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The U.S immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a federal agency that enforces federal laws that govern border control, customs, trade as well as immigration in a bid to promote public safety and homeland security. ICE was created in the year 2003, through a merger of several investigative and interior enforcement elements of the former U.S customs service. ICE has grown and currently it has more than 20,000 employees in more than 500 offices in the United States and around 50 foreign countries.
The agency has an annual budget of about $ 6 billion, and it is primarily devoted to two operations- the homeland security investigation and the enforcement as well as removal operations. However, there have been persons that have argued that the budget that is used in the ICE is too high. This paper will look at the justification that the ICE has in regards to the budget that they are given and how they use it.
This paper is going to utilize both primary and secondary resources. Primary resources will include interviews with several specialists that are concerned with the workings of the Immigration and customs enforcement agency. The interviews will be structured, and they will involve the use of several pre-determined questions in order to ensure that they can be able to ensure the uniformity of the answers.
Further, there will also be the use of questionnaires in the different ICE departments in order to get a glimpse of the different exercises that goes on there. There will be a special questionnaire that will be sent to the Chief Financial Officer in order to understand the financial position of the agency and the way it uses its finances. The secondary resources on the hand will include the Immigration and customs enforcement agency website, literature on the spending and different functions of the ICE as well as information from interviews with several ICE workers. This literature will be collected but not limited to magazines, journals, newspapers, books, blogs and Websites.
The qualitative process
This process involved the formulation of research questions that were intended to ensure the research paper stuck to its primary objectives. The research questions included
1. Is the Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency using the budget in the right manner?
2. What are some of the objectives of the Immigration and customs enforcement agency?
3. How is the Immigration and Customs enforcement agency departments performing vis a vis their budget?
The data from the primary and secondary sources will be collected in order to effectively answer these three questions. It is from this point after the research questions are answered that a discussion can be formed, and a solid conclusion made for the questions above.
The approach that is used in this research is the deductive approach where the research material will lead into the conclusion. The deductive approach will ensure there is an understanding regarding the topic, and the conclusions can be drawn from the materials that were used in the research. This will ensure that there is both reliability as well as credibility in terms of the information that is being used.
Elimination of bias
In this research, bias will be eliminated through several methods. Firstly, the articles that will be chosen will be peer reviewed and this, therefore, means that they can be described as articles that are both credible and reliable. The interviews will also be looked at from several different perspectives; they will be subjected to the analysis of experts as the workers from the Immigration and Customs enforcement agency might be prone to lying. The experts will ask the questions in a way that the truth shall come out.
Further, in the design of the paper, all information will be used that is related to the topic. It is important to understand that this data is regardless to whether it is negative or positive. Consequently, this will ensure that the information that comes from the research is credible and trustworthy without any bias. As a final note to ensure that there is no bias, the researchers will make sure that they present the two sides of the story in order for the research paper to show an in-depth analysis of the situation but at the same time promote the thesis of the paper.
There will be the use of citations in order to support borrowed work, and also to stay focused to the thesis and to avoid conjecture. Further, this will also be of importance in order to give the different authors the acknowledgement they deserve in their work. The use of credible sources means that this will come in handy in the supporting of statements and different discussions. Further, the use of a deductive approach will put the research paper into focus, as they will be the formulation of research questions, and then the creation of a conceptual framework that will be used to guide as well as shape the study.
Development of the research problem, purpose and alignment of research questions
The problem is wide, and there is a need to ensure that the tax-payers money is looked at from a keen perspective. It is of importance to understand how the money is used and the way the departments use the money that is allocated to them. Further, the way the department works, and their co-ordination is another problem that the paper intends to solve. These questions are pertinent to the answering of the research questions and consequently, there is a need to make sure that they are looked at from a neutral perspective.
The purpose of the paper is to get answers regarding the three research questions and why there is a need to ensure accountability and transparency in the Immigration and customs enforcement agency. The question about whether or not the agency is using the budget that it is given in the right way will be of importance as it is the thesis of the paper. It is a conceptual framework in which all the different arguments and discussions in the paper are centered.
There will be a need to answer the three research questions in an effective and efficient manner. This will be of the essence as it will give a feel of the different factors that affect the agency and the importance they play in its financial role and execution of the different duties to American citizens. The research question is, therefore, related to the problem in the research paper and the purpose of the research as they are the ones that help validate or refute a thesis. They give direction to the research paper and show the different sides of the arguments.
Kothari, C. R. (2011). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International Ltd.
Kuada, J. E. (2012). Research methodology: A project guide for university students. Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.
