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The scourge that is HIV/AIDS is one that seems to have held the world hostage. The inability of all leading scholars to come up with a cure for this virus continues to worsen the pre existent condition (Adler 55). Being a viral infection, HIV/AIDS demands keen research and understanding before a cure can be realized. Many leading researchers continue to delve into understanding the virus responsible for causing AIDS in the hope that a cure is developed.
HIV and its Origins
The acronym HIV stands for Human Immuno-deficiency Virus. This is the virus responsible for causing AIDS. Once the HIV gets into the body, it reproduces slowly, and the eventual result of this multiplication is the onset of the AIDS syndrome. The HIV belongs to a group of viruses called Lentiviruses. A lentivirus is a slow virus that takes a long time to have any adverse effects on the body. Just like other viruses, the HIV affects the immune system of the body.
The origin of HIV can be traced to a variety of organisms through many theories that have been put forward. The virus that is most closely related to HIV is the Simian Immuno-deficiency Virus that is found in monkeys (Ellison, Parker, and Campbell 24). There are a number of theories that seek to define the origins of HIV. First among these theories is the ‘hunter’ theory. This is the most commonly accepted theory. It argues that HIV affected human beings as a result of chimps being killed and eaten by humans.
It argues, as well, that the blood of these chimps getting into the wounds and cuts of human beings resulted in the development of HIV. This theory is widely accepted due to its realistic approach. The adaptations developed by the SIV virus on the human hosts led to the development of the HIV-1 virus. Other theories that seek to outline the origins of HIV include the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) theory, the contaminated needle theory, the colonialism theory and the Conspiracy theory.
Being a virus that mutates readily, it is inevitable that there is a variety of strains of HIV. The two main strains that affect the human body are HIV-1 and HIV-2. These two viruses are similar as well as different in many ways. Both strains of HIV are transmitted in the same manner, and they both result in AIDS that is indistinguishable (Adler 89). The difference between the two strains, however, is the fact that HIV-2 takes a longer time to develop into AIDS as compared to HIV-1. It is also noteworthy that the HIV-1 strain is much more rampant than the HIV-2 strain. The HIV-2 strain is a common feature in West Africa and is rarely detected anywhere else in the world. As for the HIV-1 strain, it is the most common strain in most parts of the world. A vast majority of people refer to HIV generally, without specifying whether it is type 1 or 2.
Modes of infection
Being a viral infection, there are certain ways in which HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person. HIV is found in the majority of bodily fluids among them blood, breast milk, semen and vaginal fluids. These are the bodily fluids most affected by the HIV (Shenton 71). In the transmission of the HIV from an infected person to an uninfected person, bodily contact between these bodily fluids results in transmission of the HIV. For example, the exchange of semen and vaginal fluids during sexual intercourse is the primary mode of transmission of this deadly virus.
The first and most common mode of HIV transmission is through having unprotected sex with an infected person. The exchange in vaginal fluids and semen during intercourse exposes those involved to the risk of contracting HIV in the event that one of the partners is HIV positive (Shenton 53). In this manner, the HIV is transmitted and begins its progression into AIDS. This mode of transmission is commonly transmitted through unprotected vaginal and anal sex. It has been mostly found to affect homosexual and heterosexual partners.
Another mode of infection is through sharing used needles. This mode is so common that a theory concerning the development of the HIV has been developed on this premise. Each time a needle is used on a patient, the patient’s blood gets into contact with the needle. It is dictated by health ethics that needles must not be re-used as this can result in the transmission of the HIV (Ellison, Parker, and Campbell 56).
Among those who contract HIV through this mode, drug and substance abuse addicts top the list. Their desire to satisfy their drug cravings sees many of them throw caution to the wind and share needles. It is made worse by the fact that unprotected sex among these addicts is a common feat, further heightening the possibilities of contracting the HIV.
Blood transfusions can also be a source of contracting the HIV. Since the HIV is present in the blood, receiving blood from an infected person results in the transmission of the HIV. It is necessary that all blood that is donated is screened and tested, for the presence of HIV antibodies, to guarantee that the blood is free of the virus (Adler 73). Coming into contact with infected blood through wounds and cuts can also result in one contracting the deadly virus.
