Fungi Are Pathogens Essay Examples & Outline

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Fungi are pathogens

Fungi are pathogens that exist in the normal human environment. These pathogens cause various diseases in the human body. However, some fungi are beneficial to the human body. For instance, wine, penicillin and bread use fungi ingredients.

A disease caused by a fungus is called mycosis. Fungi exists is different types and they cause different diseases. The various types of fungi diseases include; systemic mycosis, cutaneous mycosis, subcutaneous mycosis and superficial mycosis.

Superficial mycosis, commonly known as ringworm, is caused by the presence of a fungus on the skin surface. However, the fungus does not penetrate the skin at all. This leads to various diseases such as skin ringworm, athlete’s foot and scalp ringworm. Furthermore, candidiasis is a disease caused by candida albicans. This fungal disease is a superficial mycosis usually present in the vaginal parts or in the mouth areas for both females and males. The disease spreads rapidly if the affected person has a weak immune system. Superficial mycosis is treated using antifungal drugs.

Cuteneous mycosis is a fungal disease that mostly affects the nonliving parts of the human body; nails, hair and skins. Consequently, subcutaneous mycosis is a disease caused by fungi when they penetrate the skin and reach the subcutaneous layer of the skin. They affect various tissues such as the bone and connective tissues. These fungi penetrate the skin when it is wounded or pierced. Subcutaneous mycosis is hard to treat. Nevertheless, it can be treated but its treatment requires the removal of the damaged skin.

Systemic mycosis is fungal disease that affects almost all parts of the body. It can affect the heart, brain and the human bloodstream. These fungi enter the human body through the lungs or the gastrointestinal tract. It can be treatment through administration of oral antifungal drugs such as ketoconazole.

Question 2

The body’s immune system protects the body form harmful substances by identifying and responding to antigens. Antigens include bacteria, fungi, viruses and toxins. The immune system comprises of three types of immune systems; the innate immunity, acquired immunity and passive immunity. The innate immune system is an inborn defense system, which people are born with. Innate immunity protects the human body against entrance of foreign antigens through various reflexes. For instance, the innate immunity responds to antigens through cough reflex, stomach acid, enzymes, mucus and the skin.

The blood consists of the white blood cells, which destroy foreign objects in the body. These are the principle cells in the immune system. Furthermore, some white blood cells join together to help immune system cells. The white blood cells comprise of the lymphocytes. There are two types of the lymphocytes; type B and type T. Type B lymphocytes are mainly cell that produce antibodies. These antibodies attach themselves on antigens in order to make it easy for immune cells to destroy these antigens. On the other hand, type T lymphocytes directly attack antigens and they enhance the immune response in the body.

Consequently, the body also has an inflammatory cell immune system. This occurs when damaged cells produce chemicals, which cause the blood vessels to perforate and leak fluid into the tissues. This enables the body to isolate foreign substances from further destruction of tissues. In addition, the inflammatory response attracts white blood cells, which destroy the foreign substances. This process is referred to as phagocytosis.

References

Porth, C.M., & Matfin, G. (2009) Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. (Eight ed.) Philadelphia.