Genetic Organisms & Human Cloning Free Essay Samples & Outline
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Sample Essay On Genetic Organisms & Human Cloning
Science has been expanding for years. Today, doctors can be able to detect problems in the unborn child long before their delivery date. This has saved many lives and also made life easier for many children who would have otherwise been born with life altering conditions. However, despite this immense improvement in the standard on healthcare, several people feel that genetic enhancement and testing is interfering with the natural course of life.
This is an argument based on the creation story where it is said God created everything, and everything was good. Therefore, these activists argue that medicine should not interfere with Gods intended purpose. It is my opinion that genetic testing and enhancement is a blessing to many. For instance, through genetic testing, children with problems can be diagnosed early enough for action to be taken, a factor which saves the parent and unborn child pain in the future. My support is based on the fact that everybody deserves a chance at a normal life.
Therefore, if a deformity can be avoided, why not take the necessary measure sand save the family a lot of expenses which would otherwise be spent on physical therapy and special schools, as well as the stigma associated with deformity. This paper is going to describe human cloning in relation to genetic organisms and the controversy that is as brought to the world.
Cloning is described as the genetic creation of an organism to be an identical copy of another organism through artificial means. It means that every strand of DNA in the original organism is exactly the same to its copy. The history of cloning has its roots dating back to the 1800s when plants became reproduced using cuts from stems or twigs. The cloning process has also been used in scientific experiments over the years to replicate animal cells.
The most successful breakthrough in animal cloning after 276 trials and failures came in the manner of a sheep named Dolly in 1996 (Wilmut). Many scientists led by Prof Ian Wilmut had worked tirelessly in various cloning experiments. Dolly became the first official animal clone. The cloning process has also been used on human beings. This is the artificial process of creating a genetically identical copy of an existing human being. It is also used to clone various body tissues from the individual.
In the year 1891, a German scientist known as Hans Driesch carried out a controversial experiment that led to the cloning of a sea urchin. He took the embryo of the sea urchin, shook it within a beaker filled with sea water which led to the two cells separating. He grew them separately over time and formed a separate and whole sea urchin. This scientific breakthrough disproved the claims by another biologist named August Weismann.
He believed that if embryos got separated, they would develop into two different parts of a creature. Other scientists who experimented with the cloning process and succeeded include Hans Spemann who cloned a salamander in 1902. Dr. Ian Wilmut and Dr. Keith Campbell later reproduced cloned sheep named Megan and Morag in 1986. By the year 1988, technologies used in cloning became advanced to include processes such as splitting and transfer of embryos, gene transfer and nuclear transfer (Shelton).
In the year 1993, scientists from George Washington University publicized that they had cloned human embryos. The idea was to plant them in women’s bodies during the nine months gestation period. This was never to be because the cloned cells became defective. The impressive aspect of cloning and its possibilities became officially recognized with the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1996.
The fundamental purpose of this research paper is to provide an argumentative basis for and against the human cloning process. This is because the human cloning process has led to many notable achievements and also significant losses in equal measure. It has led to never-ending controversial debates over the years. There is considerable opposition to the process of copying a person. These oppositions arise from religious sectors who believe that God created the universe and cloning works against this notion. Other concerns arise from the fact that animals, which have been successfully cloned are few. In every 100 experiments, only two to three viable off springs become produced by surrogate mothers.
This shows that scientists have not been able to comprehend adequately the science involved in the animal cloning process. The scientific explanations for the successes still present loopholes. The scientists believe that these technical hurdles will one day be resolved once human cloning begins. The cloning process has opened a Pandora box regarding the ethics and morality of the process (Kolata).
The human cloning process is divided into two types called reproductive cloning which involves cloning an embryo and implanting it into a woman’s uterus. Therapeutic cloning involves cloning an embryo which is then used to generate stem cells. First of all, the human cloning process has many advantages. It led to numerous recognized advancements in scientific research. Scientists are working tirelessly to figure out ways to clone humans.
Doctors have transferred cloned embryos into women, but they did not become pregnant. The scientists believe that the procedure is not as monstrous as people made it sound (Zavos). The process has led to scientific advancements such as reproducing human stems cells through therapeutic cloning. The embryonic stem cells are grown to produce body organs and tissues used to replace the damaged ones. People suffering from burns and other ailments such as diabetes, heart diseases and damaged spinal cords may have a chance in the future to be free of the predicaments. The technology involved in human cloning could also lead to plastic surgery patients saying goodbye to cosmetic surgery procedures.
The doctors will no longer have to use silicone implants for breast augmentation or reduction. The implants sometimes leak into the bodies. They will be able to create fat, connective tissues and cartilage that match the patient’s tissues perfectly. Deformed accident victims will be able to have their limbs regenerated. Organ failures such as liver, kidney and others will be obsolete. Genetic diseases such as leukemia, cystic fibrosis and cancer will be cured.
Human cloning has the advantage of improving life’s quality. This can be through the rejuvenation of the body cells. It can help in making aged people look young. According to Dr. Richard Seed, people will awaken one day to find that the aging process is reversible. This has led to slight changes in the attitudes of people towards human cloning (Merrill). The cloning process could also be used to reverse heart attacks. The doctors will clone the healthy heart cells and inject them in damaged hearts.
