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What dermatological diseases typically fall under the heading of acne?
Acne is a skin disease that is cause by a disorder in the sebaceous glands and the hair follicles. Acne causes clogging of these glands, which leads to pimples and cysts forming on the skin. Acne common disease is not limited to race or age. However, in most cases it occurs during puberty, when the sebaceous glands become more sensitive (Butaro, 2013).
Diseases that fall under the acne category include; whiteheads, blackheads, papules, pastules, nodules and cysts.
Whiteheads are pimples which are located under the skin’s surface. Blackheads affect the skin surface and they cause black pimples. The black color is caused by oxidation of the sebum, when it is exposed to air.
Papules are smaller and tender. They form small bumps on the skin that are pink in color. Pastules are pimples that are red at the base of the lesion and they have pus on the top . Nodules are hard, painful and large. They begin forming from deep in the skin.Cysts are pimples that are filled with puss, they are deep and painful. In most cases, they result into scars (Butaro, 2013).
Should any single product or preparation work for all acne?
The aim of all acne treatment is to first remove the spots and skin inflammation. Single products or preparations do not work for all acne. Dermatologists first distinguish the acne grade. Grade 1 is less severe compared to grade 4. Thus, the type of treatment offered for acne diseases varies. This is because the different treatment options work differently (Sanchez, 2010).
Select three classes of antiacne drugs and discuss their role in acne treatment
There are various classes for antiacne drugs. Consequently, these drugs have different roles in the treatment of acne. Topical retinoids, sulfacetamide, azelaic acidand benzoyl peroxide are used to treat mild acnes. Alternatively, clidamycin or topical erythromycin can be used to treat mixed mild acnes. On the other hand, oral doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline and erythromycin are used to treat moderate acne. Isotretinoin is used to treat most severe acne diseases (Sanchez, 2012).
How would you instruct a patient who is starting therapy on how to administer their medication and what side effects they can expect?
Treatment options for acne patients vary according to one’s age, sereneness of the disease, personal preference, one’s tolerance for specific therapies and one’s expectation after the treatment. The main target for every acne therapy is to reduce the skin inflammation and appearance. Doctors diagnose acne conditions using topical and systematic therapies. The side effects for using these therapies include, painful skin irritation, itching, burning, crusting, swelling and blistering. Further, an overdose can lead to skin rash (Buttaro, 2013).
What are the drugs that are most often employed to treat methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)?
According to the Stanford antimicrobial therapy for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus is the most identified antibiotic-resistant disease-causing organism. The resistance of the pathogen to antibiotics is limited to some B-lactams. The pathogen is susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracyclines and clindamycin. Further, apart from B-lactam therapy vancomycin therapy is also used to treat the disease. However, it is proved to be slower that using B-lactam therapy. Moreover, the combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin therapy can be used to treat the drug resistant pathogen (Lacouture, 2014).
What are the toxicities encountered during systematic and topical therapy for these infections?
The main toxicities encountered during the MRSA therapy include the following toxicities include; nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and reversible neutropenia (Mancano & Gallagher, 2012).
What are the most common adverse reactions to tropical and systematic antistaphylococcus therapy?
The most adverse reactions of using tropical or systematic MRSA therapy include insomnia, ulcer and low-extremity amputation. Further, these therapies may fail causing worsening of the infection, development of cellulitis and osteomyelitis (Lacouture, 2014). Other reactions that are common are;
Discoloration of body fluids
Buttaro, T. M. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Mosby.
Sánchez, N. P. (2012). Atlas of dermatology in internal medicine. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Lacouture, M. E. (2014). Dermatologic principles and practice in oncology: Conditions of the skin, hair, and nails in cancer patients. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell/John Wiley & Sons.
Mancano, M. A., & Gallagher, J. C. (2012). Frequently prescribed medications: Drugs you need to know. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Fungi are pathogens that exist in the normal human environment. These pathogens cause various diseases in the human body. However, some fungi are beneficial to the human body. For instance, wine, penicillin and bread use fungi ingredients.
A disease caused by a fungus is called mycosis. Fungi exists is different types and they cause different diseases. The various types of fungi diseases include; systemic mycosis, cutaneous mycosis, subcutaneous mycosis and superficial mycosis.
Superficial mycosis, commonly known as ringworm, is caused by the presence of a fungus on the skin surface. However, the fungus does not penetrate the skin at all. This leads to various diseases such as skin ringworm, athlete’s foot and scalp ringworm. Furthermore, candidiasis is a disease caused by candida albicans. This fungal disease is a superficial mycosis usually present in the vaginal parts or in the mouth areas for both females and males. The disease spreads rapidly if the affected person has a weak immune system. Superficial mycosis is treated using antifungal drugs.
Cuteneous mycosis is a fungal disease that mostly affects the nonliving parts of the human body; nails, hair and skins. Consequently, subcutaneous mycosis is a disease caused by fungi when they penetrate the skin and reach the subcutaneous layer of the skin. They affect various tissues such as the bone and connective tissues. These fungi penetrate the skin when it is wounded or pierced. Subcutaneous mycosis is hard to treat. Nevertheless, it can be treated but its treatment requires the removal of the damaged skin.