Adèr, H. J., & Mellenbergh, G. J. (2008). Advising on research methods: Proceedings of the 2007 KNAW Colloquium, Amsterdam, March 28-30, 2007. Huizen: Johannes van Kessel Publishing.
Risk management involves a systematic process whereby companies identify and assess potential risks, before taking actions that are necessary to mitigate the risks. Risk, simply put, is the possibility that a company might be harmed or incur loses due to unforeseen future occurrences. However, it must be noted that some risks might offer possible opportunities. There are considerable gains to be achieved by companies taking risks, and this explains why effective risk management continues to be a critical factor in company operations.
Companies, however, should use risk management as a preventive measure and not a reactive measure. One area of risk management that most companies have always grappled with is reducing information exposure. All companies, regardless of their sizes, are increasingly dependent on information for the smooth running of their businesses. This ensures that critical data is protected, and should therefore be given high priority. Information exposure assessment has always been a collaborative process, and organizations are therefore tasked with addressing various foundational questions if they are to be successful in risk management.
With regards to risk mitigation, two critical steps should be ensured. The potential failure points must first be identified for every risk mitigation solution. For every identifiable failure point, a “flag” should be raised to document the event so as to show that the event has reached a critical condition. For every failure point that has been identified, alternatives should be provided that will ensure the failure is corrected. This implies that the first step is risk identification, followed by risk impact assessment.
This should then be followed by risk prioritization analysis and finally progress monitoring. In preparation for recovery strategies, certain factors must be ensured. The first is accepting/ assuming the risk. This, simply put, is the acknowledgement that a particular risk exists which should be accepted rather than be controlled. The other recovery strategy is transferring the risk. This might include steps like reassigning organizational authority, responsibility and accountability to another willing stakeholder. The other strategy is monitoring the risk.
The environment should be monitored for changes which might impact the risk. Particular focus should be paid on the root causes, both external and internal. In the U.S, the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act provides the impetus for leading firms to institute enterprise risk management.
Information security has four key concepts name; authenticity, availability, integrity and confidentiality. Confidentiality represents the concepts’ core as it protects critical information. Data encryption is the step mostly used to ensure this. Integrity means that the data should not be substituted or altered illegally. Only the authorized gent should change any information. Availability means that the data should be accessible. Authenticity implies that the data should be verifiable.
The main concept of personal security is protection against physical violence. The harm could either be from external or internal sources. Examples include predatory adults, domestic abuse or even violent individuals. The main concepts of physical security include deterrence methods, intrusion detection, access control and security personnel. Deterrence methods include factors like security lighting, natural surveillance and physical barriers. Intrusion detection includes factors like alarm systems and video surveillance. Access control includes factors like electronic access control, identification systems and mechanical access. They are meant to protect both property and personnel from harm or damage.
There are various planning approaches that might come in handy in preventing business losses. The first planning approach is to methodically identify potential risks that surround a business. This should then be followed by assessing the risk likelihood. This will shed light on how best to address the risk because systems will be put into place to tackle all the consequence. Finally, the effectiveness of the risk management controls and approaches should be monitored. If this is effectively done, it will be instrumental in ensuring the prioritization, planning as well as decision making. It will also help a business allocate its resources and capital more efficiently. This will go a long way in ensuring the business plan is delivered on time.
Concerns have been raised that the functions and roles of the criminal justice as a reactive institution to the security roles have largely been ignored. For too long, crime victims have not been accorded proper protection and support, and this is something that is continuously concerning concern within different quarters. At the center of any government’s legislative program, there should be a commitment to rebalance and reform the criminal justice system. This will ensure that the interests of communities, witnesses and victims are protected, and that justice is delivered to all. Many crime victims feel excluded, ignored and profoundly belittled by the criminal justice system. Any opportunities to take place are few, and very narrowly defined. The physical, financial and emotional needs of victims are rarely addressed. The traditional criminal justice has given no meaningful contact with the wrongdoers, and this has also not helped matters.
Hewitt, J. D. (2009). Exploring Criminal Justice: The Essentials. New Jersey: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
CALEA refers to a credentialing agency which is based in the US. The main purpose of the agency is the accreditation of public safety agencies which are referred to as the law enforcement agencies, communication centers as well as training academies (United States, 2010). The accreditation program is used to improve in the delivery of public services. This is primarily dine through the process of maintaining a body of standards, which are specifically developed by a safety practitioners .This standards are spread over a wide range of initiatives which ensure a well-established as well as administered accreditation process which emphasizes on ensuring professionals excellence.
The main goals of CALEA as well as guidelines include;
Ensuring crime prevention as well as the control capacities are up to standard.