The virus can also be transmitted through childbirth and breastfeeding. All through the pregnancy period, there is no direct contact between the mother’s and the child’s blood. However, during childbirth, the severing of the umbilical cord can be a deadly procedure that if not performed well, can result in the transmission of the HIV (Shenton 22). It is required that the severing of the umbilical cord be a procedure undertaken with great care to guarantee that no virus is transmitted, to the infant, during child birth. Breastfeeding is also vital in the prevention of the transmission of HIV.
Stages of Infection
The HIV undergoes a progressive change over a long time eventually morphing into AIDS (Ellison, Parker, and Campbell 76). There are a number of stages of infection of the HIV. The first stage is the primary HIV infection phase. In this phase, symptoms such as sore throat, swelling of lymph nodes, rash and headaches are common. Other symptoms such as mild fevers, joint and muscle pains as well as occasional oral ulcers may occur. These symptoms occur after seroconversion of the virus has occurred and may last for one to two weeks. This phase is also called the acute seroconversion phase and the HIV viral load are significantly high in this period.
The second phase of HIV infection is the asymptomatic latent phase. In this phase of infection, no symptoms of infection can be detected. The infected person appears healthy though the virus continues to subtly weaken the immune system of the individual (Stolley, Glass 24). The virus remains active and can be transmitted from an infected to an uninfected individual. In rare cases, the only symptom associated with this stage is swollen glands.
The third stage of infection is the minor symptomatic phase of the HIV disease. In this phase of infection, minor symptoms of HIV infection begin to manifest in the individual. These symptoms may include but are not limited to weight loss (approximately 10% of body weight), mouth sores, chronic upper respiratory tract infections and skin rash. Shingles may also appear in this phase (Stolley, Glass 56).
The fourth phase is the major symptomatic phase of infection and opportunistic diseases. In this stage, the immune system is deteriorating, and the CD4 cell count is extremely low. The viral load of the patient is also very high in this phase. In this stage of advanced immune deficiency, symptoms such as night sweats, abdominal; discomfort, chronic coughs, weight loss and persistent diarrhea are a common feature. Other infections in this period may include shingles, herpes simplex and Candida (Gedatus, Brandt 80).
The last stage of infection is the full blown AIDS stage in which AIDS defining conditions are manifested in the patient. With a severely weakened immune system, the patients develop rare conditions that are mostly untreatable. A significant number of opportunistic diseases also develop in the patient (Stolley, Glass 71). Opportunistic infections such as pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma, tuberculosis, lymphoma among other STD’s are common in patients.
Reservoirs in the Body
A viral reservoir is a cell or anatomical site where stable persistence and accumulation of a replication-competent form of HIV can occur. In order to help curb the spread and rapid development of the HIV, it is necessary to regulate these viral reservoirs. There are two main types of viral reservoirs and these are anatomical and cellular reservoirs (Kartikeyan 66). Anatomical sites that may serve as viral reservoirs include the gastrointestinal tract, the genital tract, the Central Nervous System (CNS), the lymphoid tissue, the lung and semen.
Cell types that may also serve as HIV reservoirs include macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes as the main cellular targets of the HIV. Other cells that are susceptible to the HIV include monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, peripheral blood and FDC B cells as well as CD8+ T lymphocytes. The HIV may also affect a number of specialized cell types among them renal cells.
Cervical and mucosal epithelial cells, microglia and astrocytes in the CNS as well skin fibroblasts and bone marrow stem cells. These reservoirs serve as primary areas where the HIV has the opportunity to multiply, and increase the viral load in the body (Gedatus, Brandt 72). It is for the same reason that the cells in these reasons are connected with the production of bodily fluids that harbor the deadly HIV.
Treatment and Regulation
As of today, the HIV still has no cure. The ability of this virus to mutate into various forms, with no clear pattern, makes it hard for leading scholars to study, and determine the mutation cycle of the virus that is necessary, if one should cure the virus. However, there have been discoveries in the field of maintaining the infection and super-infection of the HIV. The development of Anti-retroviral drugs (ARV’s) has been a great step in the fight against the HIV and the eventual progression of this virus into AIDS.
The primary goal of ARV’s has been to keep the viral load of the infected individual low (Kartikeyan 42). This protects the immune system from opportunistic infections and helps the immune system recover from any damage that the virus may have already caused to the body. In this manner, the virus is regulated and controlled.
