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The nineteenth amendment marketed the end of the old era when women were discriminated against. It also marked the beginning of the era of women empowerment. The amendment to the constitution of the United States was ratified on 18th august 1920 (Hardy, 2000). The constitution allowed the states to establish the qualifications for the voters. The limitations of the leeway were later imposed on the powers of the states to determine the voter’s eligibility.
The main motivations behind the amendments on setting the limitations on the states discretion was the trend of the states using their power to disfranchise the qualified people against voting. Majority of the states disfranchised women in particular against voting irrespective of their qualification (Hardy, 2000). The trend of continued disfranchisement of the women persisted until 1910s when the actions of the women movement for universal suffrage culminated in the amendment and the cessation of the practice (Hardy, 2000).
The women suffrage movement undertook their campaign at both the state and national levels to get the right to vote (Engen, 1994). The movement overruled the Supreme Court ruling in Minor v. Happersett whereby the court arrived at a unanimous decision on the extent of the right accorded to the women populace. The court ruled unanimously that women did not receive any right to vote because of the fourteenth amendment.
The journey towards suffrage for the women started with it initial introduction in the congress by Senator Aaron Sargent in 1878. It took 41 years for the approval of the same by the congress in 1919. After the approval of the amendment, the congress submitted it to the states for ratification, as the law requires (Hardy, 2000).
The ratification of the same by the states led to the assent of the amendment into law. Tennessee was the last state to ratify the amendment. However, in 1922, Leser v. Garnett case was brought into court whereby the main argument for the case was that the amendment was erroneously and unconstitutionally passed. However, the Supreme Court to which the case was presented found the argument faulty and rejected its premises.
The main pronouncements of the amendment were that the right of the citizens to vote was not to be abridged or denied by the entire government or the state government on the account of sex. This amendment led to the empowerment of the women since they were now capable of voting just like their male counterparts. The congressional legislation's were to form the main basis for the implementation of the same (Hardy, 2000).
The foundations of the struggle can be traced back to the first drafting of the United States constitution (Hardy, 2000). The constitution was drafted to deal with the original issue of the merger of the southern states and northern states. Its focus was not the mechanisms of running the states and the newly formed country. On the contrary, it focused on other issues that were perceived to be important for the governance of the new world.
At the formation of the United States, the only elected body was the House of Representatives. This body was composed of elected officials whose election was explicitly placed under the control of the states (Hardy, 2000). New Jersey was the only states that allowed women to vote until 1807 when this right was revoked. The rest of the states did not accord women any rights to vote.
Women rights movements have been in existence in the United States. However, their prevalence and orientation was not as widespread. Their organization, funding and scope of influence were also constrained. The official women rights movement came into being in 1848 with the formation of Seneca Falls Convention of New York. The focus of the movement was far removed from women suffrage (Hardy, 2000). Its influence and advancement was also limited in the decades before the civil war.
During this period, there were several attempts at the introduction of suffrage in the majority of the state’s legislative assemblies. However, the magnitude of the laws was mainly disregarded since the issue was deemed to be less important compared to the other more pressing issues affecting the states. Of all the bills introduced on the universal suffrage, only a few managed to reach the voting state. The precedent is indicative of the attitude of the community towards the women suffrage. The mere suggestion of women voting was inconceivable to the majority of the states.
After the civil war, the clamor for the women suffrage gained momentum with the majority of the movements moving in to capitalize on the reconstruction amendments. The women wanted to ride on the reconstruction era in order to attain their civil rights. However, the reconstruction amendment did not include any of the women movements’ grievances. The fourteenth amendment was explicit in discrimination against women. Section 2 of the amendment set penalties for the states that denied men the right to vote. However, it was silent in the rights of the women to vote and did not penalize states that discriminated against women’s suffrage (Hardy, 2000). The constitution was essentially relaying the message that wit was accommodative of the discrimination against women. It also created the notion that the women were not as entitled to some of the rights like women.
The developments towards women suffrage gained momentum with the increased settlement of the western frontier. The development of the territorial constitutions also contributed to the constant and continued raise of the issue at the state’s legislative levels. The new constitutions of the Wyoming territory alongside the Utah and Washington territories led accepted the issue of women suffrage and explicitly allowed the women to take part in the voting process (Marcovitz, 2012).
