The study of crime and what causes it has been researched in a variety of different areas using different techniques all over the world. One of the factors that are believed to have an influence on criminal activity is weather.
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In the recent past, the attention of the Americans and the economic opinion makers has been on the ever-widening gap between the rich and the poor. Prevalence of income inequality has grown to alarming rates (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). The main reason for the development is the soaring incomes at the top. However, the government and other policy makers failed to consider the low-income earners.
The neglect coupled with the increase in salaries for the managers and other officials at the top of the organization has culminated in the status quo. Increasing the minimum wage has been proposed as one of the effective ways of dealing with the issue (Sloman and Sutcliffe, 47). The move aims at reducing the wage differences by increasing the lowest pay for all the workers in the United States. The paper will evaluate the efficacy of the move with the aim of displaying its apparent gains.
Increment of the minimum wages from the previously established $7.25 to $9.80 in an incremental phase was deemed the ideal approach. Indexing the wages as per the inflation level is also important since it leads to the development of the capacity of the worker to conform to the prevailing economic performance. Tipped minimum wages also has to be increased from the minimum of 2.13 per hour, which was the set rate in 1996. The tippled minimum wages has to reach 70% of the existing minimum wage. The introduction of the minimum wages bills peaked in the aftermath of the global recession (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102).
Raising the minimum wage will help in the alleviation of the recovery of the workers that were still suffering from the recession (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). This is the social argument for the raise in the minimum wage. From the economic perspective, raising the minimum wage will result in a demonstratively positive effect on the performance of the entire economy. The increment in the wages will result to increase spending. The more the people spend the better the economic performance due to the increase in gross domestic product.
The slight change in the minimum wages will affect the wages of over 28 million workers. The increment will represent over 40 billion raise over the incremental period. The wages earned will lead to the improvement of the block’s spending power (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). Therefore, the workers will be in a position of spending more hence increasing the gross domestic product. The resultant increase in the gross domestic product during the period of the increment will be 25 billion.
The improvement in the gross domestic product will lead to the development of the over 100,000-employment opportunity since the more the people spend the more the firms have to produce. Labor s one of the factors of production (Samuelson and Nordhaus, 51).
The increment in wages also has a demographic aspect. Increasing the minimum wage to benefits workers in different proportion dispelling the common notions of the minimum wage workers. The affected workers in terms of gender, race, age, ethnicity and other demographic characteristics differs from the common paradigm when thinking of the workers in the minimum wage bracket. The first increment of 0.85 will affect 13 million worker in a direct or indirect manner (Holtz-Eakin, 73-96). The second incremental raise will lead to the increment of the number of workers affected to 20 million (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). The third incremental raise in income will make the number raise to over 28 million.
The raise in the minimum wage will affect both men and women. However, the effect on women will be disproportionate. Women comprise 54.5 % of the working population. Therefore, the program ought to follow the same pattern (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). However, the women are not as well affected. The effect of the program on the women ranges from below fifty percent in some states to above sixty percent. Therefore, there is not equal distribution of the income. However, women will still be beneficiaries of the program.
The immediate effects of the increment in the lowest wages will be the increased income and spending power of the workers in the low economic brackets (Bernstein, 73-96). However, the effects of the move will transcend beyond the mere increment in the wages to the attainment of a steady economic growth. The benefits that the program brings about are in excess of the aforementioned growth in the incomes of the workers (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102).
Increasing the minimum wages could lead to the creation of jobs across the nation (Holtz-Eakin, 73-96). Just as the tax breaks for the middle-income earners, the increment in taxes will lead to the extra disposable income in the hands of the working families (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). Extra income augments the spending power of the working families. This is desirable since the more the people spend the higher the economic growth.
Another advantage of increasing the minimum wage comes from the high propensity of the low-income earners spending whatever extra income they receive (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). Therefore, they will form a substantial part of the demand for the products. It will also increase the general demand for the products in the nation hence increasing the production rates. Increased production leads to the demand for more factor of production. Demand for Labor as a factor of production translates into more employment opportunities (Parkin, Powell and Matthews, 81).
In addition to the direct gains of the increased spending power of the lower bracket workers, there is a likelihood that there will be other indirect income generated. For instance, when the people spend more, there will be a requirement that the workers spend more working hours. Putting in overtime will lead to the attainment of more income. The income forms part of the indirect earnings that the increased wages result in.
