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Art is used to express culture and history. Art in the ancient cultures was highly supported by the government. The community has always appreciated creative pieces of art. Further, artists were praised for their artistic works some earning diplomatic positions. Art is also present in most religions. However, there were cultural influences in the spread of different religions. Art in Christianity was highly influenced by Roman and Greece ancient cultures.
However, art in Christianity is limited towards religious issues. On the other hand, art in Muslim religion was influenced by Islam culture. Buddhism religion also incorporates the use of art. Buddhism art is expressed by the presentation of Buddha in the human form. Ancient Buddhism religion expressed Buddha in mysterious signs such as a pair of footprints. In the beginning of the first century A.D, Indians made the first human sculpture of Buddha as a human (Garrett, Harris & Harris, 2015).
My original piece is a sculpture that comprises of three characters helping each other to lift the world. The sculpture should have a human representation of Jesus with a thorn crown; Mohammad dressed in a scarf and a hijab and Buddha seated at the center dressed in a robe. Jesus and Mohammad will be holding the world from the side, whereas Buddha is seated at the middle holding the earth from below.
This sculpture is appropriate for the Interfaith Cultural and Historical center because it reconciles the major religions in the world. Religious disputes and social divisions have reduced the level of peace and cohesion of people since back in history. Moreover, the Interfaith Cultural and Historical Center is supposed to promote interfaith and preserve history. The historical presentation and religious essence of Jesus, Mohammad, and Buddha will help promote interfaith. Further, culture is preserved by the historical presentation of the three characters. The scripture should be placed at the center of the Interfaith and History Center to indicate the importance of interfaith and improve the level of religious cohesion.
The sculpture identifies with central teachings from early Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam in various ways. Jesus played a major role in the redemption of the world as presented in Christianity. On the other hand, Mohammad also helped the Muslim community achieve unity and preserve peace. In addition, Buddha represented righteous living and fulfillment of purpose through straight living. Thus, the portrayal of the three characters helping each other to lift the world will help to addresses salvation of the world by reconciling religious disputes. Buddha should be presented in a torn robe exposing his left shoulder to express humbleness and sacrifice. Muhammad should be dressed in a scarf and a hijab to express the Islamic culture. Jesus should be dressed in a robe and a thorn crown to indicate humbleness.
Art is used to communicate key issues in the society such as sexuality and beauty. Further, art can also be used to express virtue such as hope, peace, and unity. The interfaith Cultural and Historical Centre should promote unity by engaging the major religions with an aim of bringing people from different religions and races together. Thus, the sculpture will enable the centre to symbolize its purpose. The current global condition presents some level of religious disputes. People from different religions segregate themselves each other. This has led to low social interaction levels between individuals from different religions.
My art presentation is an expression of peace, love, and unity. Moreover, the sculpture also shows the essence of art in religion. The difference in dressing between the three characters symbolizes the presence of diverse cultures in the world. The world symbolizes us and in our current geographical location.
Art Music Architecture Literature Philosophy
Judaism art is Judaism was presented through paintings, sculptures, and making of traditional goods such as oil jugs. Music was used in the form of poetry, traditional folk songs, and hymns. Architecture in Judaism was influenced by Greece architecture. Byzantine building techniques is one of the most effective examples of architecture in Judaism and it is common in churches (Brown & Hutton, 2015). Literature evident through the use of poems, riddles, books and scrolls. Philosophy used in Judaism entails major teachings in the Old Testament books.
Early Christianity Art was present in Christianity through drawings, sculptures, paintings and making of religious accessories. Music was present through songs, poems, hymns and prayers. Architecture in early Christianity is identical to architecture in ancient Judaism. It entailed the use of Byzantine technique in building churches and kingdoms. Literature is evident in early Christianity by the use of different languages such as Latin and Hebrew. Further, poems, hymns, and prayers also constitute to literature in early Christianity. Philosophy in early Christianity was obtained from biblical teachings of prophets such as the ten commandments presented by prophet Moses.