The existing states considered the issue. Some even proceeded to hold referendum on the matter but they were unsuccessful. However, the gains in the fight for women suffrage in the three territories led to the development of more impetus for the women civil right movement.
The gains marked the formation of the National Woman Suffrage Association and American Women Suffrage Association in 1869. The two rival camps fought for the same thing despite their differences (Marcovitz, 2012). The National Woman Suffrage Association attempted to attain women suffrage by bringing lawsuits against the government for the denial that women were denied their rights. The case, based on new departure strategy, argued that 14th and 15th amendment granted women the right to vote just like the men. The rejection of this argument by the Supreme Court developed the fresh impetus for the constitutional amendment leading to the development of the universal suffrage.
Ford motor company was the ideal of the American industrialization drive. It was the marker for the American dream. The company was built on the Americans’ ability to build what they needed with what they had at hand. The brand represented the Americans tenacity and ingenuity. The history of the development of the company coupled with the rising needs to meet the transport needs of the American population fueled the desire to come up with a vehicle that would be able to improve life. Life was no longer sedentary. There was a newly found desire to explore and enjoy the expanse of the American dream.
The adverts of the company during the time were filled with confidence on the capabilities and reliability of the vehicle. The adverts sought to develop an attitude in the minds of the people that it was as reliable as the new world. It was the best car for the developing country and it was made by the sea vigor and ingenuity that led to the American dream. The adverts also created the notion that cost aspect was no longer an issue. The only issue was getting hold of the American car. Owning a ford was synonymous to the American dream.
The lack of an emphasis on the cost of the vehicle was partly because of the success that the company has attained over the years. It was a result of the experience and the sheer determination. It was the representation that one was capable of starting at nothing and being capable of moving on to the top. It was the representation of the widespread feeling that the possibilities that were in front of a person were so expansive that the failure of the person to make it was a result of the lack of determination. The coercive messages in the adverts for the company were indicative of the widespread belief on what was actually possible.
Engen, S. (1994). Roaring 20s Day. J Gerontol Nurs, 20(1), 39-39. doi:10.3928/0098-9134-19940101-06
Hardy, L. (2000). Women in U.S. history. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited.
Marcovitz, H. (2012). The roaring twenties :. San Diego, CA: ReferencePoint Press.
For year’s men ruled the world, it has been a machismo society were few women hold a position of power but the world has drastically change. Men had the upper hand in almost everything from politics, education, to marriage but that is changing. New alarming social issues around the world are arisen questions about women and problem between gender roles and stereotyping in modern day society. Women's rights movements are primarily concerned with making the political, social, and economic status of women equal to that of men and with establishing legislative safeguards against discrimination on the basis of gender. Women's rights movements have worked in support of these aims for more than two centuries ("Women's Rights Movements."Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia).
In America the first women rights started during the civil war in 18th century. Before women weren’t allow to vote or have access to higher education. The law was that at women had no legal identity apart from her husbands. So women use a purpose to have children and taking care of the house. After women got the right to vote more opportunities open up. Women started going to college, postpone marriage, and have employment opportunities. In the 19th century the pill was the most revolutionary invention for women. Now women can choose whether they wanted to have kids or prevent pregnancy. In World War II women had a contributing part working for factories while men were fighting the war. After that women started working more. Society started changing and having a deferent outlook on women and men and how they raise their children. More single parents, work home fathers, and breadwinner’s mothers appeared.
Were men usually exceeded in education and work change when more women started leaving their homes and joining the work force. This also change as women now outnumber men in college, according to (Chamie) “In the largest OECD country, the United States, women are almost 60 percent of the annual university graduates and more than 70 percent of 2012 high school valedictorians. Women account for 60 percent of master's degrees and 52 percent of doctorates being awarded in the US”. Some studies dispute that men get paid more than women but most women invest in education with degrees in humanities and social science, while men choose business and engineering careers that paid more. Also according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, white men (who once dominated the workplace) now account for about 45percent of all workers. White women and women of color make up 47 percent of the workplace.
Women now have a huge part in politics for example Hillary Clinton the U.S. Secretary of State, Brazil president Dilma Rousseff, Indian president Sonia Gandhi, and Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel. Nevertheless women all over the world continue to be depreciated. One of the youngest Nobel Prize winner’s Malala Yousafzai, an advocate of women and girls, pointed out that women are denied access to education and health system. Oppress to obey the terrorists group the Taliban. Women are still fighting for basic rights.
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