Systemic mycosis is fungal disease that affects almost all parts of the body. It can affect the heart, brain and the human bloodstream. These fungi enter the human body through the lungs or the gastrointestinal tract. It can be treatment through administration of oral antifungal drugs such as ketoconazole.
The body’s immune system protects the body form harmful substances by identifying and responding to antigens. Antigens include bacteria, fungi, viruses and toxins. The immune system comprises of three types of immune systems; the innate immunity, acquired immunity and passive immunity. The innate immune system is an inborn defense system, which people are born with. Innate immunity protects the human body against entrance of foreign antigens through various reflexes. For instance, the innate immunity responds to antigens through cough reflex, stomach acid, enzymes, mucus and the skin.
The blood consists of the white blood cells, which destroy foreign objects in the body. These are the principle cells in the immune system. Furthermore, some white blood cells join together to help immune system cells. The white blood cells comprise of the lymphocytes. There are two types of the lymphocytes; type B and type T. Type B lymphocytes are mainly cell that produce antibodies. These antibodies attach themselves on antigens in order to make it easy for immune cells to destroy these antigens. On the other hand, type T lymphocytes directly attack antigens and they enhance the immune response in the body.
Consequently, the body also has an inflammatory cell immune system. This occurs when damaged cells produce chemicals, which cause the blood vessels to perforate and leak fluid into the tissues. This enables the body to isolate foreign substances from further destruction of tissues. In addition, the inflammatory response attracts white blood cells, which destroy the foreign substances. This process is referred to as phagocytosis.
Porth, C.M., & Matfin, G. (2009) Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. (Eight ed.) Philadelphia.
The reliance on bacteria in industry microbiology continues to shape contemporary research on the importance of bacteria in influencing food processing, healthcare, biomining, and waste management. For hundreds of years bacteria have improved the lives of humans, and in this analysis, I argue the importance of bacteria in industrial microbiology. Bacteria have been used in the production of foods through fermentation, while in the biomining industry, extraction of metals such as copper requires the use of bacteria as part of iron oxidation. Cultural isolation has been preferred in most settings as a means of identifying various bacterial characteristics and their subsequent control measures, but in essence, industrial processes significant apply genomics technologies to determine the compatibility of bacteria and the environment. However horizontal gene transfer can be used as a means of improving the adaptability of microorganisms in the environment, especially where there is high mental concentration.
Importance of Bacteria in Industrial Microbiology
In recent years, bacteria have been used in large-scale industrial processes as scientists continue to rely on bacteria for the production of metabolites, reducing environmental pollution, genome and mining (Maejima, Oshima & Namba, 2014; Martínez‐Bussenius, Navarro & Jerez, 2017; Gill, 2017). Chemical engineers have explored the importance of microbes in creating biofertilizers and in reducing metal pollutants to admirable effects. Arguably, the nature and behavior of bacteria have been essential facets in establishing the usefulness and approaches necessary in using bacteria in the environment and society (Gill, 2017). However, scientists and genomics have been critical of the adverse effects of some microbes especially in the healthcare industry, leading to limitations in the use of ineffective microorganisms (Martínez‐Bussenius et al., 2017). Moreover, bacterial limitations in industrial microbiology have not affected their usage in modern society.
It is difficult to distinguish biological and molecular characteristics in microbes owing to challenges in culturing them into vitro, but this has not stopped biologists and scientists from inventing genome projects. Maejima et al. (2014) are of the view that the biological and molecular characteristics of phytoplasmas have been used to determine genome projects that can correct various conditions. Inevitably, there has been a great success in the healthcare industry where microbial characteristics have been to alter DNA and limit the adverse effects of vector and nonvector insects. Other institutions such as the food industry have greatly benefited from bacterias, especially when one considers the importance of bacterias in food fermentation (Maejima et al., 2014). Other sectors, mostly waste management, and mining, have greatly benefited especially in the extraction of metals and in the conversion of waste products into fuels.
Bacteria and Industrial Biomining
Industrial biomining has been an important paradigm in the heavy metal industry as engineers continue to define best practices in the recovery of valuable metals. Martínez‐Bussenius et al. (2017) analyze the significance of microbes in the recovery of metals such as copper and gold, arguing that “biohydrometallurgy is vital in metal extraction processes in many biomining companies” (p.279). Biohydrometallurgy is the process through which biomining firms rely on the genomic sequencing of microorganisms as a means of creating metal resistant extractors. Some bacterias are incredibly acidophilic, making it possible for such microorganisms to become suitable metal resistants during metal extraction. Martínez‐Bussenius et al. (2017) continue and state that owing to variations in geographical locations and ore types, industrial biomining must facilitate approaches that are appropriate for metal recovery and extraction services. Some processes such as in situ, tank, heap and dumb have been used in industrial biomining to extract metal, but microorganisms from thermophilic archaea and acidithobacilus ferrivorans are efficient mineral-oxidizing strains used in copper extraction.