Buddhism Art is evident in Buddhism through the use of traditional ornaments, paintings, and drawings. Music was used in religious chants and rituals. Music led to the creation of traditional musical instruments such as the Tambura (Kapur, 2010). Architecture in Buddhism entails the use of dome shaped rooftops in religious places such as temples. Literature is evident through the use of different Indian dialects. This led to the development of literature from oral literature to written literature sources. Philosophies used in Buddhism were obtained from historical teachings and practices from Buddha. One of the major philosophies used in the religion is the Karma doctrine (Kapur, 2010
Islam Art is Islam was highly influenced by the Muslim culture. Art entailed paintings, carvings, pottery, and traditional ornaments. Music is presented in different forms such as songs, prayers, religious rituals, and hymns. Islam architecture is unique through the use of specific materials such as marble. The use of pillars and dome shaped rooftops is common in Islam architecture. Islam literature is obtained from the Arab culture. Literature was present in oral presentations such as legends. Further, writings such as books, scrolls and letters (Kumar, 2015). Philosophies used in Islam are obtained from Quran teachings.
Brown, R. M., & Hutton, D. S. (Eds.). (2015). A companion to Asian art and architecture. John Wiley & Sons.
Garrett, A., Harris, J. A., & Harris, J. A. (Eds.). (2015). Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Centuries: Morals, politics, art, religion (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press, USA.
Kapur, K. (2010). Portraits of a nation: History of ancient India. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Ltd.
Kumar, S (2016). The Development of Buddhist Art and Architecture in Jammu and Kasmira upto 12th Canture AD.
It is hard to come up with an exact determination of the period during which the surah was written by use of the authentic traditions. However, internal evidence on the same matter indicates that the surah was written in at the same period with the surah Zukhruf. This period was in the mid of the stay of Prophet Muhammad in Makah. During this period, the entire region was facing a famine that left many people distressed (Ali 2001). The famine prompted some of the Qureysh chiefs to approach the prophet asking him to ask Allah for deliverance from the calamity that was plaguing them.
The surah came to the prophet as a revelation on the reason and remedy for the calamity (Khan and Azwar Abdul Manan. 2012). The major issues that the surah touches on are that Allah made his revelation of the Quran in the blessed night, which is the night of the determination of all matter by Allah. The Quran also reveals that is was not a result of the works of man, but it comes from Allah who is the teacher of the entire world (Ali 2001). It also touches on the delivery of the children of Israel and their favor over other nations in spite of their weakness. It also touches on the suffering of the indolent and the rejoicing of the selected people (Zahniser 2008).
The surah gives the people of the land of Fir' on the admonition that they have to change their ways and let the people of Israel go. The surah also refers to the stubbornness of the people that made them have to face the eternal doom (Khan and Azwar Abdul Manan. 2012). The stubbornness of the people is so high that they question the power of Allah to resurrect the people from the dead. The response given in the surah is that the time will come when the power of Allah to resurrect will be manifested. At that time when the surah was being written, all the people will be judged according to their belief in Allah.
In the first ayat of the surah, Allah offers an instruction to the prophet about the way that he was going to live. The prophet had an adopted son who was married to a woman that he could not stay with owing to their incompatible temperaments (Khan and Azwar Abdul Manan. 2012). When the son in law divorced the woman, Allah commanded Muhammad to marry the divorced wife. In the view of the prophet, his going ahead with the marriage as instructed was a potential source of opposition from the kaffirs and the Jews (Zahniser 2008).
Therefore, he was hesitant. The first ayat in the surah is to admonish the prophet to forget that his sole duty is a service to the almighty. The surah is also set in a period when the religion was under attack from the non-believers in the battle of Al Ahzab in the small city of Madinah (Ali 2001). The believers were at war with the hypocrites, kaffirs, Jews and the polytheists. The surah also admonishes the prophet to look forward and carry out the command given to him by Allah.
The surah proceeds to state that when the prophet moved on to do as a commanded by Allah he would receive the ultimate blessing from the almighty. The surah also promises the people that the ability of a person to stay in the will of Allah is the ultimate measure of the person (Khan and Azwar Abdul Manan. 2012). Despite the temptation of the person to move from the will of Allah into the secular world, the reprieve of such a move is minimal, and the element that the person is moving away from will just happen (Zahniser 2008). The surah is a source of admonishment to the people to work hard towards maintaining their belief in Allah even when they are under insurmountable odds.
