Edema, Diabetes & Hyponatremia Essay Example & Outline

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Edema, Diabetes Inspidus & Hyponatremia

Edema refers to a health condition where individual experiences swellings in the body. It is a medical term used while referring to swelling (In, 2014). Generally, edema is due to excessive accumulation of fluids in the body tissues. More so, accumulation of fluids may be in the interstitial spaces and as well cells. Normally, edema is not a disease but rather acts as a manifestation of an altered physiologic function within the body. Edema as a health concern has different effects on the patient.

Due to the inflammation resulting due to the fluids within the interstitial cells, there is an increase of the diffusion distance of oxygen and other nutrients. This has an effect on the swollen tissues, as it comprises cellular metabolism. In addition, this condition has a similar effect on the by products produced during cell metabolism. This is because it limits the diffusional removal of toxic substances from the swollen cells due to the increased diffusional distance (Porth, 2009).

There are different causes attributed to edema condition in human beings. Edema resulting from an increase in capillary pressure may be due to different reasons. Heart failure is the most common cause of edema. Due to failure in the right ventricle, blood usually backs to the systemic vein circulation system. This on the other hand has an effect of increasing vein pressure and on the other hand increasing capillary hydrostatic pressure. This results to swelling in feet and legs similar with the condition suffered by the 65-year old female (Braun, 2007).

Unlike heart failure, obstruction of flow is another possible cause of edema in the 65-year-old female. This cause of edema takes place due to blockage of drainage fluid in the legs. Once there is the obstruction, the fluid can easily back up within the legs. An example of obstruction of flow is in the occasion of a blood clot in the veins where blood faces a limit of flowing in the veins. On the other hand, this has leads to swelling in the legs.

Lastly, allergic response may be another reason behind the swelling of the patient’s leg. Resulting from allergic reactions in the body, there is an increase in capillary permeability. In addition, there are instances where these capillaries become damaged and leaky. This allows more fluids through them to the interstitial cells surrounding the capillaries (Braun, 2007). As a result, there is swelling in the legs as with the 65-year-old patient. Some of the pathophysiologic changes occurring in the body that results to edema include; heart failure, asthma neurohumoral status and as well, changes in the blood level volumes (In, 2014).

Diabetes insipidus refers to a condition resulting to failure of production of sufficient levels of antidiuretic hormone (responsible for helping the kidneys and the body conserve the correct amounts of water). Normally, this hormone is responsible for controlling the kidneys’ output of urine. Diabetes insipidus as a health condition leads to loss of excessive amounts of water in the urine. Other than insufficient production of ADH hormone, this condition can be because of brain injury, tuberculosis, meningitis and as well family heredity.

Some of the symptoms of the condition are; excessive thirst due to the excessive loss of water, excessive urine production, poor feeding, irritability, failure to grow, fever and as well dehydration. There are different methods used during diagnosis of the condition. Urine test is the most common test carried out on patients with the stated symptoms. More so, patients may undergo blood tests and lastly water deprivation tests (aiming at observing whether dehydration takes place) (Braun, 2007).

There are different treatment methods for patients suffering from diabetes insipidus. Treatment of the condition is dependent on the extent of the disease, age of the child and as well tolerance of the child to some therapies. Treatment include; medication with drugs that stimulate the production of antidiuretic hormone and as well oral and injection administration of modified ADH hormone. More so, adequate intake of fluids (especially water) in the 10-year-old patient is important to maintain the levels of water. Lastly, with the child, there should be great care in monitoring the level of sodium intake in the fluids taken (In, 2014).

Depending on the cause of diabetes insipidus, the condition can be either permanent or temporary. Central diabetes insipidus with the correct medication may lead to fully healthy lives. However, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, there is a need for early medical care (Porth, 2009).

Hyponatremia is a condition where an individual suffers from low levels of sodium. Sodium is an important mineral in the body for maintenance. It helps in the maintenance of fluid balance, regulation of body pressure and lastly it plays a crucial role in maintaining the healthy functioning of the nervous system. In most cases, the condition results due to excessive consumption of water without replacement of sodium to maintain the healthy balance between sodium and water (Braun, 2007).

There are different causes of hyponatremia in the human body. The main cause of the condition is an imbalance in body hormones. In the kidney, there are different hormones involved during the urine formation process. High levels of antidiuretic hormones in the nephron leads to high reabsorption of water back to the body from the filtrate. Apparently, low levels of aldosterone in the nephron leads to low reabsorption of sodium from the filtrate forming urine. Therefore, the body reabsorbs more water than sodium leading to an imbalance. This cause of low sodium levels in the body may also result to failure of the kidney that may lead to an imbalance of hormones and as well its malfunctioning (In, 2014).

The other possible cause of low sodium levels in the body is the accumulation of excess fluids in the body. Accumulation of excess fluids results from failure of the cells to have a continuous supply of nutrients and as well oxygen. In most cases, this results from low volumes in the blood circulating in the body. More so, this may result from inadequate blood pumped into body cells and as well leakage of some blood in circulation. As a result, the body tends to retain some fluids in the tissues. This result from cognitive heart failure that leads to a reduced pressure of blood pumped to the cells. Pathophysiologic changes that occur in the two causes include cognitive heart failure and as well kidney failure (Porth, 2009).


 Porth, C.M., & Matfin, G. (2009) Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. (Eight ed.) Philadelphia, PA
Braun, C. A., & Anderson, C. M. (2007). Pathophysiology: Functional alterations in human health. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
In Grossman, S., & In Porth, C. (2014). Porth's pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states.