The application of combination therapy in the administration of anti-retroviral drugs has been a great success in the fight against HIV. The ability of the HIV to mutate at will gives this virus the ability to develop a strong resistance to the ARV’s if only one drug is continually used. This warrants the use of combination therapy whereby a combination of ARV’s is administered to the patient over varying time intervals to prevent the buildup of resistance to drugs by the virus (Ellison, Parker, and Campbell 89).
The first combination of drugs that a patient is put on to curb the development of the HIV is referred to as First Line Therapy. This combination of drugs is intended to keep the viral load at bay and still prevent the buildup of resistance by the body. In the event that the combination of drugs fails to work efficiently in curbing the development of the virus, another combination of drugs is administered to the patient in place of the first combination. This combination is referred to as second line therapy.
There is a growing desire to have an AIDS vaccine developed in order to eradicate this scourge from the face of the earth. The AIDS vaccine, many argue, would be extremely beneficial in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Having an AIDS vaccine will prevent people from contracting the virus even in the event that they make life-threatening decisions when they are not sober. For instance, when the individual engages in unprotected sex with an infected person when drunk, the vaccine prevents them from contracting the virus. Having such a vaccine has been greatly advocated for as this prevention does not warrant consent from either party, such as in the case of using condoms (Stolley, Glass 119). In this manner, every individual can protect themselves from contracting the HIV.
The fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic has been waged on local as well as international fronts (Adler 101). Numerous campaigns have been launched to create awareness on HIV/AIDS and how best to prevent it. The most common approach in the fight against HIV/AIDS has been the ABC approach. In this approach, ‘A’ advocates for abstinence from sex until one is married, ‘B’ advocates for being faithful to only one partner while ‘C’ advocates for using condoms every time one engages in sexual intercourse.
While this campaign has been effective, it still faces stiff resistance from quarters of the public that do not seem to agree with the moral stand that this campaign advocates for tirelessly (Gedatus, Brandt 54). Out of all the suggested methods, using condoms has been the most readily accepted method.
The fight against HIV/AIDS is a long journey that requires patience and perseverance. It is necessary that all individuals are tested for HIV, and advised accordingly on the best measures to take, to prevent infection and super-infection (Kartikeyan 65). If the fight against HIV is to be won, it must be understood that HIV is an infection like any other that can be successfully defeated, albeit, not with treatment as of yet.
Adler, Michael W. Abc of Hiv and Aids. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Internet resource.
Ellison, George, Melissa Parker, and Catherine Campbell. Learning from Hiv/aids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.
Gedatus, Gustav M, and Linda Brandt. Hiv and Aids. Mankato, Mn: Lifematters, 2000. Print.
Kartikeyan, S. Hiv and Aids: Basic Elements and Priorities. Dordrecht: Springer, 2007. Print.
Shenton, Joan. Positively False: Exposing the Myths Around Hiv and Aids. London: I.B. Tauris, 1998. Print.
Stolley, Kathy S, and John E. Glass. Hiv/aids. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press, 2009. Print.
Gonorrhea is a contagious disease that is often transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person. It is important to realize that gonorrhea is also spread by contact with bodily fluids that are infected. Further, a mother could pass off the infection to her newborn during childbirth. It is caused by the bacterium referred to as Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Bondi, 2014).
It is important to realize that many men that have gonorrhea are asymptomatic. When present, the signs and symptoms of the urethral infection in males often include dysuria or a white, yellow, green urethral discharge that appears from one to fourteen days after one has been infected. In cases where urethral has been complicated by epididymitis, the men with gonorrhea may complain of scrotal pain. Most women with gonorrhea are also asymptomatic (Borchardt & Noble, 2012). Even when a woman presents symptoms, they are often very mild and non-specific, and they can at times be mistaken for vaginal or bladder infection. The initial symptoms in women often include increased vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding during periods, and dysuria (Baumann, 2013). It is important to realize that indeed women with gonorrhea are often at risk of developing serious complications from infection, and this is often regardless of the severity of the symptoms. The symptoms of rectal infection may include bleeding, discharge, itching and painful bowel movements.