At talaq is not just the name of the surah of the Quran. On the flipside, this is the topic matter of the surah (Ali 2001). This particular surah contains the commands of Allah on the topic of divorce. The internal evidence reveals that the surah was sent down to the people after the initial commandments on the matter of divorce were sent down to the people in surah Al- Baqarah (Khan and Azwar Abdul Manan. 2012). Alot of difficulties are there in making the exact determination of the period of the revelation.
However, the evidence in the surah indicates that people started making mistakes on the instruction delivered to the people in the earlier surah. Therefore, this surah was sent down to the people as a correction of the wrong misinterpretation of the surah Al-Baqarah. The first rule in the surah about divorce is that it may be pronounced twice, and the woman could be taken back in fairness or partial fairness (Ali 2001). The husband reserves the right to take the woman back three months after the initial pronunciation of divorce. The most pronunciations of divorce that a man can make to the wife are three beyond, which he loses the right to reconcile (Zahniser 2008).
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. The Qur'an. Elmhurst, N.Y.: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, 2001.
Khan, Saniyasnain and Azwar Abdul Manan.. Nabi Hud dan ribut taufan. Batu Caves, Selangor: Darul Mughni Trading, 2012.
Zahniser, A. H. Mathias. The mission and death of Jesus in Islam and Christianity. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2008.
Islamicization refers to the conversion to Islam or an individual being Islamic. Another definition of Islamicization is the relation of the absorption, adoption and integration of Islam with other cultures and developing the religion from an Arabic religion to a universal religion that incorporates millions of worshipers possessing different cultural and ethnical backgrounds. Muhammad is the Islam Prophet related with the development and growth of the religion. . Muhammad insisted that Allah was the only divine power in the universe. His thoughts had made a lot of progress in using Islam to unify the whole Arabian Peninsula. Imam Ali, through the article The Letter of Imam Ali to Malik al-Ashtar, gave the ruler of Egypt specific directions on how to rule a country successfully. This led the question that how does the doctrine of Muhammad link with Ali’s suggestions on ruling Egypt. In this essay, the primary focus is on two things: Islam thinking and The Letter of Imam Ali to Malik al-Ashtar. The essay takes an in-depth look at how the two articles together with two other sources to provide a clear insight into the topic. The sources used in this essay are written by scholars who have unending knowledge in the topic of discussion.
The Qur’an is not just the Muslim’s Bible; it is more of the sacred book of Islam. The major difference between the Christian Bible and the Qur’an is that the former is an account of Muhammad as dictated by God through Angel Gabriel (Smart and Richard, 80). The Christian Bible, on the other hand, is based on accounts of different righteous individuals over a period. Therefore, in a more accurate definition the Qur’an to Islam is comparable to Jesus to Christianity or the Torah to Judaism. Hadith states that the teachings of Muhammad had a great impact on the Arab community, bringing about both religious and political unity (126). One of the great advantages that Muhammad had and that helped him in the expansion is that as a youth, he had learnt a lot from Christians and Jews. Therefore, his expansion in Medina was a great plan since the monotheism of Christians and Jews had given him a chance in the region. Muhammad was impressed by the Christian and Jew prophets and the fact that the prophesies were not listened to and even falsified in some situations.
Allah appointed Malik as the rules of Egypt after the former governor was unstable as a leader. However, Malik al-Ashtar had a great task ahead of him as explained by Imam Ali in his letter to Malik al-Ashtar. Malik al-Ashtar was supposed to use his position as a leader to benefit all the inhabitants of Egypt from the wealthy to the poorest. As a leader, Imam Ali corrected Malik al-Ashtar that his task was not only to give orders and wait for people to obey them (219). According to Hadith, Muhammad has an idea of how to handle religious traditions proving that Islam was a tolerated monotheism. Muhammad had studied a number of things in Christians and Jews and understood their way of doing things. Imam Ali shared the same idea warning Malik al-Ashtar not to interfere with traditions of benefit to the community since that could interfere with the unity. Imam Ali also goes ahead to advice Malik al-Ashtar to be merciful as a leader on his subjects and not to have plans to devour them, rather have abundant kindness and love. Just like Muhammad agrees that one should act with mercy, love and kindness just like Allah treats us all.
