Diabetes Effects Essay Examples & Outline

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The Effect of Omega 3 Fatty Acid intake on Blood Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein in Cuban Americans With and Without Type 2 Diabetes

Cardiovascular disease is one of the major complications that arise as a result of diabetes and cause about 65% of the people involved to die from it or stroke. The people that have type 2 diabetes have high blood pressure, obesity, lipid problems and coronary artery diseases. Smoking as researchers discovered doubles the chances of a person with diabetes getting CVD.
The C-reactive protein (CRP), based on several studies is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular illnesses. The models of the CRP showed an association that was not significant for the omega 3 levels and the odds of being of a higher CRP category. The CRP model, however, suggested that a higher BMI and diastolic blood pressure related slightly to the odds of one being a member of the higher CRP categories.

The results are non-significant to study because no other measures including those of diabetes status were in any way associated with CRP (Marso, 2003, p 102). Reason for the latter is that of the 290 people in the test (145 with diabetes and 148 without) the variables recorded for the Cubans were the waist circumference, gender, age and the calories eaten per day. The covariates befell tests alongside the adjustment variables without retention. The main reason as to why the results are nonsignificant is that p=0.20 which is insignificant.
The ordinal logistic regression models of Homocysteine quartiles showed from the results that, greater levels of omega 3 fatty acids ensued high association with odds of low values of membership in higher compared to the lower Homocysteine quartiles with the inclusion of all the extra covariates. Another variable as per the data given is age. High levels of HbAlc link inversely with the odds of the upper Homocysteine quartile membership (Yudofsky, 2007, p 87).
Low intakes of n-3 are not an independent predictor of CRP as they were hypothesized. Ethnicity as per n-3 intake was significant. The ethnicity through then-3 intake was substantial. Cuban Americans that have low intakes of n-3 have higher chances of CRP compared to others (OR=0. 92, 95% CI = (0.85, 0.99). Although one having diabetes associates with a high CRP, the status of diabetes by then-3 intake was not much of a significant predictor for high CRP.
The findings agree with studies in that the omega 3 fatty acids improve the sensitivity of insulin at its normal state especially for individuals that have Type 2 Diabetes. The latter is on the basis that dietary omega 3 fatty acids have a protective feature in the prevention of CVD for the diabetes type 2 patients. Omega 3 fatty acids achieve the above through the improvement of the endothelial function (Kotsirilos, 2011, p 255).
Homocysteine is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease that stands on its own. The case study that involved 138 cardiovascular individuals and 290 others that did not have CVD but matched the age of the subjects in control expressed hugely, an outcome that was positive in terms of, the relationship between Homocysteine, age and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Looking at the other controlled study of forty individuals that have cardiovascular disease, specifically those that had mitochondria infractions that were acute and Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and fifteen disease-free volunteers of similar age we see that the category of those involved that showed Nitric oxide related in a positive manner to the Homocysteine. An inference can be arrived at that, high levels of Homocysteine tend to generate free radicals that are some of the reasons for cardiovascular disease.
Studies show that, people that have diabetes have Homocysteine levels that are greater in terms of quantity compared to those that do not have it. A study for the purpose of finding out the Homocysteine levels between individuals that had diabetes type 2 and those that did not have both with coronary artery disease that was proven showed that, the levels of HCY were slightly higher in those that had diabetes than those that did not have it (Current medical research and opinion, p 76). A study of 1676 people that had diabetes but no known disease of the heart was all associated with the risk of CVD in the 8 years to come.
The rise in CRP levels intertwines with cardiovascular disease for some of the ethnic groups. Rises in hs-CPR are associated with Hyperglycaemia. Patients who are hypertensive and have type 2 diabetes possess the highest levels of plasma of his-CRP. The latter suggests that individuals have been having an ongoing inflammatory process that is active and predisposes them to CVD (Fuhrman, 2008, p 108).

The leading factor of death among the Cuban Americans is cardiovascular disease. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated that, as of July 1, 2011, there was roughly 16.7% of the Hispanic population, and it was estimated that it would reach an approximate value of 30% by July 1, 2050 The national survey for the years 2007 to the year 2009 for persons aged 20 years or above on the trail of age difference adjustments, showed that, among the Hispanics, the rates of diabetes were around 7.6% of the Cubans as well as the Southern and Central Americans One of the limitations that present itself is that, the research among the Cuban Americans that have type 2 diabetes and those that do not have, has not been furthered as of today.
A conclusion can be arrived at that the intake of omega 3 was associated highly with the HCY and the CRP levels for AA but not the HA. The status of diabetes and the consumption of omega 3 fatty acids did not predict considerably, the odds of high HCY or CRP among the Cuban Americans. The findings come to a suggestion of the requisite for potential and intercession studies of the measurement of the omega 3 fatty acids in the blood levels as well as, the cardiovascular events that follow up across the variables of the Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes.


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Unger, J., & Ovid Technologies, Inc. (2013). Diabetes management in primary care. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Marso, S. P. (2003). Handbook of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. London: Remedica.
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