Formalize the important management control procedures.
Maintenance of fair and non-discriminatory personnel policies.
Improving on the service delivery.
Solidifying the interagency cooperation as well as coordination.
Keeping the confidence of the community as well as the staff in the agency
The UD Custom and Border Protection is a unified border agency that is found within the Department of Homeland Security (United States, 2010). The mission of the agency is to ensure that the Nation’s borders are well guarded. It does this by ensuring that the American homeland is safeguard at and beyond the borders of America. It also protects the American citizens from acts of terror and the instruments of terror. This mission is incorporated in the agency’s policy which is to steadfastly enforce the laws of the US while still maintaining and encouraging Nation’s economic security (United States, 2010). This is by ensuring that all the types of trade which occur at the borders are internationally lawful. This policy is in line with the CALEA guidelines which maintain the integrity of the agencies and the security of citizen of America.
United States. (2011). U.S. Customs and Border Protection's ground transportation of detainees. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General.
United States. (2010). Customs and Border Protection's implementation of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative at land ports of entry. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General.
The terrible outcome of the September 11, 2001 shook not the United States only, but the world in whole. The double terrorist attacks on the twin towers were considered a major tragedy and it was a big blow on the fight against terrorism. The outcome of September 11, 2001 resulted in the strictness in the fight against terrorism all over the world. One of the positive actions of the events of the fateful day was the creation of the Department of the Homeland Security in the United States. The Department of Homeland Security was created to lead the safety and ensure the security of the citizens of United States from disasters and terrorist attacks. Since the creation of the department, it has been involved in activities that try to safeguard terrorism as the main issue. The Department of Homeland Security also deals with border security and the management of customs and emergency situations (Apaza, 2011, 16). This paper will look into the events leading to the creation of the Homeland Security as well as the major components, roles and responsibilities of the department.
The first proposal in the development of Homeland Security was raised by the United States Commission on National Security on January, 2001. However, the events of September 11, the same year fastened the process of the creation of the department. The president at that time, George W. Bush, announced the creation, after the events of September 11, of the Office of Homeland Security. The Office of Homeland Security was supposed to carry out the coordination of homeland security activities. Tom Ridge, former Governor of Pennsylvania, was granted the role of heading the Office of Homeland Security. Tom Ridge assumed office and started his new job on October 8, 2001. The creation of the Department of Homeland Security occurred on November 25, 2002. The establishment was made possible by the passing of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 by the Congress. The signing of the bill was hit by setbacks due to the controversy whether the joining of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Criminal Investigation Agency. The option was to join the FBI and CIA into one large Agency or join one of them with the Department of Homeland Security.
However, the creation of the Department of Homeland Security was possible after it was decided that neither the FBI nor the CIA would be incorporated in the department. The Department of Homeland Security became the largest United Government Organization in fifty years since the implementation of the United States Department of Defense (Hauley, 2006, 25). With over a hundred an eighty thousand employees, the department was full equipped for the task. Due to the Homeland Security Act, Tom Ridge in his capacity as Director became a member of the White House cabinet. The Department of Homeland Security received three primary goals. The first goal and also the primary task of the organization was; prevention of the terrorist attacks. The department is also supposed to handle the unauthorized importing, use, acquiring and moving of biological, chemical, nuclear, radiological and nuclear substance in the United States territory. The department also reduces the chances of key resources, infrastructure, significant events and leaders to threats and terrorist attacks.
The Department of Homeland Security comprises of a number of components, with each having its own task. The division of labor among the components of the Department of Homeland Security simplifies the effectiveness of Department. Another advantage is that it avoids the changes of collision of the various divisions while undergoing their duties. The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is responsible for catering for immigrants. The department secures the American promise of a nation that can inhabit immigrants and offering citizens and immigrants the same rights without discrimination (Bullock, Haddow & Coppola, 2012, 36). The department also focuses on the creation of awareness and making all Americans aware of their roles as citizens. The department tries to makes sure that the immigration department is not faced with any integrity issues. The department informs both the citizens and immigrants of the benefits they are viable to receive from the government, creating awareness.
The United States Coast Guard is the only military department in the Department of Homeland Security and is among the five armed forces of the nation. The Coast Guard wing is in charge of the protection of the maritime environment and economy. The division also deals with the defense of United States maritime boundaries. In addition, the Coast Guard wing handles the saving of those in impeccable danger. This includes search and rescue missions in cases of emergencies or adverse situations. In the case of war, the Coast Guard acts as the Department of the Navy. Data collected in 2010 showed that the department had about 8,000 civilian employees, over 7,000 reservists and 40,000 women and men in service. Therefore, the division is well equipped to carry out its duties (Dempsey, 2010, 63). The United States Customs and Border protection (CBP) division is the largest and most complex in the department.
