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Common law is not written in one document like an act of parliament, however, it is a form of law that is based on previous court cases that are decided by judge. The law is often applied by reference to those previous cases, so common law is also said to be based entirely on precedent. The general position is that if information is often given in circumstances there is a need for confidence, and information cannot normally be disclosed without the provider’s consent (Persily, 2013).
Therefore, in practice, this often means that all the patient information it must not be normally disclosed without consent of the patient (Kowalski, 2004). However, in regards to health care, there are three circumstances that make disclosure of confidential information lawful. According to common law, information pertaining to individual may be given out if the person has consented, where disclosure is in the public interest and where there is a legal duty to so, for example a court order.
Separation of powers can be described as the model of government where different parts of government are responsible for different functions in the United States. Checks and balances can be described as a means of trying to ensure that no one of those areas can operate completely on its own. Each of the different institutions does not depend for its power another.
The state government has provided health care subsidies in tax credits. Secondly, the state government has also put up structures in regards to healthcare policy in order to streamline the institution with several district managers (Persily, 2013). The Supreme Court ruled that tax subsidies in states is lawful. The decision has affected the community as it has made persons to afford health insurance under the law.
Persily, N., Metzger, G. E., & Morrison, T. W. (2013). The health care case: The Supreme Court's decision and its implications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kowalski, K. M. (2004). Separation of powers. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications.
The Metropolitan Hospital Center is located in East Harlem, New York City. The hospital has a partnership with the New York Medical College since 1875, when it was founded. The hospital is specialized in treating conditions like stroke, and it is the designated stroke center for New York State Department of Health. Such stroke centers have the expertise and equipment that is for dealing with stroke patients solely. The center also carries out stroke diagnosis to new patients and offers medication that helps contain the situation. The personnel also possess the expertise to carry out education about stroke that is offered to the public.
The hospital also has a stroke rehabilitation program for the most affected patients. The Metropolitan Hospital Center is a Level II Trauma Center. This means the hospital works together with Level I hospital catering for patients who suffer from traumatic injuries. A Level II hospital contains comprehensive trauma care facility and has the additional medication and services that are not found in a Level I facility. Such a facility offers a twenty-four hour supply of all the essential personnel, equipment, and all other essential stuff. On a local basis, Level II facilities have a minimum requirement of personnel and equipment's.
It is not that necessary to possess an ongoing research program or a program of surgery for patients in the institution. The hospital is also a designated Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) center of excellence for by the New York State Department of Health. In the Metropolitan hospital, there is a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) that comprises of: social workers, medical personnel, representatives of the Manhattan District Attorney’s Office Sex Crimes Unit, Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners that have expertise training advocates representing the patients and law enforcement officers who belong to the Special Victims Crime (Fortenberry, 2010).
Therefore, the larger percentages of the patients who visit the hospital either suffer from stroke, trauma injuries or are victims of sexual assault. The stroke facility is bigger than the other two departments in the hospital and, therefore, contributes most of the patients. Patients who have experienced stroke fall under a wide range of secondary complications. One of the most common characteristics of a stroke patient is falling. Almost all patients who have experienced stroke have this, unlikely characteristic. Stroke patients also suffer from behavioral and emotional changes (Berkowitz, 2011). This because stroke acts like a life changing health challenge and most challenges lead to depression. This is because the stroke brings about the loss of independence of the patient.
A stroke patient may also have cognitive challenges and personality changes. Cognitive challenges are changes that affect normal thinking like difficulty solving problems. Dementia, memory problems and communication difficulties, are also part of cognitive challenges. Stroke patients also suffer from lack of confidence and withdrawal (Krishna, 2006). The patients prefer keeping to themselves and avoiding complete contact with the rest of the people. Such patients also lose their interaction skills and are found bedridden most of the time. The patients should be involved activities that drive them away from depression and boredom. Interaction with the medical personnel and other patients is very fruitful way of making sure they do not feel alone.