In his youth, Muhammad had the advantage of learning a couple of things about Christians and Jews. One thing he found out that Christians and Jews did not pay attention to their prophets and even falsified their prophesies. According to Hadith, Muhammad considered the number of prophets who had not been listened to as another proof of God’s patience and mercy on human beings (126). Muhammad did not agree with the idea of the Trinity and Incarnation preached by Christianity. In the Qur’an, Muhammad denies the presence of Trinity and Incarnation, going ahead to call those who proclaim Trinity as infidels. There are a number of issues that Muhammad differed with Christianity. One of them is the consideration of Christianity that Jesus is the Son of God sent to save mankind. According to Muhammad, Jesus was just another prophet sent on earth by Allah.
Imam Ali suggests that it is important to treasure traditions that have proved to be successful and beneficial to the society (222). The beneficial traditions have in a great way helped the establishment of unity, harmony and prosperity in the community. Imam Ali advises Malik al-Ashtar not to set up any new practices that may cause damage to the traditions set. Therefore, if Malik al-Ashtar sets up any new practices and there is destruction, the blame would be on him. Imam Ali went ahead to state that seeking the advice of the scholars was a key thing in ensuring the good state of the land. Allah has divided people into different classes, and each class is supposed to function independently of the others. The classes include the soldiers of God, the elite, the scribes, the Muslims, and the judges.
The Five Pillars of Islam are termed as the background of the life of a Muslim. The five pillars are testimony of faith, giving support to the needy, fasting, prayer and pilgrimage to Mecca. The testimony of faith is recited as. “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger” (Qur’an and Hadith, 129). The first part of the testimony acknowledges Allah as the one and only true God, and, therefore, no one else requires to be worshiped rather than Allah. Muslims are supposed to perform prayers five times a day (Richard, 96). Each prayer is supposed to take a few minutes to complete. Prayer is considered to provide a direct channel between Allah and the individual saying the prayer. The prayers should be performed at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, dusk, and night. Muslims are also supposed to support the needy and provide a certain percentage of their property to help them.
All things in the world belong to Allah and, therefore, the wealth acquired by Human beings is entrusted to them by Allah. Ramadan is a special month in the calendar of all Muslims. All Muslims are required to fast from dawn to dusk, and abstain from food, sexual relations, and drinks. The fasting is considered beneficial in a physical way, but also a method of obtaining self-spiritual purification. The annual pilgrimage to Mecca is a duty every Muslim has to accomplish at least once in their lifetime. Imam Ali agrees with the five pillars and suggests to Malik al-Ashtar to help out the poor in the society. Another thing is that Allah has control over all things that happen in the world, whether good or bad. Therefore, there is a very great relationship between religion and politics. Therefore, for an army to prosper, it has to be in terms of the condition of Allah.
In conclusion, there is quite a lot to learn from the texts reviewed above specifically concerning Islam. As much as there are similarities in different types of religion, there are some major differences, which create the basis for each religion. For example, Christianity and Islam have a couple of issues the two religions agree on and others that they disagree. However, all in all the two religions agree in the existence of a supernatural being, God. In the two religions, God has power over all the creatures of the world and human being live under His mercy. The teachings that Hadith talks about from Muhammad’s experiences and writings coincide with the advice that Imam Ali was offering Malik al-Ashtar. Imam Ali offered Malik al-Ashtar advice on what to do and what not to do in his new capacity as the leader of Egypt.
Classical and Medieval Tradition Course Reader. Comp. Richard Cohen. La Jolla, CA: University Readers. University of California San Diego. Winter 2013. 78-121. Print.
Smart, Ninian, and Richard D. Hecht. Introduction. Qur’an. 78-82.
"The Letter of Imam Ali to Malik Al-Ashtar." Justice and Remembrance: 218-229. PDF file. Course materials, MMW 12, Winter 2015.
“Qur’an and Hadith.” Sacred Texts of the World: 78 -121. PDF file. Course materials, MMW 12, Winter 2015.
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