Gonorrhea is treated with an oral or injectable antibiotic. There is a need for the partner should be treated at the same time to prevent reinfection (Bondi, 2014). Penicillin is often the most recommended antibiotic when it comes to the treatment of gonorrhea.
The Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative, non-spore forming, and a nonacid-fast bacteria. It requires an aerobic environment with added CO2 and enriched media. It is oxidase positive, and it creates non-pigmented colonies after 18-24 hours of incubation.
Baumann, F. (2013). Gonorrhea, its diagnosis and treatment. New York and London: D. Appleton and Company.
Borchardt, K. A., & Noble, M. A. (2012). Sexually transmitted diseases: Epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Bondi, (2014). Urogenital infections: New developments in laboratory diagnosis and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.
A virtual team is a group of people distributed over different geographical areas. In other words, a virtual team can be described as a group of people who are working across the boundaries of the business organization. Management of a virtual team is remotely done (that is there been centralization of managers and decentralization of team members). There is the strengthening of activities by communication technology. Virtual team members are usually under minimal supervision. Management of virtual teams has faced critics from different researchers.
These teams, characterized by their dispersion and reliance on technology mediated methods of communication. They are different from face-face communication since they do not have face-to-face supervision and meetings. There is determination of performance by the nature of the members. Performance of the virtual teams is one key factor that has received a lot of attention within the last few years. Many researchers have consistently disintegrated factors considered having an influence on performance of management.
Virtual teams are necessary for the performance of the business. Success of a virtual team influences the overall performance of the organization. The paper is a research whether a well thought adjustment in the method of communication; team building and ways of resolving conflicts are requisite for a successful virtual team.
While designing a virtual time, the process of communication used for the interaction between managers and the members of the virtual team is necessary. Establishment of a clear team structure depends on the interaction between members (Kossler, 1996). According to researchers, establishment of a clear team structure enables the team to succeed. Some reports that, despite face-to-face meetings with the managers being effective, virtual meetings with team members through electronic communication methods such as emails and telephone can also improve the performance and effectiveness of the virtual team.
Empowerment of virtual teams depends on the structure of virtual teams. Informing all members about the changes in the organization are essential in creating a clear team structure where all organization leaders are aware of the changes taking place in the organization. Effectiveness in a virtual team depends on the technology-mediated communications. In addition, effective virtual team highly depends on technology while carrying out its tasks. This implies that virtual meetings between team members and leaders are more effective than face-to-face interactions while carrying out their tasks.
Learning network, communities of practice and web-based interest groups do not transform a group of people into a virtual team. An effective virtual team described as a group of people working in an organization characterized by geographic dispersion and use of technologically mediated communications. Technologies such as telephone, faxes, e-mail and video conferences are very crucial in a virtual team’s management.
This is an indication that leaders of successful virtual teams highly depend on technology methods of communication other than face-to-face meetings with members. Tasks that require especially instructions are best carried out using video calls. Leaders of virtual teams should be able to learn the best method of communication suitable for team.
Communication with team leaders using electronic methods is important in ensuring that there is completion of activities within the expected time. In addition, it is essential in ensuring that members are informed on the changes within the organization. Effectiveness of a virtual team depends on how virtual the team is. The degree of reliance on the use on electronic communication increases virtuality of the team.
Teams relying on electronic communications are more virtual as compared to other teams that rely highly on face-to-face meetings with their leaders. Teams that do all their work through e-mails, text messages and teleconferences oftenly do not have face-to-face meetings with their leaders. Virtual teams are at a high possibility of producing high-quality and innovative business solutions when the members of the team remain independent on each other and depend on technology mediated methods of communication (Kossler, 1996).
Success of a virtual team is attributed to the ability to apply knowledge from one domain to the other. On the other hand, there is a consideration of reduced cost of coordination in a virtual team. For the success of a virtual team, adjustment of the communication process is a requisite for a successful virtual team.
Virtual teams rely highly on the effectiveness of communication (Kossler, 1996). This is influenced by the skills of the leader play an essential role in producing solutions towards dealing with the existing barriers and problems. This suggests that the communication adjustment is critical for a virtual team to succeed. Communication adjustment aims at dealing with upcoming challenges encountered while in the virtual team dealing.