Projected raise in the consumer spending is important for the economy. One of the main factors holding back the organization s from hiring is the low consumer demand. With the increment in the lowest wages and the propensity of the low-income earners to spend any extra income, the economic performance will increase and the companies will be at a better position to hire new labor in fulltime and part-time basis (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). The boost is small compared to other economic stimulus programs. However, the effect is still significant and it ought to create the desired results.
In order to show that the minimum wage raise will be beneficial, it is important to focus on the stimulating effects of the wage raises (Krugman and Wells, 49). The minimum wage results from the employers. Therefore, it is important to come up with a multiplier to show the multiplied effects on the economy (Bernstein, 73-96). Focus on the multiplier effect indicates that the move has far-reaching effects on the performance of the entire economy.
The raise of minimum pay is important more so in the period of economic downturn. In the current period, the entire performance of the economy is hampered by the different factors such as the increased unemployment (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). This means that the employers have access to cheap labor given the increased labor supply in the economy. Therefore, there is no incentive to the employers that makes them pay better salaries. This unique issue calls for the inclusion of the employers in the debate. It also calls for an order setting the wage level since the market forces are more likely to place it in the lowest levels possible.
In conclusion, wage increment for the minimum wage workers is called for as a means of ensuring that there is increased economic performance (Mărginean and Chenic, 92-102). Focus on the development of the minimum wages in the lowest income group is important since the group is more likely to spend. The more the workers spend, the higher the demand hence the improvement in the gross domestic product.
Bernstein, Jared. “Would raising the minimum wage help the economy?: Pro.” “Minimum Wage.” By Barbara Mantel. CQ Researcher 24 Jan. 2014: 73-96. Web. 30 July 2014
Holtz-Eakin, Douglas. “Would raising the minimum wage help the economy?: Con.” “Minimum Wage.” By Barbara Mantel. CQ Researcher 24 Jan. 2014: 73-96. Web. 30 July 2014.
Krugman, Paul R, and Robin Wells. Economics. New York: Worth Publishers, 2006. Print.
MÄƒrginean, Silvia, and Alina Åžtefania Chenic. 'Effects Of Raising Minimum Wage: Theory, Evidence And Future Challenges'. Procedia Economics and Finance 6 (2013): 96-102. Web.
Parkin, Michael, Melanie Powell, and K. G. P Matthews. Economics. Harlow: Addison-Wesley, 2000. Print.
Samuelson, Paul A, and William D Nordhaus. Economics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985. Print.
Sloman, John, and Mark Sutcliffe. Economics. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/Financial Times, 2003. Print.
Mandatory overtime definition is hours in excess agreed upon, predetermined and enforced in an established work schedule. It is important to note that nurses are health care organization greatest expense, and, as a result, they are increasingly working overtime. The health care industry is a sensitive industry and being a nurse is a calling. Overtime has become a fact in nursing it has been in the media and has brought about a lot of controversy ( Bae, 2010). Overtime has been an issue for many years, and it will mostly continue to be a challenge for nurses in the future. One understands that in order to save lives, there is a need for a greater element of sacrifice. There are some benefits that accrue with mandatory overtime, this paper is going to describe some of those benefits that come with it.
Factors that contribute to working overtime
Overtime in nursing has had the description of a ‘vicious cycle that has unfolded and includes overworked nurses who often leave the nursing units, which are dangerously short-staffed for the main reason that there has always been a nursing shortage (Bae, 2010).’ There are several staffing practices in nursing that contribute to the problem. These include the denial of leaves, paying out the vacation pay without the actual vacation, and begging nurses to work even when they are sick.
There are those who argue that forced overtime or mandatory overtime is a desperate, and short sighted strategy which forces a few nurses to work harder and harder. In addition to the shortage of nurses, there are other factors that often contribute to overtime. They include weather conditions and other unmanageable events which may prevent typical shifts (Bournes, 2010). One cannot just leave the health unit and leave a patient without care, therefore, in these situations one has to work overtime in a bid to ensure that he or she compensates for the missing nurse. Further, during an ongoing procedure, the professional ethics inculcated into nurses often prevent them from leaving their scheduled hours of work.
