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Abnormal psychology is often concerned with the understanding the nature, treatment and causes of mental disorders. There was a problem with Kravinsky since the word goes, this is because although he had a talent for making money, he found it extremely difficult to spend it. He drove an old car, and lived with his family in a modest home (Truog, 2007). He then started to give all his assets to charity, in fact, he eventually gave all his assets to charity. This paper will look at Kravinsky and the methods that can be used in order for a diagnosis to be made.
His motivation towards the donation was to help others. In fact, there are those that often argue that ‘He gave away the money because he had it and there were those people that needed it (Truog, 2007). At the age of 45 years old, his assets amounted to almost $45 million dollars. He over time changed his purpose in life in to giving away things, and this did not end with his fortune.
When the donations were depleted he preoccupied himself with the idea of organ donations, where an altruistic person often gives an organ to a total stranger. After learning that he could survive normally with one kidney, he decided that personal costs of giving away that one kidney were minimal. It is important to understand that for Kravinsky, the burden of refusing to help alleviate the suffering of a person was almost unbearable as compared to the benefits that one received by getting a kidney.
After the operation, he experienced a loss of direction, he viewed his life as constant way of donation. He argues that he can donate all his organs in order to ensure that other people live. In fact, after several years after the kidney donation, Kravinsky still argues and remains committed to giving away as much as possible.
Read More on forensic psychology
In order to make an ongoing assessment of the situation, there is a need to ensure that there is observation of Zell Kravinsky in his early life. This is an important factor and can explain a lot in terms of his behavior when it comes to donating organs. In fact, it can be argued that with this information about the past of Zell Kravinsky, psychologists can be able to make an initial assessment and make a diagnosis as to why Zell decided to give all his fortune and kidney to charity. Further, there is a need to ensure that there is a keen view on the data and the material. This will be important when it comes to making an assessment and will ensure that indeed, there will be an on-point diagnosis regarding Zell-Kravinsky.
Further, other data collection methods will be regarding to the way Zell-Kravinsky carried himself in his earlier years and where they might exist a certain point where there is an increase in feelings of sympathy in his life (Davison, 2001). It is critical to comprehend that all this methods are extremely important when it comes to the diagnosis and later treatment of Zell Kravinsky. There have been dissenting opinions about whether he might have a mental condition with those arguing stating that he is just good natured.
However, according to psychology, he has done a deed that is abnormal and that has come from abnormal behavior (American Psychological Association, 1965). Consequently, it can be argued that indeed Zell Kravinsky falls under abnormal behavior because of his actions that led to the giving away his fortune and his kidney.
Truog, R. D. (2007). Brain Death - Too Flawed to Endure, Too Ingrained to Abandon. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 35, 2, 273-281.
Davison, G. C., & Neale, J. M. (2001). Abnormal psychology. New York: John Wiley.
American Psychological Association. (1965). Journal of abnormal psychology. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
Owing to some of the changes that took place in the early 20th century, behaviorism became one of the major schools of thoughts accepted by the Americans. Among the causes of the shift was the increased skepticism that people viewed the consciousness concept (Skinner, 1974). However, despite the skepticism that the people had with the concept, they still appreciated the fact they the concept was the main differentiating feature between the physiology and psychology.
The subjective and retrospective nature of the concept made many people look at an alternative concept. Rise of animal psychology was also an important contributor towards the development of behaviorism. This was used as a platform that the psychologist used to study the concept of behaviorism (Skinner, 1974). B. F. Skinner was a major player in the development of the concept of behaviorism. He belonged to a new school of behaviorist that continued with the concept after John Watson.
Skinner, B. (1974). About behaviorism. London: J. Cape.
Structural psychology, a branch of psychology, aims at identifying basic elements of consciousness. The psychology approach uses the idea of conscious experience has different aspect branches (elements). On a physical phenomenon, it constitutes of different chemical components (Hock, 2013). These components breaks down to basic elements that support the ideology. Structural psychology is relevant to researchers as they pursue basic conscious elements. However, according to William James, structuralism psychology is a waste of time. It was a controversial attitude by the psychologist despite Wilhelm Wundt high reliance of the ideology.
William states that the idea is a waste of time since careful contemplation does not necessarily contribute to fixed number of conscious static elements (Hock, 2013). Apparently, the self-analysis process often yields to ever-changing elements of consciousness. The process of searching the building blocks of mind consciousness is absolutely a waste of time since brain and mind continuously experience changes.
