Folic Acid, Asprin Medical Response Essay Examples & Outline

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Folic Acid, Asprin Medical Response


folic acidDeficiency in vitamin B12 and folic acid contributes to megaloblastic anemia, a condition where the red blood cells are larger than their normal. Megaloblastic anemia manifests with symptoms such as hyperactive reflexes, ataxia and peripheral neuropathy among others. Both folate and vitamin B12 play a crucial role in DNA synthesis (Olson, 2012). Replacement therapy has been used to treat deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid. This can be done both orally and intravenously. It should have been appropriate to mention dietary supplements that are rich in both vitamin B12 and folate. Furthermore, there is not mention of the role of vitamin B12 and folate in cellular metabolism.

Response 2

Anemia that arises from the deficiency of folic acid and Vitamin B12 is known as macrocytic/megaloblastic (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). In addition, both vitamins play a crucial role in DNA synthesis. Dietary vitamin B12 needs to be converted to its active form to enable effective utilization. It would have been a sufficient explanation of the pathway that converts vitamin B12 to the active form. Folic acid exists in both active and inactive form (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). Dietary measures form the main approach of treating folic acid deficiency. Example of food that is rich in both vitamin B12 and folate include legumes, whole grain and fresh green vegetables. Oral supplementations, IM and subcutaneous injection of cyanocobalamin help in treating Vitamin B12 deficiency. Intranasal variants are available for individuals who cannot tolerate the two approaches.

Response 3

Excellent work done but it would have been better to distinguish the mechanism of action between aspirin, heparin and warfarin as primary anticoagulants. Aspirin as an NSAID is administered to prevent platelet aggregation. It has inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase in both platelets and endothelial cells. Heparin prevents formation of new clots with no effect on the existing one. Warfarin acts by blocking vitamin K binding sites. It acts on existing clots thus preventing their extension (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). Clopidogrel is a drug that helps in preventing stroke. It is administered with warfarin to prevent ischemia and unstable angina. The major side effect of warfarin is internal bleeding. It may also cause birth defects and abortion, therefore, not appropriate for use by pregnant women. Furthermore, there is no mention of the side effects associated with the medications.

Response 4

Aspirin has an inhibitory effect on COX. Clinical use of aspirin helps to treat transient ischemic attacks, MI and thrombosis. Aspirin is also used as a pain reliever due to its anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting prostaglandins




 

What is the half-life for prothrombin?


prothrombinProthrombin depends on vitamin k as a cofactor. It is activated by Xa to make thrombin. Thrombin in turn converts fibrinogen to fibrin, which stimulates blood clotting. Prothrombin has a plasma half-life of 60 hours (Bick, 2009).
Can vitamin B1 deficiency cause memory issues?

Vitamin B1 is a complex vitamin, which helps strengthen the body’s immune system and tolerate stressful conditions. Deficiency of vitamin B1 causes fatigue, abdominal discomfort and irritability. Moreover, deficiency of this vitamin also allows pyruvic acid to form in the bloodstream. This causes a reduction in the level of mental alertness, which can in turn lead to memory loss (Devanand, 2011).
Can vitamin 12 deficiency cause depression?

Vitamin B-12 plays a vital role in maintaining the level of brain chemicals that affect most brain functions. Low levels of the vitamin can lead to depression on the patient. Low levels of the vitamin are caused by inability of one’s body to consume vitamins and poor diet (Devenand, 2011).


Can vitamin B-12 deficiency cause fatigue?

Vitamin B-12, also known as cobalamin, plays a key role in making DNA and keeping red blood cells and nerve cells healthy. Vitamin B-12 has been known to reduce fatigue, high cholesterol levels and Alxheimer’s disease. The deficiency of the vitamin is mostly linked to old age, and lack of the enough vitamin levels cause fatigue on the patient (Devenand, 2011).


What foods mandated by laws is folic acid added in?

Folic acid was banned from all food processing methods after it was discovered that it can lead to neural tube defects in mothers. However, continued research showed that folic acid can reduce the dangers of Alzheimer’s disease and it also has some protective effects on various types of cancers. This followed a lawful restriction that flour manufacturers should use certain levels of folic acid. Thus, flour is the only food mandated by the law to fortify folic acid restrictions (Preedy, Srirajaskanthan & Patel, 2013).


How often is a patient INR monitored when warfarin is started?

All warfarin patients require INR monitoring. The danger of bleeding while on warfarin is high among patients who have not previously received warfarin. INR is monitored in the first three months of the warfarin treatment to avoid the INR from exceeding 3.0. After the first three months, the monitoring period can be reduced according to the physician’s assessments on the patient (Handin, Lux & Stossel, 2010).


References

Bick, R. L. (2009). Disorders of thrombosis and hemostasis: Clinical and laboratory practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Devanand, D. P. (2011). The Memory Program: How to Prevent Memory Loss and Enhance Memory Power. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Preedy, V. R., Srirajaskanthan, R., & Patel, V. B. (2013). Handbook of food fortification and health: From concepts to public health applications. New York, NY: Humana Press.
Handin, R. I., Lux, S. E., & Stossel, T. P. (2010). Blood: Principles and practice of hematology. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.