A traumatic injury is a psychological wound that is a result of an external source. The injury mostly affects the brain and psychiatric disorders are a common aftermath of a traumatic injury. Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Patients who are suffering from traumatic injuries happen to experience cognitive problems; the cognitive problems include impaired or slow thinking and lack of understanding. The memory of these patients is also altered as well as control of desires, growing impatient easily, communication, and the processing and understanding of information.
Patients who succumb to sexual assault are also catered for in the institution. The patients possess fear and depression, especially in the young ones. Sexual assault is more common in minors than in adults. The hospital caters for the sexual assault patients in a very special way. Especially of the patients are young, the need to be catered for with extreme care since they are very vulnerable. Despite undergoing treatment and lots of checkups, the patients also undergo a lot of counseling (Fortenberry, 2010). The counseling is very important because the memory is traumatizing and can cause patients to undergo depression.
The Mt. Sinai Hospital located in East Harlem is the main competitor for the Metropolitan Hospital. The two hospitals share the same location and, therefore, the competition is very stiff. The Mt. Sinai hospital Center comprises of Icahn School of Medicine and the Mt. Sinai hospital. There is also a children health campaign in the center that is involved in understanding childhood diseases. The institute carries out research into problems that affect children at their tender age and tries to establish treatment of these conditions. The research focuses on four major research areas, allergy and asthma, diabetes, congenital heart diseases and obesity and other neuro development disorders.
The Metropolitan Hospital should use the three key facilities that they have to secure their patients. This move should secure them from the competition that Mt. Sinai offers due to their child health campaign. The Metropolitan hospital should also focus on chronic disorders like cancer. This is because, in recent times; cancer has become very common illness and many people are succumbing to the disease. In doing this, the hospital can get an arena of new patients who will help the hospital get more successful. The Metropolitan hospital should create a cancer center that is fully packed with the equipment and personnel necessary for the catering of cancer patients.
The marketing mix is a business marketing strategy used by marketing professionals. This marketing strategy comprises of four P’s; price, product, promotion and place. Since the Metropolitan Hospital already comprises of a stable place and products, the best move would be to improve price and promotion (Berkowitz, 2011). The pricing of some critical conditions like stroke should be made affordable even to those who are poor. The formation of a trust fund to assist those patients who cannot pay for their stroke condition is a perfect idea. This can consist of a race or other charity events all aimed at raising awareness about stroke and raising money to make the stroke facility better.
The hospital should also come up with a promotion plan for the patients. This promotion plan should involve the patients suffering from the most common illnesses. The Metropolitan hospital should create an open day where patients come for a check up of all common illnesses. The check up should be free, and patients should be checked up thoroughly to avoid any misdiagnosis (Krishna, 2006). If a patient is diagnosed with any infection, he or she should receive information of the day when they will visit the hospital for a thorough treatment. This activity is very health and helps the public learn about the hospital. For efficiency of the activity, it should be carried out at least twice a month. This can be considered as a way of giving back to the community.
The medication for stroke should also be made affordable to all patients. This is to avoid those patients who do not have the financial ability to buy the medication losing out. The money for the medication of such patients can be raised through a trust fund or charity activities. For example, a marathon can be created that is named ‘Save a Stroke Patient’. The money can be raised through the sale of t-shirts that all marathon runners are supposed to wear and free will donations. The money raised can also be used to better other facilities in the hospital or creation of another facility like a cancer care center.
In conclusion, the Metropolitan Hospital center is one of the best hospitals in New York. The hospital is accredited with good services from the support staff and the medical personnel. The hospital is also very economical and does not put money before the health of the patients. The hospital receives patients of all ages from the young to the aged. Despite receiving very stiff competition from the Mt. Sinai hospital and other hospitals in the area, the Metropolitan Hospital, is still at the top of its game. The medical personnel of the hospital should continue with the good conduct and good treatment of patients (Fortenberry, 2010). This is because this contributes to the good name that the hospital has created for itself.
Berkowitz, E. N. (2011). Essentials of health care marketing. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Fortenberry, J. L., & Fortenberry, J. L. (2010). Health care marketing: Tools and techniques. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Krishna, M. G., & Krishna, N. C. N. (2006). Health care marketing. New Delhi: Discovery Pub. House.
