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The nineteenth amendment marketed the end of the old era when women were discriminated against. It also marked the beginning of the era of women empowerment. The amendment to the constitution of the United States was ratified on 18th august 1920 (Hardy, 2000). The constitution allowed the states to establish the qualifications for the voters. The limitations of the leeway were later imposed on the powers of the states to determine the voter’s eligibility.
The main motivations behind the amendments on setting the limitations on the states discretion was the trend of the states using their power to disfranchise the qualified people against voting. Majority of the states disfranchised women in particular against voting irrespective of their qualification (Hardy, 2000). The trend of continued disfranchisement of the women persisted until 1910s when the actions of the women movement for universal suffrage culminated in the amendment and the cessation of the practice (Hardy, 2000).
The women suffrage movement undertook their campaign at both the state and national levels to get the right to vote (Engen, 1994). The movement overruled the Supreme Court ruling in Minor v. Happersett whereby the court arrived at a unanimous decision on the extent of the right accorded to the women populace. The court ruled unanimously that women did not receive any right to vote because of the fourteenth amendment.
The journey towards suffrage for the women started with it initial introduction in the congress by Senator Aaron Sargent in 1878. It took 41 years for the approval of the same by the congress in 1919. After the approval of the amendment, the congress submitted it to the states for ratification, as the law requires (Hardy, 2000).
The ratification of the same by the states led to the assent of the amendment into law. Tennessee was the last state to ratify the amendment. However, in 1922, Leser v. Garnett case was brought into court whereby the main argument for the case was that the amendment was erroneously and unconstitutionally passed. However, the Supreme Court to which the case was presented found the argument faulty and rejected its premises.
The main pronouncements of the amendment were that the right of the citizens to vote was not to be abridged or denied by the entire government or the state government on the account of sex. This amendment led to the empowerment of the women since they were now capable of voting just like their male counterparts. The congressional legislation's were to form the main basis for the implementation of the same (Hardy, 2000).
The foundations of the struggle can be traced back to the first drafting of the United States constitution (Hardy, 2000). The constitution was drafted to deal with the original issue of the merger of the southern states and northern states. Its focus was not the mechanisms of running the states and the newly formed country. On the contrary, it focused on other issues that were perceived to be important for the governance of the new world.
At the formation of the United States, the only elected body was the House of Representatives. This body was composed of elected officials whose election was explicitly placed under the control of the states (Hardy, 2000). New Jersey was the only states that allowed women to vote until 1807 when this right was revoked. The rest of the states did not accord women any rights to vote.
Women rights movements have been in existence in the United States. However, their prevalence and orientation was not as widespread. Their organization, funding and scope of influence were also constrained. The official women rights movement came into being in 1848 with the formation of Seneca Falls Convention of New York. The focus of the movement was far removed from women suffrage (Hardy, 2000). Its influence and advancement was also limited in the decades before the civil war.
During this period, there were several attempts at the introduction of suffrage in the majority of the state’s legislative assemblies. However, the magnitude of the laws was mainly disregarded since the issue was deemed to be less important compared to the other more pressing issues affecting the states. Of all the bills introduced on the universal suffrage, only a few managed to reach the voting state. The precedent is indicative of the attitude of the community towards the women suffrage. The mere suggestion of women voting was inconceivable to the majority of the states.
After the civil war, the clamor for the women suffrage gained momentum with the majority of the movements moving in to capitalize on the reconstruction amendments. The women wanted to ride on the reconstruction era in order to attain their civil rights. However, the reconstruction amendment did not include any of the women movements’ grievances. The fourteenth amendment was explicit in discrimination against women. Section 2 of the amendment set penalties for the states that denied men the right to vote. However, it was silent in the rights of the women to vote and did not penalize states that discriminated against women’s suffrage (Hardy, 2000). The constitution was essentially relaying the message that wit was accommodate of the discrimination against women. It also created the notion that the women were not as entitled to some of the rights like women.
The developments towards women suffrage gained momentum with the increased settlement of the western frontier. The development of the territorial constitutions also contributed to the constant and continued raise of the issue at the state’s legislative levels. The new constitutions of the Wyoming territory alongside the Utah and Washington territories led accepted the issue of women suffrage and explicitly allowed the women to take part in the voting process (Marcovitz, 2012).
The existing states considered the issue. Some even proceeded to hold referendum on the matter but they were unsuccessful. However, the gains in the fight for women suffrage in the three territories led to the development of more impetus for the women civil right movement.
The gains marked the formation of the National Woman Suffrage Association and American Women Suffrage Association in 1869. The two rival camps fought for the same thing despite their differences (Marcovitz, 2012). The National Woman Suffrage Association attempted to attain women suffrage by bringing lawsuits against the government for the denial that women were denied their rights. The case, based on new departure strategy, argued that 14th and 15th amendment granted women the right to vote just like the men. The rejection of this argument by the Supreme Court developed the fresh impetus for the constitutional amendment leading to the development of the universal suffrage.