Emergent leaders play an essential role in virtual teams. These leaders are described as heavy contributors towards communication taking place in their virtual teams. In addition, they are responsible for initiating new ideas, expressing their opinions and as well asking questions during meetings. It is through their contributions that grant them an opportunity to be better placed as compared to other leaders in a virtual team. Emergent leaders are dynamic. As a result, their virtual teams tend to be more successful as compared to other teams. This can be attributed to their dynamic nature in decision making and expression of ideas. As a result, it is quite clear that the adjustment of communication in a virtual team is a requisite towards success of a virtual team (Kossler, 1996).
Goals are targets set by leaders of the team. As with other teams, virtual teams have goals that act as measures of performance. Setting up a strong team that is goal oriented promotes success of a virtual team (Haywood, 1998). Team building exercises are requirements in establishing goals. A successful virtual team is attained after an agreement on the team’s timetable, agreement in personal responsibilities and as well accountability.
Prior to duty sharing, agreements are made in the virtual team. Unlike in a face-to-face training, in a virtual team, is often conducted virtually. However, for a successful virtual team, initial stages of team building should be done face-to-face. Team building is a critical stage towards a successful virtual team. Training is one requisite of a successful team building. Engaging members of a virtual team into some team building activities is critical in ensuring that the set goals of the organization are met. Team building training, helps the individual team members to build trust with their colleagues. Cohesiveness of in a virtual team is linked to team building training.
The nature of team building activities is one characteristic of a successful virtual team. Social activities such as eating and drinking are used by managers as team building activities (Haywood, 1998). Team building activities in a virtual team are carried out electronically where video clips are sent to managers. In addition, online activities such as discussion of the book and completion of exercises can be used as team building activities.
According to the article by Jill Nemiro, Michael Beyerlein and Lori Bradley: a toolkit for collaborating across boundaries, a case of Jarvenpaa and others are given an example on how team building creates conditions that create trust among the members. He highlights that graduate students from different parts of the globe were invited to work on geographically distributed teams. A team building intervention was initiated.
This was aimed at exchanging information on the skills related to the projects and as well motivation to the team effort. On the other hand, work and study habits were part of the team intervention. As soon as the team members posted the personal information in the website, team members and administrator had access to the information shared (Armstrong, 1996)? This contributed to trust between the team members. As team members, involving in team building activities not only creates trust among members but also creates a stronger bond between the members and leaders. Successful team members have a trait of engaging the members in team building activities. It is quite clear that team building is a requisite of a successful virtual team (Haywood, 1998).
Virtual teams are prone to conflicts. Conflicts within a virtual team range from personal conflicts to goal conflicts. As a team leader, dealing with these conflicts is essential. Successful team leaders have mechanisms of dealing with the conflicts before they affect the prevailing relationship between the team members (Armstrong, 1996). In a virtual team, conflicts have both negative and positive effects. Unlike in a face-to-face team, virtual teams’ conflicts are easy to manage.
This is because in a virtual team, there is no much interaction between the members. However, when conflicts arise in the virtual team, leaders act as moderators towards the conflicts. Leaders have the role of making their members aware of sharing their viewpoints. However, the discussion on the conflicts should remain enclosed to the issue at hand (Wilson, 1994). This is aimed at preventing members from threatening each other.
In addition, leaders to the virtual teams have the role of ensuring that they lay more emphasis on team identity. Strong team identity is another characteristic of a successful virtual team. Members are cohesive and committed to the team’s goals. This suggests that for the goals of a virtual team to be attained, dealing with conflicts as a leader influences the performance of the team (Haywood, 1998).
Successful virtual teams in an organization have a description of effective global network. This suggests that the teams have few struggles in understanding their roles as compared to face-to-face teams. Distribution of team members also has an effect while solving conflicts. According to the article, leading one another across time and space, exploring shared leadership functions in virtual teams by Marissa and Christopher, majority and minority influence result from an uneven distribution of ideas while dealing with conflict within the team members (Wilson, 1994).
They continue to highlight that unnecessary conflicts bring about separation in a virtual team. Failure is one result of conflicts within a virtual team. Coordination challenges are faced by leaders when there are conflicts in the virtual team. As a result, leaders of a successful team act as mediators towards conflicting members. This suggests that leaders in a virtual team should have diplomatic methods to deal with conflicts arising between the team members (Haywood, 1998).