Quality initiative has become a very important activity that is both vital and necessary in the well- being of all organizations. In this paper, we shall look at this vital undertaking and narrow our focus to quality initiative in the healthcare sector.
Analyze three (3) quality initiatives for your organization
Quality assurance is very vital in the healthcare sector more so in one of the largest healthcare organizations as most of the country’s population depends on it to deliver when need arises. It is expected to have top class services in order to meet the population needs, and in order to meet a top-class rating, the following quality initiatives comes highly recommended. These include:
The first one is implementation of technological systems in the patient care support. Staff in the organization need to be furnished with the necessary equipment to ease the daily workload that is mostly caused by documentation, which brings about traffic in hospitals where patients stay in long queues waiting for their records to be retrieved. This may take ages given that the manual documentation system is in place, and in order to bring sanity in the healthcare system, the system has to be put in place.
The other most important quality initiative that needs to be adapted is the improvement of communication which affects both the staff and the patients. Communication inefficiency is a vice that is common not only in the organization, but affects the entire healthcare sector. In order to curb this vice, proper measures have to be put in place to improve communication, as most of the time is spent searching for necessary medical supplies for patients. An equipment tracking system is efficient enough to improve communication, as it reconciles data from the laboratory with that in the clinical department making it totally effective to initialize good communication (Marla, Darryl, Kim, & Muturi, 2013).
The Introduction of a Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA). This has been widely proven to bring about improvement in the administration of the medication process. This system
ensures that the prescribed drug is the correct one and is administered at the correct time to the right patient. Each patient is provided with a wrist band that has a bar code scanning to provide the patient’s details and the medication administered. This will drastically reduce the errors experienced in the organization (Marla, Darryl, Kim, & Muturi, 2013).
Determine the supporting factors that would aid in the reduction of healthcare cost in your organization without reducing quality of care for the patients.
It has reached a point where the cost of operation is way greater than the initial investment in a given year. The organization spends a lot in maintenance and wages thus making its healthcare services slightly costly to average population requiring its services. These are the areas that need to be addressed to realize cost reduction in the organization.
The doctors and nurses wages are high in the organization, as they are paid based on how much they do, rather on how well they render their services. This encourages the practitioners to over treat their patients with a mission to earn more. To improve this and cut cost on their wages, an integrated medical system that generates medical records electronically to streamline the wages.
Technology will also play a major part in cutting cost of healthcare in the organization, as manual labor increases cost and also inefficiency in the organization. For example, buying of new equipments needed to offer services to the patients may just take a one-time huge investment, but it will end up cutting cost and improving service delivery in the organization in the long run.
In implementing the highlighted cost cutting ways will bring along efficiency, and cheaper ways of service delivery in the healthcare sector of the organization, which will bring merit to both the organization’s management and the patients seeking our services.
Differentiate between quality in a free market healthcare system and in a single payer government system with three (3) examples in each.
A single payer government system in the healthcare refers to a system where the organization sums up the bill and send it to the relevant entity for the services rendered. At the end of the month, quarter of a year, half a year or even annually depending on how the organization has agreed with the given entity will receive a lump-sum payment from them to cover for the medical expense, which in this case it is the government. An example of countries embracing the single payer government system includes: Germany, Denmark and the United States of America. All the developed countries have adopted this type of healthcare system by ensuring their citizens have free access to healthcare. (Kwon, 2003)
One the other hand, a free market healthcare system is where price is set by agreement between the healthcare providers in this case, our organization and the patient. In this system of healthcare system, patients are allowed to either pay for services themselves or choose a convenient medical insurance cover provider all by themselves. This is common in the developing countries as governments in such countries do not have the ability to provide medical cover for all their citizens, thus leaving the average and high income earners with the advantage of getting an insurance cover as it is not affordable to every citizen. Examples in this case include Kenya, India and Brazil (American Medical Association, 2012).
Specify three (3) common law quality initiatives that are still found in 21st century healthcare organizations.
