Behaviorism Annotated Bibliography Essay Examples & Outline

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Behaviorism Annotated Bibliography

Dodds, W. (2008). Humanity's footprint (1st Ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

BehaviorismAccording to the proposal advanced by Paul Ehrlich and Donald Kennedy, human beings have to assess their behaviorism in order for them to respond to the environmental issues facing the globe. The assessment would lead to the development of exchange of information in the on what they ought to be done as far as the environmental protection is concerned. The assessment will start the dialogue on how the human behavior affects the environment and come up with the ideas on how to handle the environmental degradation. The book looks at a proposal that aims at socio-environmental restoration. In this proposal, there is a new conceptualization of the people that own and control global ecological goods.

The book seeks to link man to all the ecological resources since human beings own land, plants, animals and water on the land that they control. This means that the human beings control the ecological goods and services that are found on the land. However, according to the new proposal, there can be a separation of ownership between land and the resources that are found therein. The socioecological restoration proposal seeks to make the ecological resources a matter of public trust. Land ownership and ecological resources ought to be separate in order for the management of the resources to be feasible. As it currently stands, the joint ownership of the land and ecological resources leads to the aggravation of the environmental outlook whereby the owners of the land can use the resources as they would deem fit. The separation of the ownership will make the control of the ecological resources and their use possible. This will make it possible for the environmental conservationists to control the use of the ecological resources with the aim of reducing the rate of depletion of the resources.

Penna, A. (2010). The human footprint (1st Ed.). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

According to the historical development of mankind, the more he increases his sophistication, the more he destroys the environment. This means that the advancement of the human being in the areas of technology have a large bearing on the general well-being of the environment. When one looks at the developments made by man and the respective discoveries that he made, there is a correlation between the uses of the environment in a manner that is largely degrading. Prior to the discovery of the fossil fuels, man used wood and animal dung as the principal source of energy.

This was a way of degrading the environment but the actual degradation did not have much effect on the environment. However, the use of the fossil fuels has led to the development of ecologically related problems that have a pervasive reach. The reach of the human destructiveness increased with the industrial revolution. This books seeks to link all the negative ecological reactions to the human activity. If the human being were responsible they could have averted the majority of the environmental issues have on the world. The more man advances technologically the more destructive he is. The other way of looking at it is linking the destruction of the environment to the population growth. The large the footprint of man, the more the ecological balance will face jeopardy.

Dietz, T., Rosa, E., & York, R. (2007). Driving the human ecological footprint. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(1), 13--18.

The article seeks to explain the major sources of environmental degradation. This article builds on the findings made in the previous scientific research on the major anthropogenic degradation of the environment. It seeks to advance the findings made on the precise relationship between drivers of the environmental degradation and their impacts on the environment. According to the article, the population and affluence are the main drivers for the environmental degradation. However, the article acknowledges that the relationship between the environmental degradation agents and the actual impact is yet to be ascertained.

It posits that there is a curvilinear relationship between affluence as indicated by the gross domestic product per capita with some of the measure of the environmental impact. The environmental impact used for the correlation between the factors are mainly the local ones. These are the immediate recipient of the agents of the environmental degradation such as air and water pollution. The increase in the population affect the environment in a manner whereby the people use various agents of environmental degradation in small bits. The needs of a large population also stir industrialization in a bid to ensure that the needs of the large population are attained. Therefore, the population growth is indirectly responsible for the development of environmental degradation. The more the human beings engage in their activities in pursuit of enterprise and affluence, the higher the chance of environmental degradation.

S, erson, E., Jaiteh, M., Levy, M., Redford, K., Wannebo, A., & Woolmer, G. (2002). The Human Footprint and the Last of the Wild The human footprint is a global map of human influence on the land surface, which suggests that human beings are stewards of nature, whether we like it or not. Bioscience, 52(10), 891--904.

The article starts with an allegory to the mandate or dominion given to man over all the animals. It paints the success of man in exercising the dominion in both a good light and bad light. Man has exercised the dominion over the rest of the creation in a manner that has left the world with little or nothing to show of the former natural glory. The inventions made by man have come to haunt him in a slow way. The running idea in the article is that human being are the ones to blame for the degeneration of the environment irrespective of how much they would love to deny their role in the creation of the troubles that face the world. The larger the human footprint, the higher the chances of the ecological balance being lost entirely. Therefore, human beings ought to come out of the cocoon of blame game and finally assume responsibility for what they have created

Wackernagel, M., Onisto, L., Bello, P., Callejas Linares, A., Susana L'opez Falf'an, I., & M'endez Garci´a, J. et al. (1999). National natural capital accounting with the ecological footprint concept. Ecological Economics, 29(3), 375--390

The consensus among the scientists lies in the belief that the ultimate approach way of attaining sustainability is through the maintenance of natural capital. The developments that are meant to put this agreement in motion are often implemented in a rather halfhearted manner. The slow progress has nothing to do with the inability of making the injection attainable. Therefore, in order to address the issue of attainability of the goal, there must be conscious efforts placed on the assessment of the natural capital. The study seeks to provide an accounting framework that focuses on tracking national economies and transform them into productive biological areas that are meant to increase the flows. The main variable in the assessment are the affluence as it is indicated by the gross domestic product per capital and the population.