Ford motor company was the ideal of the American industrialization drive. It was the marker for the American dream. The company was built on the Americans’ ability to build what they needed with what they had at hand. The brand represented the Americans tenacity and ingenuity. The history of the development of the company coupled with the rising needs to meet the transport needs of the American population fueled the desire to come up with a vehicle that would be able to improve life. Life was no longer sedentary. There was a newly found desire to explore and enjoy the expanse of the American dream.
The adverts of the company during the time were filled with confidence on the capabilities and reliability of the vehicle. The adverts sought to develop an attitude in the minds of the people that it was as reliable as the new world. It was the best car for the developing country and it was made by the sea vigor and ingenuity that led to the American dream. The adverts also created the notion that cost aspect was no longer an issue. The only issue was getting hold of the American car. Owning a ford was synonymous to the American dream.
The lack of an emphasis on the cost of the vehicle was partly because of the success that the company has attained over the years. It was a result of the experience and the sheer determination. It was the representation that one was capable of starting at nothing and being capable of moving on to the top. It was the representation of the widespread feeling that the possibilities that were in front of a person were so expansive that the failure of the person to make it was a result of the lack of determination. The coercive messages in the adverts for the company were indicative of the widespread belief on what was actually possible.
Engen, S. (1994). Roaring 20s Day. J Gerontol Nurs, 20(1), 39-39. doi:10.3928/0098-9134-19940101-06
Hardy, L. (2000). Women in U.S. history. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited.
Marcovitz, H. (2012). The roaring twenties :. San Diego, CA: ReferencePoint Press.
For year’s men ruled the world, it has been a machismo society were few women hold a position of power but the world has drastically change. Men had the upper hand in almost everything from politics, education, to marriage but that is changing. New alarming social issues around the world are arisen questions about women and problem between gender roles and stereotyping in modern day society. Women's rights movements are primarily concerned with making the political, social, and economic status of women equal to that of men and with establishing legislative safeguards against discrimination on the basis of gender. Women's rights movements have worked in support of these aims for more than two centuries ("Women's Rights Movements."Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia).
In America the first women rights started during the civil war in 18th century. Before women weren’t allow to vote or have access to higher education. The law was that at women had no legal identity apart from her husbands. So women use a purpose to have children and taking care of the house. After women got the right to vote more opportunities open up. Women started going to college, postpone marriage, and have employment opportunities. In the 19th century the pill was the most revolutionary invention for women. Now women can choose whether they wanted to have kids or prevent pregnancy. In World War II women had a contributing part working for factories while men were fighting the war. After that women started working more. Society started changing and having a deferent outlook on women and men and how they raise their children. More single parents, work home fathers, and breadwinner’s mothers appeared.
Were men usually exceeded in education and work change when more women started leaving their homes and joining the work force. This also change as women now outnumber men in college, according to (Chamie) “In the largest OECD country, the United States, women are almost 60 percent of the annual university graduates and more than 70 percent of 2012 high school valedictorians. Women account for 60 percent of master's degrees and 52 percent of doctorates being awarded in the US”. Some studies dispute that men get paid more than women but most women invest in education with degrees in humanities and social science, while men choose business and engineering careers that paid more. Also according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, white men (who once dominated the workplace) now account for about 45 percent of all workers. White women and women of color make up 47 percent of the workplace.
Women now have a huge part in politics for example Hillary Clinton the U.S. Secretary of State, Brazil president Dilma Rousseff, Indian president Sonia Gandhi, and Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel. Nevertheless women all over the world continue to be depreciated. One of the youngest Nobel Prize winner’s Malala Yousafzai, an advocate of women and girls, pointed out that women are denied access to education and health system. Oppress to obey the terrorists group the Taliban. Women are still fighting for basic rights.
The ideological texture is often concerned with the particular alliances as well as the conflicts that are nurtured and evoked by the language of the text as well as the language of interpretation. There is also the aspect of the way that the text itself and interpreters of the text positions relate to each other as individuals and as groups (Sumner, 2003). When looking at 1 Timothy through the lens of Robbins in his socio-rhetorical criticism, it can be seen that the role of women in the Church leadership is based on the world that we currently live in.
Robbins will most probably view the role of women in the history of the early Mediterranean and the situation back then. This, therefore, means there is the exploration of the historical and cultural situations at the time. It is critical to realize that when analyzing the test using the socio-rhetorical analysis there is a need to look at the inner texture, the social and cultural texture, the ideological texture and the sacred texture (Sumner, 2003). The people of the Mediterranean lived in a time that was different from the current one; therefore, there is a need to examine the role of women as shown in Timothy 1 in Huizing text from a perspective different from the modern one (Huizing, 2011).
It is also critical to realize that indeed there is a need to nurture an environment of interpretation when examining Timothy one and two which will be able to encourage what can be described as a genuine interest in the people who lived in the Mediterranean context (Huizing, 2011). There is a need to understand the context of their values, their goals, and norms that might be different from our own.
Question: Should Timothy 1 and 2 be examined as a sacred Text during interpretation?
Huizing L.,(2011) What was Paul Thinking? An Ideological Study of Timothy 1 and 2. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership.
Sumner, S. (2003). Men and women in the church: Building consensus on Christian leadership. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press.
King James Version: Timothy 1 and 2.