Heart disease is globally recognized as the number one killer in the United States and other industrialized countries. Through surveys, it is been estimated that an average human being has some eight defective genes within his body. This is what leads to the development of illnesses even with a healthy diet or exercise. With human cloning, this issue will also be a memory. The cloning technology has led to the un-matched advancement in the field of medicine. People should let go of their fears and allow the benefits to affect their lives positively. They should also be at liberty to procreate and have their freedom to reproduce. (Brock)
All things that have advantages also have their disadvantages. The human cloning process has not been left behind in this measure. Infertility has received its fair share of media coverage. The process is still unsuccessful on the infertility front. It is estimated that less than 10 percent of infertility trials are successful. The physical and psychological torture that couples undergo for the chance of having children is saddening.
The couples usually end up penniless, bankrupt, and their ticking birth clock also runs out. This might lead them to become depressed and even separation. The process has also led to many couples developing hopes that they can reproduce their baby or child lost in a car, fire or other unavoidable accidents. These parents become grief-stricken after such an event. Their hopes get shattered because of human cloning failures. This might lead them to develop mental and nervous breakdowns, which might lead to heart attacks, stroke or even death.
Security is a critical aspect for any nation and its government. The human cloning process has led to the debate of producing super humans. This could lead to the development of super-athletes or super-geniuses. People who could run faster than Usain Bolt or sharper brains than Albert Einstein. The government can also use the super-humans in their military operations against their enemies. This situation may become uncontrollable because the side-effects of producing such humans remain undetermined.
They may develop a robotic form of character that may see the loss of many lives. Their invincibility may also lead to political and social unrest. The declaration that the process could also lead to the making of a better race is also remarkably suspicious. This would lead to the discrimination of minority races in the procedures in favor of other fairly accepted races. In essence, such hypothetical fears might stem from me watching too many science fiction programs such as Face Off or Fringe.
The future aspect of using human cloning to replace body parts sends a shiver down the spine. This process might lead to the unethical murder of one human being in order to rescue another. The thought of transplanting the human brain from one body to another to prevent aging is scary. The cutting off of a body part from a healthy human being who has not given their consent is also criminal. This process might lead to identity theft. The moral rights of human beings even if they result to difficulties in research must be respected (Dworkin).
The scientists have also developed the need to play God in all aspects of life. God has provided mankind with the ability to cure diseases, fly planes and create nuclear energy. Scientists are human beings with endless goals to achieve, and human cloning is their route to their success of “Playing God”. Sometimes, one might wonder if they are playing the Devil instead. Another disadvantage is that some societies which have issues with gender.
They will use the process to clone babies from a specific gender type. It is no secret that Asian and Middle-East countries would rejoice at such progress. This is because of their discrimination against women in their societies. This is immoral and biased against the female gender. One wonders if the female gender is slowly eliminated from the gender race, who will bear the un-born children? This process could positively help in balancing out the population. The planet will be equally filled with both female and male genders in the future.
Human cloning leads to the demise of diversity as specific characteristics in human beings get selected over others. This may include strength, sharp brains, sporting talents and others. This might lead to a new race evolution with some people having great strength, but with low intelligence levels. Human life will become viewed as replaceable (Macklin). This might lead to intellectual discrimination among individuals.
The cloning process should be used as advancement in scientific research and not to take us back to the 20th century where people became slaves. The cloning procedure has also led to many embryos being at the risk of getting stolen, damaged or killed. Many embryos get created, and their viability is tested. In the process, some of them become frozen or thrown away. This has led to aggressive debates if killing a human embryo is killing a person or if it is just killing a few living cells. In a positive light, the excess embryos can be used to carry out further studies on stem research and can also be frozen until required.
In conclusion, the human cloning process should not be banned. This is because human beings are known to lack contentment in their successes. Once they achieve a goal, they want to progress further and further. There expectations are always high towards achieving success in various academic and professional fields. Human cloning can lead to some of the expectations getting fulfilled especially in medical areas such as organ replacements. The global nations have had their decent segments of success stories.
Testimonials from people who have received the treatment have also been shared. Many countries around the world should begin to accept the process as a significant life changing process. Some governments have begun to accept the possibilities of stem cell research and have invested their money in the process. The possible medical advancements to the human race might be endless. This alone should encourage governments to allow human cloning and its research. This will lead to the saving of many lives in the future. Aggressive research would also need to be carried out to establish its effectiveness on human beings and its ethical repercussions (Pollack).
Shelton N.J. “Embryo manipulation in research and animal production” Australian Journal of Biological Science, 1988.
Ritchie, Campbell, McWhir and Wilmut, I. “Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line” Nature, 1996.
Merril, Richard, Rose, Bryan J. “FDA Regulation of Human Cloning: Usurpation of Statesmanship.” Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, 2001.
Kolata G. “The sizzling debate about cloning human embryo” The Newyork Times, October 26, 1993.
Zavos. P. “Doctor Defends Cloning Experiment” The Associated Press, 2002.
Dworkin, R. “Taking Rights Seriously”. London: Duckworth, 1978.
Buchanan, Daniels, Wikler and Brock W.D. “From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice.” Cambridge University Press.2001
Pollack, R. “Beyond Cloning” New York Times, November 17, 1993.