Annotated Bibliography Essay Example & Outline

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Security Issues of the Internet as a Technological Advancement


Le, D. J. (November 2000 to 2001). Internet and Network Security . INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY.

The author of the article discusses the network security architecture. The author states that when a network connects to the internet, there is an increase in information sharing and communication over the internet. However, the author highlight that there are some threats that arise from connection of a network to the internet. He classifies the threats as passive and active depending on their effect to information transmission. He establishes the vulnerability of the internet where he gives a description of the loop holes commonly used by attackers to access information. This is a viable source to the research paper as it gives a clear description of the different threats that the internet faces. This source gives the vulnerability of the internet to threat attacks (Le, 2013).

Alderman, Ellen, and Caroline Kennedy. (2004). Right to Privacy. New York : Vintage.

The authors of the book give their personal experience on privacy violations. They describe their resolutions towards lack of comprehensive agendas of solving the problem of informational privacy. They state that, as an American citizen, one ought to have personal measures aimed at protecting personal information. They describe the threat that lies on personal information where they highlight that most of personal information is stored in computers. They give comprehensive examples of banks and insurance companies that store their information in computers where people can easily access them. This source is relevant to the research paper as it gives a description of the possible effect of storing personal information in computers. Its implication to the research paper is when the authors provide an example of an incident where a reporter was able to access Dan’s credit report through a phone call (Alderman, 2004).

Rose, A. (2013). The Internet of Things Has Arrived- And So Have Massive Security Issues

The author of the article gives a description of the security issues that the internet faces. He gives a description of the loopholes that attackers use while accessing the internet remotely. In addition, Rose gives a description on the evolution of the internet where he describes it as a gradual process (Rose, 2013). In addition, the author of the article gives a description of different frameworks that can be used to deal with the security issues arising from the use of the internet. This source is relevant to the research paper as it gives the basic security threats that the internet faces. In addition, it gives some recommendations while dealing with the highlighted threats. Its implication in the research paper is that it gives the different frameworks that can be used to deal with security threats arising from the use of the internet.

Acohido, B. (2011). Web tracking has become a privacy time bomb. USA TODAY.

Byron describes tracking as one privacy threat facing the internet. He states that while using the internet and other mobile application, people can easily learn the location of the other person. He states that tracking cache, learnt by accessing websites that one had accessed can be used to learn business transactions that the individual engaged in and as well derive some personal information shared through the internet (Acohido, 2011). His approach to security threats of the internet is learnt through his description of the different tracking methods that can be used to learn some exchanged information and as well locate the position of other people.

University of Florida Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Network Security: History, Importance, and Future. Bhavya Daya.

The book describes network security as one social concern among many people. They describe the urge of internet security while accessing the internet over a network. The authors describe internet privacy as major causes of mistrust of the internet among many people. They continue to highlight the importance of having a secured internet. The book gives some protocols used in the internet (that is IP). This source is relevant in the research as it gives a description of internet security and gives solutions to network threats faced by internet users. Its implication in the paper is where it gives some recommendations of dealing with privacy threats.

References

Rose, A. (2013). The Internet of Things Has Arrived- And So Have Massive Security Issues
Le, D. J. (November 2000 to 2001). Internet and Network Security . INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY.
Alderman, Ellen, and Caroline Kennedy. (2004). Right to Privacy. New York : Vintage.
Acohido, B. (2011). Web tracking has become a privacy time bomb. USA TODAY.
University of Florida Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Network Security: History, Importance, and Future. Bhavya Daya.




Annotated bibliography


Balan, L., & Popescu, M. (2011). Credit card fraud. The USV Annals of Economics and Public Administration, 11(1), 81-85.

The summary

    According to this article by PhD lecturers at the University of Suceava in Romania, the two things are driving the high levels of fraud are the internet and the current laws on bank cards. As a result of the rise of e-commerce, the Internet has become the way for bankcard fraud to happen more easily. Since payments happen automatically through the Internet, thieves find it easy to get money or buy things quickly. E-commerce contributed because people are using their card information through the Internet more often, making them easy targets for hackers, phishing, or fake websites. They say that a focus on prevention is the best approach.

    Evaluation of the source

    This article is done by two PhD lecturers at the University of Suceava in Romania in the Department of Economics and Public Administration. It is published in a peer-reviewed journal which is The USV Annals of Economics and Public Administration. The article is clearly made for an academic audience and has accurate citations. The article was published in 2011.
    Financial institutions must educate their employees, merchants and customers in order to best fight the growing problem of bankcard fraud. This article has lots of good information about different types of bankcard fraud and how they occur. This article is important because it has all the basic information on types of bankcard stamp.
       
Chaudhary, K, Mallick, B, (2012). Credit Card Fraud: The study of its impact and detection techniques. International Journal of Computer Science and Network (IJCSN) 1(4).