Functionalism, the most popular theory of mind, makes a mental state depend on its role in the cognitive system rather than the internal constitution. The ideology of understanding brain and mind functions faces a variety of influences from computers and modern society, characterized by advanced technology (Hock, 2013). Charles Darwin theory of natural selection influenced the functionalist theories. Charles emphasis on physical and behavioral aspects developed since they increased survival chances of individuals influenced the state of mind theory. Functionalists using the ideology of analyzing the performance of the brain stemmed their conclusions from research carried out in the field. Functionalists commonly use statistical techniques in their studies.
Statistical research often uses variables while testing the research hypothesis. They are independent and dependent variables (Hock, 2013). An independent variable is a research variable manipulated during the research process aiming at evaluating its impact on the dependent variable. Whereas the dependent variable is the aspect under observation in the research. Often, changes observed in the dependent variable results from manipulation of the independent variables.
A descriptive study is a research carried out without manipulation of the environment. Observation, a common descriptive research method, involves close observation of variables. Often, researchers make their observations from far without interrupting the research environment (Hock, 2013). The process involves two activities, observation and recording. Analysis of observation involves making inferences in the form of similarities and differences. Research on how different cultures engage in playing activities may use the observational research method. Researchers in the context have opportunities of developing differences and similarities of these cultures based on their playing activities.
While Pauly and Michael’s are evaluating the woman’s proposition, they ought to use information seeking critical thinking skill. The skills are essential while searching for evidence and knowledge from relevant sources. The skill has a reliance on both historical and current data sources from the identified sources. In the case of Michael and Pauly, when an elderly woman proposes to predict Michael’s fortune, they need to have a self-evaluation skill that will help while determining the viability of the woman’s information source. The skill used while determining the information source is analysis (Hock, 2013). The skill will enable Michael connect the different pieces of information together aiming at determining the intended implication of the woman’s predictions.
Additionally, interpretation skill, highly related to analysis, is essential in the case as it grants them with the ability to comprehend the presented predictions by the woman. Similarly, they need to have the skill in order to communicate the implication of the fortune from the elderly woman. Concurrently, with the self-evaluation skill, they can evaluate their abilities of analyzing the presented data. Their response to the proposition ought to have a basis on their self-evaluation that will influence their overall decision. If they present, poor analysis and interpretation skills, they should reject the proposition (Hock, 2013). The situation they are responding to a decision-making critical thinking situation that requires their immediate evaluation of their skills then respond to the propositions by the elderly woman.
The process of determining behavior trends and hypothesis contributes to different types of research studies. These studies are distinct in their strengths and weaknesses. The section of the paper will develop comprehensive differentiation of research study methods.
Laboratory studies; these are scientific research studies often carried out in laboratories. Laboratories provide optimum conditions due to their controlled conditions that facilitate these studies (Hock, 2013). Laboratory studies are genesis of scientific ideas. These studies are advantageous to researchers as they provide optimum required conditions for evaluating certain scientific experiments. However, results from these studies may not have real world applications. If applicable in the real world, they only apply in one situation only. Similarly, results from these studies are prone to bias from the researcher leading to manipulation of data.
Case-control studies refer to research studies that look at characteristics of one group of people and compare the results with another controlled group. Comparison is the basic data analysis method used in these studies. These are timesaving and relatively cheap based on the resources required (Hock, 2013). These studies are applicable in situations focused on dynamic situations. However, results from the studies are prone to bias due to the controlled environments. Mostly, researchers carry out these studies in rare environments that increase their risks on exposure.
Observational studies, also called exposures, examine behavior and habit differences due to culture. Unlike the prior research studies, these methods do not manipulate the research variables. Observational studies have two groups; case-control and cohort studies. Case-control studies rely on presented behaviors and conditions in a group of people where researchers focus at evaluating the similarities with other groups (Hock, 2013). Similarly, cohort studies use groups of people with have similarities. The later focuses on determining the differentiating behaviors between the study groups. Observational studies are flexible and diverse. These characteristics attribute to the wide use of the research method. Similarly, results from these studies are highly applicable in the real world. However, these studies are uncontrollable. Thus, results are prone to observer effects and bias.
Systematic reviews are other research methods commonly used in the modern society. These studies have a high reliance on already carried out research studies. They offer summaries and reviews to small studies aimed at developing comprehensive relationships of the experiment variables. Systematic reviews are time efficient. Additionally, they are cost effective as studies depend on already presented results. However, they are prone to bias and may develop incorrect inferences due to biased results from already carried out researches (Hock, 2013).
Meta-analyses, these studies, are similar to systematic reviews as they rely on already-carried studies. Unlike systematic reviews, meta-analyses offer researchers opportunities of developing inferences that small results did not establish. They are time efficient, as they do not rely on primary data. Nevertheless, similar they are prone to bias from secondary results presented by small studies.
Hock, R. R. (2013). Forty studies that changed psychology: Explorations into the history of psychological research. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson.
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