Despite the success attributed to the virtual teams by organizations, conflicts arising from team members can result to failure of the team. In addition, failure of team members knowing each other can contribute to the failure of the team (Wilson, 1994). In order to deal with conflicts within the team; it requires the leaders to come up with a harmonizing plan. On the other hand, the success of these virtual teams is dependent on conflict solving techniques used in the team (Haywood, 1998).
As with Wilson, J.M., George, the authors of the chapter give a description of dealing with these conflicts among members. They highlight that while dealing with conflicts between the team members, it requires the leaders to have the basic reasons behind the conflict (Wilson, 1994). In addition, the authors highlight that success of a virtual team can be determined by method of dealing with conflicts. This is an implication that success of a virtual team depends on conflict solving techniques within a virtual team. Therefore, dealing with conflicts is a requisite for the success of a virtual team (Wilson, 1994).
While leading a virtual team, there are some essential tools that the leader needs. The manager of a virtual team has full impact towards the success of a virtual team. According to Haywood, he states that communication of a virtual team is critical. He states that this is not only important while carrying out tasks while in the team but also important while dealing with conflicts among team members.
While leading a virtual team, a manager has the role of ensuring that all team members are trained with the technology process used. This suggests that changes within the medium of communication while in the virtual team have to be made aware to the members before its implementation (Haywood, 1998). Haywood describes a successful virtual team as a team that has met the communication requirement. He states that a successful team has its team members able to communicate effectively with each other (Armstrong, 1996).
In addition, while considering team building, it plays a role in establishing a successful virtual team. Haywood concludes his argument on successful virtual teams by highlighting the impact it has to the virtual team. He highlights that a successful virtual team is based on goals set aside before tasks are shared between the members. While acting as a remote manager, the manager has a great task in ensuring that team members have met the basic standards before they are enrolled into the team. Unlike in the face-to-face teams, a virtual team has the author of the receiver of the information being in control over the information.
This is in contrast with face-to-face meetings where the sender of information has control over the message sent. This has an implication that adjustment of communication plays a critical role in ensuring that virtual team’s goals are met. Reports over the result of an adjustment of communication and team building have been given by researchers. Team building as well has been highlighted to be requisite for a successful virtual team (Haywood, 1998).
Success of a virtual team is dependent on individual effort of team members. While comparing face-to-face teams to virtual teams, there are some differences depending on individual efforts. This is according to an article on face-to-face versus computer mediated communications. Face-to-face teams are more efficient than virtual teams. However, a well-planned virtual team can be more efficient than the face-to-face teams.
This is according to research made on the performance of virtual teams. Tasks that do not require socio-emotional interactions are best done using virtual teams than while using face-to-face teams. This suggests that the performance of virtual teams is dependent on the nature of the task (Bordia, 1997). In addition, the author of the article outlines that an effective virtual team is determined by the nature of communication media that are used.
He states that communication medium used in a virtual team affects its effectiveness (Bordia, 1997). Adjustment of method of communication used in a virtual team plays an important role as the different tasks require different mediums of communication. Methods of communication used in a virtual team are determined by the tasks that the team will be handling (Haywood, 1998). Leaders of a virtual team have the role of ensuring that adjustment of the method of communication is done depending on the change in nature of tasks handled bythe team.This implies that adjustment to communication is a requisite for a virtual team (Wilson, 1994).
Planning meetings is complicated in a virtual team since team members are dispersed over a wide geographic region. In a virtual team, planning for meetings should be done after consultations with the team members. Some conflicts in virtual teams arise as a result of sharing of tasks in a virtual team. Leaders of a virtual team should be aware of the skills that their members have regarding to the task carried out by the team (Wilson, 1994).
This is one method of dealing with conflicts that arise from sharing of tasks. In addition, leaders should make the team members free to share their experiences while working in the team. A successful virtual team is characterized by leaders who make their members free to share their experiences while working in different geographical areas (Haywood, 1998). This implies that communication in a virtual team is vital.