Thermophilic biomining has been the recommended microorganisms in copper mining and for extraction of recalcitrant minerals. Martínez‐Bussenius et al. (2017) argue that engineers use a genetic modification of bioleaching microorganisms to determine existing copper resistance mechanism and to construct strains with high copper tolerance. Archaea have also been used to resist high levels of copper as the organisms activate efflux that traps copper metal ions (Martínez‐Bussenius et al., 2017). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 has also proved to be important microorganism as they survive under high copper concentrations. Martínez‐Bussenius et al. (2017) point out that these microbes genetically mutate and carry more than ten genes of copper homeostasis at an external acid pH of 1-3, hence making it possible to increase pH levels across the cytoplasmic membrane of other bacterias around copper. In an environment where gene expression and metabolite levels continuously change, microorganisms have been a useful source of creating active and passive mental tolerance systems in industry biomining.
Bacteria and the Food Industry
Genomic analysis continues to be a driving force in the identification of bacteria that maximizes their inputs in industrial microbiology. Prokaryote and eukaryote sequences such as Haemophilus influenza and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the first sequences to be developed as part of genomics (Gill, 2017). The development of cultural techniques paved the way for the study of bacteriology and thus the foundations for food microbiology. Biologists rely on various experiments to conduct bacteriology analysis in food, with the most common being detection and enumeration (Gill, 2017). Detecting bacteria in foods continue to shape new genomic technologies, leading to the expiration of the above analysis techniques. Gill (2017) argues that new cultural sensitive methods are used in the food industry to detect bacteria, with the most common approach being the use of cultural isolation in food microbiology. Review bacteria culture is now an essential aspect of food microbiology and thus the identification and elimination of various bacteria populations and their subsequent separation.
Detecting bacteria in food is not an easy task, but microbiologists in the food industry incorporate bacterial culture analysis to isolate microorganisms. Gill(2017) is of the view that the use of target microbiota has been vital among food producers as the process helps to detect pathogens. Primarily, cultural isolation and the use of biomolecules specific to the different microorganisms such as antigens have been vital in determining existing foodborne infectious agents, foodborne intoxicants, spoilage and processing in the food industry. However, the sensitivity of the cultural methods adopted in food microbiology must be higher than 100 CFU/g or ml when detecting for intoxication and spoilage (Gill, 2017). This means that cultural isolation of bacteria can help microbiologists determine the sensitivity of the bacteria in affecting food stocks and processing approaches hence assisting in reducing food intoxication.
Bacteria and the Healthcare Industry
Culture analysis of bacteria has not only been useful in the food processing industry but also in the commercial healthcare sector. According to Gill (2017), infectious agents have been detected by doctors and physicians through bacterial identification methods, mostly the use of culture-independent diagnostic platforms. Maejima et al. (2014) agree with this concession stating that some diseases are specific to microbes, hence the growing reputation of the pharmaceutical industry in finding new vaccines and devices to treat and cure various ailments. Cultural isolation of bacteria means that pharmacologists can investigate microorganisms that cause certain diseases and thus help them to develop antimicrobial drugs (Maejima et al., 2014; Gill, 2017). The pharmaceutical industry engages in industrial microbiology activities such as biochemistry where healthcare professionals device new medical devices that can detect pathogens in tissues through bacterial cultural isolation. Gill (2017) is of the view that healthcare professionals continuously explore biomolecules, more so DNA and RNA as they form part of the genomic analysis in understanding bacterial traits. Evaluating DNA and RNA has proved crucial in understanding bacteria and pathogen composition, hence outlining their structural and functional molecularity. In the end, healthcare professionals can understand hindrance to cell growth and formation, and thus appropriate diagnosis to eliminate generative bacterial cells that inhibit growth.
It is evident from the analysis above that fermentation reactions, cultural isolation and bacterial oxidation are essential in analyzing how bacteria can be used to improve the quality of life and in the manufacturing and extraction industries. Microbial decomposition of metals and ores is of vital importance in ecological conservation, while oxidation bacteria facilitate the extraction of metals such as copper. Many companies are now investing in microbiology as a means to improve their manufacturing and processing activities, more so in the petroleum industry where spraying oxidated bacteria helps in reducing the rate of environmental degradation in oil spills. Specialists must, however, consider the imperatives of horizontal gene transfer as a means of improving the adaptability of microorganisms in the environment, especially where there is high mental concentration.
Gill, A. (2017). The importance of bacterial culture to food microbiology in the age of genomics. Frontiers in microbiology, 8, 777. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00777
Maejima, K., Oshima, K., & Namba, S. (2014). Exploring the phytoplasmas, plant pathogenic bacteria. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 80(3), 210-221. DOI 10.1007/s10327-014- 0512-8
Martínez‐Bussenius, C., Navarro, C. A., & Jerez, C. A. (2017). Microbial copper resistance: importance in biohydrometallurgy. Microbial biotechnology, 10(2), 279-295.
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