social tools such as Talent Bin and Remarkable Hire are vital in determining a candidate’s technology space competence. The highlighted tools are vital during background checks as they mine candidate’s personal information and postings as presented by other social networks. Social information gathered through the tools aid in creating the candidate’s profile that indicates their competence to the job posting. Social searching is aiding in acquiring high competent employees in an organization and as well promoting an increased employee prowess (Blowfield, 2011).

b.Candidate experience

Despite presentation of experience in the candidate’s resume, research carried out by Talent Board highlights that unlike the earlier days where employers extensively put huge and difficult websites for attracting employees, currently, companies are using simple websites that are easy to apply for their employees (Blowfield, 2011). Studies indicate that impossible application portals and candidate’s mistreats during the interview process damages the company’s profile. Consequently, aiming at maintaining a good company profile, managers are using different score boards aiming at maintaining the hiring process. Scores such manage the candidate experience are continuously playing roles in companies in promoting effectiveness in the recruitment process (Blowfield, 2011).

c.Talent networks

Similar with social sourcing, growth of LinkedIn, Facebook and as well Twitter grants employers and companies a more advanced platform of promoting their brands (Blowfield, 2011). Initially, many companies engaged in models of building relationship management with their candidates. However, attributed to the increased growth of different social networking platforms, companies are engaging in building talent networks in their processes that are aiding in the recruitment process and as well attracting candidates from different regions (Blowfield, 2011).

Talent networks used by companies include services and as well products from other companies such as Microsoft and IBM. Currently, companies are anticipating on increasing their candidate magnetic attraction through these platforms.

d.Integration of tracking software

Candidate tracking software is changing their roles in companies. Unlike in the past where it software played the role of giving candidates opportunities of tracking the progress of their application in a company, currently, managers use them for analyzing candidate’s data and information during the recruitment process. Integration of the tracking software during analysis of candidate’s experience is leading to an increased chance of getting high skilled employees in a company (Blowfield, 2011).

e.High funding

With the increased integration of information systems during the recruitment process, the process is complicating thus requiring high funding for its facilitation. Additionally, different corporations are springing out aiming at facilitating the overall process. These companies are aiding in finding competent candidates for critical roles in the company (Brown, March 01 2011).

Corporate funding

It refers to the process of acquisition of low-cost equities for financing a company. Corporate funding plays a role in promoting and facilitating a company’s purpose in the society. There are different sources of corporate funding. Traditionally, corporate funding was mainly through debts (low-interests loans) (Bolsta, 2014). However, due the changes in different global economies, companies are using other corporate funding methods such as incentives and grants aiming at raising revenues used in the daily operation and governance. While companies are determining the best funding method, they analyze the terms granted by the funding providers. Tax incentives and grants provided by the government in most cases focus on promoting corporations.

Corporate funding governing is through codes developed by the government and companies. These codes are important as they strengthen the relationships between the companies and the government. Unlike assets acquired through shares and debentures, corporate funding from the government enhances competition in the economy and thus promotes quality services and products from these companies. Additionally, codes used in governing corporate funding between governments and companies such as QinetiQ and as well Systems, Studies and Simulations with their respective governments have a basis on the common values and principles (Bolsta, 2014). These principles and values shape the nature of the interrelation between the parties and as well determine the future working together of the involved parties (Brown, March 01 2011).

Good code of corporate funding fulfills a government engagement and commitment of promoting local industries in the economy (Brown, March 01 2011). Through the funding codes, companies and sectors engage in a commitment of strengthening their ability of serving the citizens. Codes governing corporate funding in America and Europe’s economy play a significant role in promoting great transparency and as well consistency between the government and companies (Bolsta, 2014). Additionally, despite the challenges encountered while implementing the funding process through government’s treasury, the codes not only enhance clarity in the funding process but also promote accountability in the overall process.

Corporate funding faces scrutiny and reviews from different individuals in the society. Improper allocation of funds by the government to companies may lead to negative comments from the public. Consequently, good funding processes adopted by the government and companies should enhance trust from the public and ad well focus on strengthening a sustainable capacity of the private sector in the company (Bolsta, 2014). Over the last decade, research carried out on corporate funding indicates that there is an increased change in the focused platforms. Currently, governments are focusing on promoting technology innovations and as well increasing co-operations and collaborations with the private sector. Example, in the case of the two companies (QinetiQ and S3), collaboration with the respective governments is leading to an increased technology innovation and as well provision of training services (Brown, March 01 2011).

4.Research methods

The research methods used in the study has a basis on review of journals and articles with relevant information pertaining the hiring strategies and policies of the two companies. Earlier research materials also aid in drawing the results of the paper. The paper results rely on information present in different databases containing corporate funding and hiring. Testing of the results will be through a comparison with the reviewed literature that will give a comprehensive approach towards the corporate recruitment and funding policies used in the companies.


5.Results


Hiring practices in QinetiQ

Recruitment practices adopted by the company take place at the departmental levels. As highlighted earlier, considering the type of weapons and military automated equipment the company evaluates and demonstrates, it requires high skilled employees. Additionally, in the research and innovation department, the company requires only innovative and technology competent employees (Brown, March 01 2011). Consequently, hiring process undergoes through a thorough evaluation.

The company welcomes applications from a wide variety of candidates globally. On the other hand, aiming at increasing their competence, the company integrates social platforms such as LinkedIn in evaluating connections with candidates (Lokhandwala, 22 April 2014). Research indicates that the hiring process in the company takes a longer time in comparison with other technology-based companies. Hiring in the company on the other hand as reported by the hiring board of directors has a basis on merit and individual skill competence.