On the other hand, successful team leaders are described by their ability to solve conflicts in the virtual team. Conflict solving in a virtual team is crucial as it ensures that the initial trust among team members prevails. Sharing of information in a virtual team and responding to a message is another solution towards conflicting team members. This is an implication that conflict solving, and adjustment to communications are requisites for a successful virtual team (Wilson, 1994).
Qualitative analysis on successful virtual teams shows that these teams highly depend on the decisions made by the leaders. This implies that the leader’s decisions play a significant role towards the success of the virtual team. This is based on research aimed at exploring the antecedent of trust in global virtual teams. Research shows that an individual’s propensity to trust has a positive effect to the individual’s trust in the team (Jarvenpaa, 1998).
Choice of team building activities is determined by the interaction between the team leader and the nature of tasks handled by the team. While carrying out these activities, the performance and effectiveness of virtual team members is improved. Team leaders make decisions on behalf of the team members (Haywood, 1998). As a result, they have full control over the performance of the team (Wilson, 1994). A successful virtual team is described as a team that has leaders who are good in decision making. Wrong decisions made by team leaders affect the team negatively. Communication of the decisions made by the leaders is done electronically in a virtual team. This suggests that team building is a requisite for a successful virtual team (Armstrong, 1996).
Virtual team leaders have a role of ensuring that they handle a basic team strategy before approaching the strategies of the virtual team. Managers of virtual teams are encouraged to have a heavy communication between team members to ensure that the members do not have a feeling of isolation (Wrdell, 1998). Successful virtual teams are characterized by the ability to use some strategies by the management.
Strategies used by successful virtual teams are aimed at dealing with conflicts that arise among members of the team. In addition, these strategies are aimed at maintaining a good rapport with the team members. Strategies in a virtual team are communicated to the members during meetings. In a virtual team, videoconferencing is used to communicate strategies to the members. Conflicts in a virtual team are best solved using a strategic approach. This suggests that communication and solving conflicts are requisites for a successful virtual team (Haywood, 1998).
Since there is no strict supervision in a virtual team, their performance is dependent on the nature of the members. A successful team is described to have members who are responsible and as well able to carry out their tasks without being supervised by their leaders. Leaders of virtual teams play an important role in ensuring that members in a virtual team are responsible. This is done during team building. While recruiting team members, different standards should be set. Standards range from personal skills and as well responsibility in terms of carrying out their tasks. This suggests that the performance of virtual teams is dependent on the nature of team members. That is team building is a requisite for a successful virtual team (Haywood, 1998).
As from the research paper, it is quite clear that success of a virtual team leadership is dependent on some factors. These factors influence the performance of virtual teams. Adjustment to communication affects the performance of virtual teams. Virtual teams are highly dependent on technology mediated methods of communications. Successful virtual teams are defined by their ability to adjust to adjustment of communication.
Adjustment of communication is determined by the nature of tasks being handled by a virtual team. Technology mediated methods of communication influence the nature of the team. On the other hand, team building influences the nature of a virtual team. Activities involved in team building build up trust among team members. Decisions during team building impact the performance of virtual teams.
In addition, these activities are essential in ensuring that members learn the goals and targets of the company Successful teams are characterized by coordination of members. Lastly, dealing with conflicts in a virtual team influences the success of a virtual team. Successful virtual teams are characterized by the ability to solve conflicts among members. Dynamic virtual team leaders are attached to successful teams. Therefore, adjustment to communication, solving conflicts and team building are requisite for a successful virtual team.
Haywood, M. (1998). Managing virtual teams: Practical teachings for high-technology project managers. Boston: Artech House Publishers, 210 pages.
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Wrdell, C. (1998, November). The art of managing virtual teams: Eight lessons. Harvard Management Update, pp.4-5.
Wilson, J.M., George, J., Wellings, R.S., with Byham, W.C (Eds). (1994). Virtual teams in virtual organizations: A look at the future. Leadership trapeze: Strategies for leadership in team-based organizations (pp. 249-264). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 286 pages.
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Client: "(Berlin, G.K., CA)"
Topic title:"Leadership shortfalls in Blue Chips"
Pages: 5, (APA)
" Awesome, the writer delivered it as required by the professor. They also sent me a plagiarism & grammar report Wow!. I was worried about how the essay would turn up but this is exactly what wanted. Thank you and will be back with a longer essay"
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