Healthcare being a broad and vital sector in any given economy and it being the main focus of our organization, quality initiatives prior to services offered are to be given close consideration and attention and the common law quality initiatives followed to the latter. The laws governing quality initiatives have undergone major reforms in recent years as technology continues to grow significantly, and thus it is embraced widely in the sector.
There are common laws quality initiatives that remain unaltered in all the years of technological advancements and reforms in the healthcare sector. One of them being: “Use of unnecessary or inappropriate care”. This tends to expound on the unnecessary or excessive of diagnosis tests by use of x-ray machines, over prescription and under prescription of antibiotics and other drugs that may have a negative side effects on a patient. The organization on following this law can put the money and resources wasted into other meaningful and productive use.
The other common law is: “Underuse of needed, effective and appropriate care”. This law on quality initiatives on the other hand revolves around discrimination of patients based on their financial background and insurance health insurance cover. Most healthcare organizations focus on the patients who have been insured and become hesitant to properly diagnose, offer preventive or therapeutic services. This law also highlights those faced by geographical, communication, cultural and organizational barriers among other barriers but still have insurance covers. The organization can give proper staff training to raise awareness in order avoid discrimination on the patients who seek their services.
The next most important law in the healthcare sector is: “Shortcomings in technical and interpersonal aspects of care”. Here, the law elaborates on inferior care being given to patients due to negligence from the organization’s medical practitioners as a result of inadequate or lack of proper mastery in their field of career practice. Poor communication is experienced when the organization’s medical practitioners cannot adequately explain effectively the necessary information to their patients, where they prescribe the wrong dosage or carry out an unnecessary surgery, or for instance in other cases, wrongly analyzing laboratory results. This can is a very serious vice that can be eliminated or curbed in the organization by carrying out vigorous examinations and reviews of the organization’s medical practitioner’s education levels and qualifications, and also carry out ethics training on them.
Defend your position on the importance of healthcare quality for your organization. Provide support with at least three (3) examples that illustrate your position
Healthcare quality provides a check and balance in an organization, which consists of vigorous and systematic changes to bring about measurable and realistic improvements in an organization. Quality is automatically associated with the efficiency in an organization’s level of handling patients and the patient’s level of satisfaction; this is the main importance of healthcare quality review in an organization.
For example, in Chicago, America’s leading healthcare experts recommend several strategies to curb various treatments and surgeries that are often prescribed but are not necessary. (American Medical Association, 2012)
In Canada, Health experts advise on proper reviews of the quality initiatives in healthcare after at least five years to bring about sanity in the healthcare sector.
Another example is the United States of America, hospitals are ranked not of how many doctors they have or how big the hospital is but on the quality of the organization. This should paint a picture in our organization that quality matters a lot.
Assemble a plan to protect patient information that complies with all the legal requirements.
It is highly recommended that all patient records to be kept electronically to meet all the necessary merits of cost savings, speed, accuracy and safety. It is the organization’s mandate to keep the records of the patient’s safe and in which, they can be saved in many forms that include: computer flash disks, disks and tapes, prescription forms, patient forms, emails, lab reports, collection documents, conversations between patient and doctor, insurance statements, faxes, collection documents among other forms. This will help in not only keeping the records safe but to also enable fast access to patient’s information and records, and also helps the medical practitioner follow up on a patient’s progress.
In order for the necessary measures to be implemented, the organization should make sure that there are staff specifically assigned to deal with patient’s records and be held accountable for all records, the organization should also ensure that the records follow a specific Protected Health Information safety procedure for security and privacy. An office for policy and quality assurance should be set up to give the organization a reality check and to inform the patients on their rights and to also limit access to patient information by unnecessary bodies.
In conclusion, quality initiative in the health sector has been proved to be important in the general rating and performance of an organization in the sector. Given the important role the healthcare sector plays in the economy, all countries are advised to adopt this measure.
American Medical Association. (2012). Proceedings from the National Summit on Overuse. National Summit on Overuse, 2-4.
Kwon, S. (2003). Health Policy . Baltimore: Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
Weston Marla, R. D. (2013). The Influence of Quality Improvements Efforts on Patient Outcomes and Nursing Work. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 3.
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