World History Free Essay Samples & Outline
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Sample Essay On World History
The Second World War also known as World War II was there from 1939 to 1945. Conflicts may have begun earlier before 1939. Many world nations were involved, and even the world’s greatest powers were involved. As a result, there were two alliances that were formed; that is; the allies and the axis (Hart, 2015). Franklin Roosevelt was the President of the United States when World War II began until he died on April 1945 and Harry Truman became the President. The three principle partners in the Axis alliance were Germany, Italy, and Japan. The allied powers were led by the Great Britain, United Sates, and the Soviet Union.
Even though the United States was a latecomer in the war, its entrance in 1941 meant that the entire country devoted all its human and material resources to defeating the Axis countries. Out of the total population of 130 million which was there in the United States 16 million Americans served in the war. A total of 156,000 allied troops landed in Normandy and 73,00out of these military were from the United States (Hart, 2015). The lend lease act of 1941 that was introduced in the US also helped the military a great deal in the acquisition of arms. When it came to Marshall Plan, us was also involved and played a great role.
The cold war was a mere ideological struggle, a battle, for the hearts and minds of people all over the world (Cockroft, 2013). The cold war reshaped the understanding of freedom more that how it was shaped during World War II. It is during the cold war during the 1950s that there was the rise of human rights. This idea that all members of the human family have human rights emerged in the 18th, century in the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions. It is in 1948 that the UN approved the Universal Declaration of Human rights.
On the side of politics and culture, the cold war had a significant impact. For example, the cold war led to the election of anticommunist presidents who may include; Truman, Kennedy, Nixon, and Reagan. The battling Soviets, politically and culturally these leaders waged economic warfare with the Soviet Union. Therefore the cold war had great impacts regarding United States’ politics and the culture. One of the events that defined cold war is the creation of the iron curtain. Others include the Warsaw Pact, the Vietnam war, the formation of NATO and the Berlin airlift.
The main characteristics of the affluent society of 1950 are numerous. To begin with, there was a remarkable economic boom which had a lot of impacts on government spending, capital, and labor. The second main characteristic is the explosion of scientific and technological breakthroughs in the decades after the World War I. a good example is in computer and electronics. Various innovations in various fields came into widespread during this period. The third characteristic is the changing economy. Since the 1950s the American economy is shifting away from manufacturing.
The center of farming too moved to the west and mostly to California. Another characteristic is women at work and home. The number of women who were working began to rise significantly (Hart, 2015). The last feature is that the TVs replaced the newspapers. The main source of information changed from newspapers to televisions. The presidential campaign of 1960 became the closest in the history of America. John F. Kennedy became the youngest presidential candidate in American history. He was also a Catholic.
Some of the major events in the civil rights movement of the early 1960s are discussed below. One of them includes the lunch counter process that was in 1961 (Winter, 2014). Ten men sat in the “whites only” counter in Rock Hill in Carolina where they were protesting against segregation. In 1961 again there were freedom riders opposing discrimination. Blacks and whites took buses the south to protest bus station discrimination. In 1962 there was desegregation drive in Birmingham. There were protesters, and the king opposed laws that support segregation. Riots, firebombing, and the police were used against the protesters.
On September 1963 there was the bombing of Birmingham church where four black girls were killed by a bomb that was planted at the church. Kennedy’s presidency had some major crises and policies initiatives. Some of them are mentioned below. Before 1963 Kennedy had disappointed those who were involved in the civil rights struggle. On March 1963 he attracted 250,000 demonstrators to the nation’s capital in support of civil rights legislation. In 1962 Kennedy lifted the naval blockade of Cuba. Johnson’s great society program was meant to help citizens a great deal. For example, the wilderness protection act saved 9.1 million acres of forestland from industrial development. It also helped a lot in minimizing poverty and racial injustice.
The civil rights movement had great changes in the 1960s. One of the changes that were there in 1964 was introduced by the civil rights act of 1964 (Winter, 2014). It outlawed major forms of discrimination. The voting rights act of 1965 also outlawed the discriminatory voting systems. The black power movement also was a significant change that emphasized on racial pride. It stressed the creation of black political and cultural institutions. The Vietnam war affected the culture and the politics of US in several ways. It is the one that made the voting age to be lowered to 18 years of age. It also made the Congress end the military draft, and it was replaced by all – Army volunteer. Finally, it is this war that made the US cautious about getting involved in the war anywhere in the world.
The Watergate scandal that was there in 1972 made the citizens in the US lose faith with the government after they realized that they lie through the media. They realized that executive administration was corrupt. The Vietnam War and Watergate disillusioned Americans. They damaged Americans faith in the interim government and the leaders.
The opportunities for most Americans diminished during this period since it is then that they experienced an increase in divorce rates. This made many American women work to cater for their families needs (Kaiser, 2015). It is during this period that there was an increase in the use of drugs.
There was also an increase in crime rates. There was also increase in pre-marital sex, and many couples were living together outside of marriage. This is how the opportunities of many Americans were lost. The rise of conservatism in the 1970s is associated with the rise of Reagan. He believed that the government intruded too deeply into the lives of the Americans. He, therefore, wanted to eliminate the programs that he thought were not much helpful to the country. Regan leadership affected the Americans greatly. All the negative impacts of the Vietnam and Watergate scandals discussed above were as a result of his leadership. The black and whites began being equal in America out of his leadership.
The economic performance of the US in the late 1990s was remarkable. It was remarkable regarding labor productivity growth after a long period of sluggish gains. The role of information technology has greatly led to this development (Nabers, 2016). The growth can be attributed to the introduction of computers. The introduction of computer hardware, software and the communication types of equipment in the second half of the 1990s contributed greatly to the economic development of the US. The cultural wars in the US began in the 1990s.
There were conflicts between the conservatives who were the traditionalists and the progressive values also known as the liberals. Abortion, separation of church and state were of great concern during this war. The Republicans in 2000 moved away from the previous positions that were unattractive. The party under the leadership of Bush proposed new policies. The conservative, the Bush Republicans emphasized much on moral issues particularly abortion. Bush made more efforts to gain minority votes by giving blacks the prominent roles in the party.
September 11, 2001, opened an era of crisis upheaval and militarization of the US society. It was marked by the criminalization of the American states and their judicial, foreign policies the national securities were included. The intelligent apparatus were also included. The crimes that were committed on September 2011 led to the loss of lives, and a lot of properties were destroyed in the name of 9/11. The crimes that were committed in the name of 9/11 had two processes.
The first process involved the launching of the global war on terrorism which was used as a justification to wage a war of subjugation (Nabers, 2016). The second process involved the derogation of the public freedom and inauguration of Orwellian police state within western countries. This war had enormous effects since there was blood she and a lot of property were destroyed. This led to the determination of the US economy out of the funds invested and the property that was damaged. Bush was criticized during his second term for remaining in vacation in Texas as Katrina struck the Gulf Coast. Bush later returned to Washington, flying over New Orleans on air force one.
Cockroft, E. (2013). Abstract expressionism, weapon of the Cold War.
Hart, B. L. (2015). A History of the Second World War. Pan Macmillan.
Herring, G. (2013). America's longest war: the United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Kaiser, D. E. (2015). Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War: Germany, Britain, France, and Eastern Europe, 1930-1939. Princeton University Press.
Nabers, D. (2016). The Bush Leadership, the Power of Ideas, and the War on Terror. Routledge.
Winter, M. (2014). Civil Rights Movement. ABDO.