Advantages of working mandatory overtime
There is always a need to make that one extra dollar, and in this case, the most obvious benefit is extra cash for the nurses. Nurses that work mandatory overtime often have more cash because the overtime charges are often different from the regular working hours. Therefore, the registered nurses often add extra cash earned to, in addition to the regular wages, that they already possess. Being a nurse is a calling, and, therefore, one has to be ready to work regularly at 40 hours per week further, one must always be available during an emergency. Hospitals are often understaffed and consequently working overtime has with time become mandatory in a bid to maintain quality services to patients. By a nurse working extra shifts per week he or she can be able to earn about twice the wages of a typical workweek.
It is important to note that the health care sector is one of the few industries that often pay a lot when it comes over time. The law authorizes that there is a compensation of 1.5 times the workers standard rate of pay for all hours worked over 40 hours (Bournes, 2010). This, therefore, means that a nurse can be able to raise a lot of money during over-time. There are some places where nurses pay for overtime is high, for each hour they work over eight hours per day, further, it is also of importance to note that, in the health care industry, all hours worked more than 12 in one day receive pay at a double standard hourly rate. This has made some nurses richer than doctors in terms of the salaries they earn, a typical nurse who works mandatory overtime often makes about two hundred and fifty thousand dollars per year. This is more than a doctor who often makes around two hundred and thirty thousand dollars per year (Bournes, 2010). Consequently, it can be seen that indeed working overtime is of crucial importance to the wages of the nurses as they are able to rake in more money as a result of working mandatory overtime.
Before one goes into the nursing profession, one often knows and understands that his or her life might never be the same again. This is because a person usually immerses him or herself into the tight schedule that comes with being a nurse. A nurse, when needed during the day or night, should always be on standby, this is because nurses often deal with human lives and it is general knowledge that the human life is fragile and needs adequate and quality health care in order to ensure that one resumes body normalcy and good health (Bournes, 2010). Therefore, despite working mandatory overtime hours the nurses often feel that they have played their cards right and that they have serviced humanity. They feel that they have done their job, and this leads to satisfaction.
The health care sector is very sensitive this is because it deals with human lives. Consequently, there is always a need for increased and optimum productivity (National League for Nursing, 2012). For this reason, when there is a requirement for the nurses to work overtime, there is the benefit that accrues of increased levels of productivity. This is important as a lot of work in long hours is achieved, this means that the services to patients is at a rate that is fast and consequently their road to recovery increases dramatically. Further, it is important to note that there are nurses who are still in the working mindset when 8 hours have passed; therefore, these nurses are able to work over 10 hours without fatigue.
Disadvantages of working overtime
However, there are dissenting opinions that come with working mandatory overtime. There has been concern for the long term effects that come with working overtime the leading issue has been fatiguing of the nurses. Working over 40 hours per week is tedious, and one is often fatigued, therefore, in the long run one finds that the body is not working properly and optimally. This fatigue often leads to a diminished quality of care, near misses and errors. These careless mistakes that come with fatigue can be afforded in any other industry but never the health care industry.
This is because one error can be the line that exists between life and death. Consequently, in the health care sector there is a need to ensure that the perfect quality is given to patients (Bournes, 2010). Research indicates the risk that comes with making an error for a nurse increases significantly when the work shift in a day is longer than twelve hours. The health care sector has been avoidant when it comes to this issue, other industries have already realized the relationship that exists when it comes to making an error and fatigue (National League for Nursing, 2012). For instance, when it comes to the airline and trucking industries, there is often a limit the number of hours a pilot or a truck driver can work in a week. There is also the time left for them to replenish and be rejuvenated in between the runs and flights.
By the fact that the nurses have licenses, it means that they are often responsible and accountable for the decisions, inactions and actions (Campbell, 2012). Therefore, when fatigued they jeopardize their work in a bid to get more pay. Further, it can be seen that sometimes it's not their fault because it is mandatory to work overtime and sometimes the fatigue completely removes their ability to perform in patient safety. The American Nurses Association has taken a position which states that regardless of the number of hours that one has worked, each registered nurse has an ethical responsibility to evaluate his or her fatigue level. This is especially important when making a decision on whether or not to accept any assignment which is an extension beyond one’s regularly scheduled work day or week. This also includes the mandatory as well as the voluntary overtime assignment.