    This article published in the International Journal of Computer Science and Network. It is about bankcard fraud, and its effects and their electronic ways that financial companies have tried to use against bankcard fraudsters. They found the link between the Internet, e-commerce and more bankcard fraud. They found that data mining techniques are really important for fraud detection. Data mining means looking at the customers’ spending patterns and noticing changes or abnormal charges. The sooner the bank can detect fraud the better for everyone because
They can stop the theft. Also, it shows about all the different data mining techniques and approves

CARDWATCH is the most effective.

    This article is written by two people in the department of computer science at Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology at Greater Noida, India. This article is made for an academic audience because it has lots of computer science information on data mining methods in use against bankcard theft. It has lots of citations to sources published in scholarly journals. Also, it is published in the International Journal of Computer Science, which is peer-reviewed journal in the computer science field.

    It is good article with lots of specific information about the data mining methods. This article has lots of important statistics on bankcard theft and how much it costs different people. It is important for my research because it has lots of statistics about how much merchants, financial institutions and consumers lose as a result of bankcard fraud.
    
Douglass, D. B. (2009). An examination of the fraud liability shift in consumer card-based payment systems. Economic Perspectives, 33(1), 43-9.

This article talks about who is liable when bankcard fraud occurs. According to this article, in practice financial institutions are most liable for damages when the crime occurs as a result of consumer protections that are too lenient. Financial institutions have their own rules leading when they are liable or when a merchant is liable. Also it talks about the reasons why it is difficult for the system to run at its optimal rate because of where the liability falls.

Duncan B. Douglas is a lawyer, partner at Alston and Bird. He is specialized in payment systems, transactions and regulatory issues.

This is going to be useful for the government part of my research that I will talk about the role of government in the problem we are going through with bankcard fraud. Also going to be useful in explaining what can be done to entice merchants to be more watchful for fraud. It is good for explaining why financial institutions are under current laws. Financial institutions have the most power to stop fraud.

U.S. Electronic Fund Transfer Act, IX U.S.C. § 909 (1968 & Supp. 1978).

    This source is coming from a law that was passed in 1978. The law establishes many things, especially about the use of bankcards. According to the section 909, a consumer is not liable if it is approved, something that is basically default until it is reported stolen or misplaced. A customer can be liable for up to $50 or what was stolen if a weird charge is not disputed before 60 days. They can be liable for damages if they do not report a card stolen within two days.

     Because it is directly from the law online from the U.S. government, it is reliable. This source provides a lot of really good direct information about how the law, financial institutions and consumers should interact. This primary source comes directly from the US government’s FTC website.

    This source is useful with supporting some of the facts about how much time individuals have to report their card missing or report a fraudulent charge on their statement. Also, it has more information on laws that regulate the use of bankcards.
    
Federal Trade Commission Consumer Information. Protecting Against Credit Card Fraud.

    This information is directly from the U.S. government. According to the FTC, the Federal Trade Commission, individuals can protect themselves against bankcard fraud by educating themselves on how it happens. They also give few tips on how to avoid having your bankcard information stolen. They say not to give your PIN to anyone, even family members. Carrying your cards separate from your wallet would keep them safe if the wallet were stolen. Make sure that you see your card when using it so someone doesn't do something suspicious with it. Opening statements quickly after receiving them and reporting any weird charges are really important to keeping fraud low. If anyone loses or misplaces a card, there is liable for 50 dollars. But if it is reported within 2 days, the consumer is not liable. People who report fraud sometimes have to sign promising they did not make the charges they are disputing.

Its information is coming straight from the US government. It is not published in a peer-reviewed journal, because it is from the U.S government, but it has some very useful information.This article is going to be very useful because it talks a little bit about what type of fraud people do with bankcards but it also has lots of specific information about what consumers can do to reduce the risk of being a victim of bankcard fraud.

Worthington, S. (2009). Debit cards and fraud. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 27(5), 400-402.

    This is an executive summary of debit cards and fraud in Australia and international countries. Bankcard fraud is more international crime. The article is about the relevant of fraud in other English speaking countries with similar rates of card use like the UK, US and New Zealand. It talks about the international nature of bankcard fraud in the modern world. They talk about the impact of current technology on debit card fraud. According to this author, the rates of using debit cards and fraud have increased. Frauds from debit cards affect consumer more than credit cards, because debit cards are directly linked to their bank account and not the financial institutions. This article has lots of good information about the differences between fraud with credit cards and debit cards. Credit cards are safer for consumers, but they own the money they borrow. Debit cards are very dangerous because once stolen, a criminal could have a direct access to a consumer’s account.

    This is written by Professor Steve Worthington PhD at the Monash University in Melbourne Australia. He is a professor and researcher. One of his papers is “Banking without the Banks” in the International Journal of Bank Marketing being the 2nd most downloaded in 2011.

    This source is very useful for my research because it compares the safety and dangers of debit and credit card fraud, which affect consumers and financial institutions differently. I will use this article to show those differences and why it is important to keep safe, especially with debit cards. It has various statistics about bankcard theft around the world. It is important to give to support my research with examples of how much money bankcard fraud costs the world economy each year.