QinetiQ funding

UK government funding is a practice adopted by the company while facilitating its daily operations in innovations and defense department. According to reports made by Pensions Funds Online, UK government and the company signed an agreement that saw the company reducing its deficit. According to the signed agreement, the company was to make a payment of 40-euro pounds based on the UK’s consumer price index. The move by the government aimed at reducing the funding deficit experienced by the company approximately by 109 million euro pounds (Zeevalkink, 29 March 2012).

Additionally, according to reports made by Pensions Funds Online, the company has an approximate of 1.4 billion euro pounds worth assets management by its pension scheme. These assets managed by the pension trustee scheme of the government promote an asset-backed funding structure used by the government. Corporate funding scheme adopted by the United Kingdom government focusing on promoting technology innovation in the country is another funding practice adopted by the company (Lokhandwala, 22 April 2014).

As a public corporation, the company sells its shares to the public to raise capital. According to reports made by Investment & Pensions Europe, QinetiQ boosts its funding through sale of its subsidiaries. Agreements with US government have contributed to sale of the US services division. Reports indicate that through the sale of the subsidiary department of the company, the management got the capability of raising its pension schemes.

Additionally, the cash sale of the subsidiary enabled it to overcome its deficit. Consequently, the despite the company relying on external funding and sponsoring from the government, it sells its subsidiaries to raise funds for its operations.
Lastly, as highlighted by ClearanceJobs.com, QinetiQ Company raises its funding from the government contracts it signs. According to the reports made on Kyzer on 2013, United States Department of Defense signed a contract worth $20 million contract with the company. The company was to manage robotic systems used in the defense department and as well provide support services to explosive ordnance disposal.

6.Discussion


a.Implementation and deductions of the study

As highlighted earlier in the results, the company uses a discrete hiring process based on skills and merits. Unlike other global companies, QinetiQ does not practice discrimination based on gender and race (Brown, March 01 2011). However, many candidates provide negative reviews and feedbacks towards their follow-ups and check-ups after interviews. The company neither facilitates nor promotes transparent communication with their candidates. Consequently, many candidates are unable to track their application progress (Lokhandwala, 22 April 2014).

On the other hand, the company generates funds from different sources. The common sources of funds are sale of shares and subsidiaries. Additionally, through government injections in the company, QinetiQ gets the capability of harnessing additional funds to its operations.
Comparison in the hiring and funding practices between QinetiQ and S3

Unlike QinetiQ, S3 Company has a high transparency in its recruitment process. The company grants its candidates a follow-up channel where they have they have the capability of tracking their application. Additionally, the hiring strategy in both companies has a basis on merit and skills. They use simple online application forums that gather their employee information. Social platforms such as Glassdoor and LinkedIn significantly aid in gathering candidate’s social information. Technology skills competence is a requirement in both companies (Lokhandwala, 22 April 2014).

Funding practices, on the other hand, in the two companies are similar. As stated, QinetiQ generates some of its funds from the UK government whereas S3 has some of its funds from US government. Success of these companies attributes to their employee’s competence to their tasks and as well integration of research and innovation departments that work aiming at increasing developing new products and consultant services.

As from the study, the null hypothesis is true. Despite QinetiQ success, its hiring practice of maintaining an opaque communication with the candidates does not attribute to its success. The company’s success attributes to the employees’ competence while carrying out their tasks. The alternate hypothesis on the other hand is false.

b.Limitation of the study

The study on hiring and funding practices adopted by QinetiQ Company faced the limitation of inadequate material and articles reviewing the practices adopted by the companies. There is no adequate information on respective government funding in the companies for drawing a comprehensive conclusion the comparison between the two companies. Lastly, the study based its information source on reviews and analysis from other studies (second hand information source).

c.Future study

There is need for a future study in the comparison between the funding and hiring practices of these companies. Future studies should focus on using first-hand information from the company’s financial documents and as well, interviews with the managing direct. Future study on hiring and funding practices on these companies should focus on employees currently working in the two companies (Zeevalkink, 29 March 2012). It will aid in evaluating the working conditions in these nations and as well a clear emphasis on the difference in their practices.

Conclusion

In conclusion, as seen in the study paper, recruitment and funding practices are vital key role players towards the success of a company. Conversely, as seen in the case of QinetiQ, maintenance of a discrete recruitment process aids in promoting accountability in the overall process. However, as a recommendation to QinetiQ, the company’s management needs to facilitate a follow-up forum for the candidates. This will aid in promoting transparency in the overall practice.


References

Lokhandwala, T. (22 April 2014). QinetiQ DB scheme sees funding boost after sponsor sells US arm. Investment Pension Europe .
Zeevalkink, A. (29 March 2012). QinetiQ agrees with pension fund trustees to reduce deficit . Pension Funds Online.
Blowfield, M., & Murray, A. (2011). Corporate responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Earnest, P., & Karinch, M. (2011). Business confidential: Lessons for corporate success from inside the CIA. New York: AMACOM/American Management Association.
Brown, P., Beekes, W., & Verhoeven, P. (March 01, 2011). Corporate governance, accounting and finance: A review. Accounting & Finance, 51, 1, 96-172.
Bolsta, P., & Gegax, T. (2014). The big book of small business. S.l.: HarperCollins e-Books.