Working overtime is also bad for one’s health. The optimal working capacity of the body is eight hours per day, therefore, when nurses exceed this limit they often put their health at risk. According to a study done by the John Hopkins University, working overtime increases the probability of heart attacks and heart disease. The research showed that those who worked more than 10 hours had a 60% increase when it came to getting heart related illnesses such as, non-fatal heart attack and angina. Further, the more frequent that not, nurses often feel what is referred to as burnout. Burnout is a condition where one feels that he or she is extremely and completely exhausted and overwhelmed.
The cause of this overworking leaves one feeling drained and sickly. According to a study by the Aragon Institute of health sciences, persons who often work more than 40 hours per week often increase their risk of burnout by six fold, this is in comparison to the people who work less than 35 hours when it comes to a week (National League for Nursing, 2012). It is also significant to note that working for long hours has had an association with several adverse effects. They include ulcers, depression, and stomach problems, these diseases although treatable are often very bad for worker, this is because one cannot be the normal self and consequently one feels as if they are losing touch with the society (Campbell, 2012).
There is also the problem of budget dependency, when one works overtime regularly, he or she most likely begins to rely on the additional income and, therefore, lets the expenses creep up in order to match the increased income. In most cases, this often becomes a problem this is because over time depends on the patient census if there is a decrease in the census of the patients, then the situation might change will little notice. This means that the finances will also change, and in the end one may feel stressed by working overtime as well as increased stress about what one will do when one is no longer offered the mandatory overtime. Therefore, one should avoid counting on the income that comes with mandatory overtime to pay day to day expenses.
A nurse can be only be in one place at a time, and, therefore, if he or she is working late then this means that one is missing something else. This might be a child’s birthday party or any other significant and important event. While making more money during the mandatory overtime might be beneficial to a family financially, the family is much more likely to suffer in other ways. For example, the family, in addition to the losing of, time with family and friends, one might be more irritable towards them when one is on his or her time off (Campbell, 2012). Further, it has also been reported that nurses who work mandatory time have no time to teach their children some important life skills, they often leave this work to the caregivers such as nannies. Therefore, a child of a nurse might not grow into the ideals of the father or mother because they never spent time together primarily because of the mandatory overtime. Consequently, the balancing of work and life is hard enough even without the added constraints that come with working mandatory overtime.
In conclusion, there are both disadvantages and advantages that come with working overtime, however, the advantages clearly outdo the disadvantages. This is because the most important thing when one is a nurse is to ensure that he or she saves the patients that one is taking care of. If there is a need for mandatory overtime working hours in order to restore the health of a person, then nurses should always be to the task. The most obvious benefit that comes with mandatory overtime is the money that comes from it, a nurse can live comfortably due to the rise in his or her salary (Campbell, 2012).
People in the health care industry, especially the nurses, are often the highest paid when it comes to overtime, this is because all their concentration is in need when it comes to taking care of patients. Another advantage is the fact that there is satisfaction, when one has sacrificed his or her personal time in a bid to make sure that a patient is safe and gets back to good health, one feels important and contented with life. It is then that a nurse often forgets the number of hours that he has spent awake while taking care of the patient.
On the other hand, what has an advantage always has a disadvantage. This, therefore, means that there are also disadvantages that come with mandatory overtime. The first major issue is the health of the nurse, working overtime often creates health problems for the nurse due to fatigue and burnout. The nurse is often not able to work optimally, and this might jeopardize the quality of services that he or she gives to the patient. It is important to note that nurses deal with fragile people and, therefore; there is never a window for an error or mistake.
National League for Nursing., & American Academy of Nursing. (2012). Nursing outlook. New York: American Journal of Nursing Co.
National Council of State Boards of Nursing (U.S.). (2010). Journal of nursing regulation. Chicago, IL: National Council of State Boards of Nursing.
Bae, S. H., & Brewer, C. (January 01, 2010). Mandatory overtime regulations and nurse overtime. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 11, 2, 99-107.
Bournes, D. A., Plummer, C., Miller, R., & Ferguson-Paré, M. (January 01, 2010). NursesforTomorrow: a proactive approach to nursing resource analysis. Nursing Leadership (toronto, Ont.), 23, 1, 40-53.
Campbell, G. M. (October 01, 2012). On-Call Overtime for Service Workforce Scheduling when Demand Is Uncertain. Decision Sciences, 43, 5, 817-850.
The study of crime and what causes it has been researched in a variety of different areas using different techniques all over the world. One of the factors that are believed to have an influence on criminal activity is weather.
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