Read More Annotated Bibliography on different fields i.e Technology


Dietz, T., Rosa, E., & York, R. (2007). Driving the human ecological footprint. Frontiers In Ecology And The Environment, 5(1), 13--18.
Dodds, W. (2008). Humanity's footprint (1st ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Penna, A. (2010). The human footprint (1st ed.). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
S, erson, E., Jaiteh, M., Levy, M., Redford, K., Wannebo, A., & Woolmer, G. (2002). The Human Footprint and the Last of the Wild The human footprint is a global map of human influence on the land surface, which suggests that human beings are stewards of nature, whether we like it or not. Bioscience, 52(10), 891--904.
Wackernagel, M., Onisto, L., Bello, P., Callejas Linares, A., Susana L'opez Falf'an, I., & M'endez Garci´a, J. et al. (1999). National natural capital accounting with the ecological footprint concept. Ecological Economics, 29(3), 375--390.


Post: What is the mechanism of action of NSAIDS?

NSAIDSNSAIDS works by variably inhibiting COX. The mechanism of action of NSAIDS can be described in three stages. The first stage, there is rapid reversible cohesion of COX-2 and COX-1. The second stage entails a reversible binding of COX-1 and COX-2. The binding at this point has a low affinity. In this stage, the continued binding of COX-1 and COX-2 changes into a high affinity and time-dependent reversible binding. The third stage involves a rapid binding, which is reversible. The binding assumes a covalent modification (O'Donnell, 2011). NSAIDS are categorized in two namely; category 1 and category 2 NSAIDS. Category 1 NSAIDS inhibits the binding of arachidonic acid in the COX active site. Category 2 NSAIDS work in a similar manner in the COX active site, but the difference is speed of action and efficiency (Fishman, Ballantyne, Rathmell & Bonica, 2010).


Fishman, S., Ballantyne, J., Rathmell, J. P., & Bonica, J. J. (2010). Bonica's management of pain. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
O'Donnell, J. T. (2011). Drug injury: Liability, analysis and prevention. Tucson: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company.

Post: What are the actions of NSAIDS against pain and inflammation?

NSAIDS have huge effects on pain and inflammation. For instance, acidosis (a chronic inflammation of the joint) causes a great pain on the patient. However, NSAIDS reduce the chronic inflammation and pain experienced in acidosis by reducing pain induced by low Ph (Laufer, Gay & Brune, 2012). Furthermore, NSAIDS reduce the increase of acid-sensing ion channels, which mostly appear in the sensory neurons triggered by an inflammation (Baheti, 2013).


Laufer, S., Gay, S., & Brune, K. (2012). Inflammation and rheumatic diseases: The molecular basis of novel therapies. Stuttgart ; New York: Thieme.
Baheti, D. K. (2013). World clinics: Anesthesia, critical care, & pain -pain management. S.l.: Jaypee Brothers Medical P.

Post: What is the mechanism of action of acetaminophen?

Acetaminophen is a NSAIDS drug that has high analgesic and antipyretic actions, but poor anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action for acetaminophen entails reduction of prostaglandin metabolites levels in urine. However, the drug does not reduce the production of prostaglandins by the stomach mucosa or blood platelets (Gloth, 2011). According to studies, acetaminophen is a weak inhibitor of the COX-1 and COX-2. Moreover, acetaminophen has positive variables that make it an effective NSAIDS. The drug has good pH range that makes it stable in solutions. In addition, it is stable in light, moisture and temperature (Hemmings, 2012).


Gloth, F. M. (2011). Handbook of pain relief in older adults: An evidence-based approach. New York: Humana Press.
Hemmings, H. C. (2012). Foundations of anesthesia: Basic sciences for clinical practice. St. Louis, Mo. ;London: Elsevier Mosby.

Post: What is the pathway that leads to hepatotoxicity in acetaminophen overdose?

Acetaminophen is formed by the conjugation of glucoronidate and sulfate. The dosage of acetaminophen converts paracetamol into a toxic intermediate, which is reactive called (NAPQI) N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone (Zimmerman, 2010). NAPQI amounts are eliminated by combination with glutathione. Large dosage of acetaminophen results into a saturated sulfate reaction. The accumulation of NAPQI exhumes liver GSH. Unconjugated NAPQI induces necrosis and cell death. This condition can lead to liver failure.

There are three phases of acetaminophen toxicity. In the first phase after ingestion of the drug, the patient experiences vomiting, diaphoresis, nausea, malaise and anorexia. The second phase entails a hepatic injury. Hepatic enzyme levels rise gradually. In the third stage, there is evident hepatic necrosis. The third stage is the extreme stage where patients experience renal failure, vomiting, nausea and coagulation defects among other failures. The fourth stage is a healing stage where the defects begin to heal. However, not every patient would successfully reach the forth stage. (Kaplowitz & DeLeve, 2013).


Zimmerman, H. J. (2010). Hepatotoxicity: The adverse effects of drugs and other chemicals on the liver. Philadelphia [u.a.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kaplowitz, N., & DeLeve, L. D. (2013). Drug-induced liver disease. Oxford: Academic.a
Additional post: NSAIDS help major parts of the body against acidic effects. Furthermore, they provide the necessary inflammation needed for healing. However, this inflammation may lead to fever and pain. Moreover, the drugs enhance the blood clotting. Huge dosage of NSAIDS can lead to stomach ulcers and bleeding.