The division is involved in the protection of the border and ensuring that whatever products get inside United States territory abides by customs. The division tries to ensure that borders are safe to avoid the smuggling of drugs; terrorists and weapons are not done through borders. The division also secures and facilitates travelling as well as trade, according to the laws of the United States. The Customs and Border protection division has more than fifty-six thousand employees who make the accomplishment of the tasks easier. The Federal Emergency Management Agency is in charge of catering for the workers in the nation (United States, 2006, 70). The division ensures that the workers in the United States are protected from hazards that would otherwise affect their working progress. The division makes sure that it establishes a good working environment for all the workers to ensure that the workers work hard enough to help build the nation.
The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center offers career related training to law enforcement professionals. This helps the individuals to fulfill their responsibilities proficiently and safely. The United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement promotes the safety of the public. The division promotes Homeland Security through the enforcement of criminal and civil laws. The laws involve border control governance, immigration, trade and customs. The division is the largest investigative arm of the Department of Homeland Security. The division comprises of over ten thousand employees, and about 6700 special agents who are assigned to over two hundred cities in the United States (Koestler-Grack, 2007, 49). Some of the agents are also situated in about forty-seven countries all around the globe. The ICE works with the corporation with the Homeland Security Investigations (HIS). The HIS is in charge of more than 450 federal statutes, which include smuggling of weapons and narcotics, commercial fraud, sale of contraband products, human smuggling, cyber-crimes, intellectual property theft and export violations.
The United States Secret Service (USSS) has only two areas of responsibility. The first area of responsibility is the treasury, and this involves the investigation major fraud cases as well as counterfeit money. The division also provides security detail for members of the government and their families, including the president. The Secret Service also has some of its members positioned in overseas nations. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) caters for the nuclear detection efforts (Dempsey, 2010, 72). The division assists the federal, local, states, tribal, territorial governments and the private sectors when facing risks associated with nuclear energy. In the Department of Homeland Security, there is also an Office of Health Affairs (OHA). The OHA is involved in the coordination of all medical activities in the Department. The advantage is that it ensures preparation and rapid response to situations, which are medical in nature and may need urgent interventions.
The Office of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) on the other hand, handles information and intelligence from multiple sources. The information and intelligence are then used to establish whether the United States is facing any threats. If any information or intelligence is discovered to threaten the peace of American citizens, then the necessary measures are taken. The Office of Operations Coordination and Planning monitors the security of the United States citizen on a daily basis. The division coordinates the activities of the governors and within the Department of Homeland Security. The division has employed critical infrastructure operators, law enforcement partners and Homeland Security Advisors in all the fifty states and over fifty major urban centers in the nation. The Office of Policy is the department where all the centralization and coordination of activities takes place. The division also handles the planning of the measures to be used in the protection of the United States.
The Department of Homeland Security has a division that carries out primary research. The division is known as the Science and Technology Directorate and can also be considered as the development arm of the department. The division offers the state, federal, and local officials with the technology and know-how to protect their area of governance (United States, 2006, 106). The Transportation Security Administration caters for the protection of the nation’s transportation system. The division ensures that every citizen of the United States has the freedom of movement. There should also be no barrier to that transportation of commercial goods and all other legal products.
In conclusion, the Department of Homeland Security has been successful since its formation. The decision for the establishment of the Department and the implementation was among the best things that have happened to the security department in the United States. Credit must be given to the structure of the department since it is spectacular. The Department of Homeland Security in its formation included the joining of twenty-two government agencies to form the department. The various agencies in the department each has its duty to carry out. The duties may be common in some departments; however, there is a thin line of difference even despite the differences (Haulley, 2006, 76). The division of roles and responsibilities makes it easy for the department to carry out its duties. The division of roles and responsibilities eases the way in which the department carries out its duties. In case one division is failing in its task, it can be easily identified and therefore, a correction can be made.
Apaza, C. R. (2011). Integrity and accountability in government: Homeland security and the Inspector General. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P. (2012). Introduction to homeland security. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Dempsey, J. S. (2010). Introduction to private security. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Haulley, F. (2006). The Department of Homeland Security. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
Koestler-Grack, R. A. (2007). The Department of Homeland Security. New York: Chelsea House.
United States. (2006). United States Department of Homeland Security handbook. Washington, DC: International Business Publications, USA.
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