The article discusses and analyzes fundamental issues regarding the apparent inequalities in payment of the working class women in the society starting from the 20th century. The discussion continues to analyze the wage gap and attempts to ascertain whether, in the last two centuries, i.e. the 20th and 21st century, it has widened or shrunk comparatively. It assesses the both the short-term and long-term effects that these inequalities have had on the social and economic status of women and also the society at large. In concludes by suggesting recommendations on what can be done going forward to shrink the wage gap among the working class.
Why are women paid less?
Questions that ask the position and place of the woman in society has plagued humankind for a long time. The role of the woman in the society has been an obscure and controversial topic in discussion fora for the last 50 years. During the last century, a lot of uncertainties and problems plagued the United States of America. It was the century that saw the Great Depression (1929-1939) affect the lives of millions of Americans in ways that nothing else had ever done. Then came the Cold War which was not an actual war but a conflict of ideologies that led to increased animosity between the capitalist western nations and the communist Eastern European countries. Also, the was World War I during which many able American men were conscripted into the army. It was during this World War I period that the women started joining the labor force because of the shortage of men (Smith & Ward, 1984).
Many opine that during the last century especially during the era of the three most significant events in the American history, that is the Great Depression, Cold War and also World War II, the woman’s place was typically the kitchen and primarily the woman was supposed to be a housewife. Their responsibilities bordered Marjory around the home where they raised children and helped in running the affairs of the home. This is because women were economically less empowered than their male counterparts and, therefore, had limited education. With very limited education, their chances of securing well-paying jobs diminished proportionally, plus they had no support systems which could help them pursue education (The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, 2008).
There were the isolated cases of working women, but these were the ones doing menial jobs like housekeeping, seamstresses, and gardening or teaching. During this period, there was a 41% wage gap between men and women. This was because of an existing mindset in factories and industries that the woman’s place was at home taking care of children. It was a deliberate move to dissuade women from pursuing careers because it was felt they (women) would delegate issues of the family to secondary status.
In the 21st century, women began to make strides in the workplace. Rules and laws were enacted to bring the pay of women to be at par with that of their male workmates. For example, the enactment of the Equal Pay Act Title 7 significantly reduced the bias that women were subjected to at their places of work. Eventually, with time women started scaling the ladder of work and even started being company executives and occupying other management positions in their companies. The emergence of private schools in the 19th century led to a new phenomenon. The research found that men who attended private schools were more likely to get paid better than women (Mastracci, 2013). The article time use on care giving activities: comparing federal government and private sector workers, highlighted the fact these men would get the commonly referred to as “high-flying” jobs. It noted that religion was not taught in public schools.
The article Why are women paid less than men but given higher pay rises didn’t give enough statistical references on the issue but highlighted that, indeed, most companies acknowledged the gender inequalities and the disparities in the wage gap and had instituted laws and practices to change the retrogressive pattern. Lamp, in his article Gender pay gap, “widening”: Women now paid less than men by 16% indicated that a probable reason for this was the experience gap between men and women had. It noted that the time women would take to give birth, men would use to gain more experience and this put men in a more favorable position to earn more money (Lamp, 2008). Erikson et al., opined that women were more inclined to caring for others, especially children, and hence put minimal effort in their work. It offered that the less competitive nature of women prevented them from aiming for higher positions at work and therefore diminished their chances of getting promoted at work (Erikson, Karlsson, Leunig, & Stanfors, 2014). Cater et al., postulated that men were earning more than women because men were mentored better than the women. It noted that in the case of men, their mentors could go beyond just offering advice and seek out employment opportunities for their mentees (Carter, Ibarra, & Silva, 2010). In most cases, cater et al., opined that men would be mentored by senior management personnel who would impart in them knowledge and skills that their female counterparts were not likely to get. The report points out that in as much as a few women would at times be involved in these mentorship programs, the intensity of the program would not be as convoluted as that of their male workmates. This, ultimately, put men on a higher pedestal than women and gave them an unfair advantage.
Data from the United States Bureau of Statistics collected in 1975 have been availed to give a statistical overview of the wage gap and disparities between men and women. The graph below shows the growth of the earning power of women as compared to men and illuminates the decreasing wage gap over the same period (Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times., 1975).
From the graph above, it is evident that women have come a long way in attaining parity with their male colleagues. Such improvements have been made possible by government regulating the laws that govern employment practices at the work place. The proposed Paycheck Fairness Act proposed by Presidential candidate Bernard Sanders seeks to reduce further the existing discriminations that still abound in the workplace. It seeks to create a level playing field where men and women are treated based not on their gender but on the capacity to deliver quality work. Recent statistics put the wage gap at 21%. In essence, this means that for every dollar earned by a man, the woman makes 79 cents. This laudable improvement can be traced to the efforts of well-meaning men and women who continuously strive to create homogenous wage system.
Why are women paid less?
With the enactment of the Equal Women Pay Act, women are no longer disadvantaged as before. Presidential candidate Bernard Sanders proposed a law seeking to have equal pay for equal work for all workers in the United States. The proposed Act known as the Payment Fairness Act proposes a raft of measures that seeks to eradicate discrimination of workers based on pay. Thus far, data from a survey conducted by the United States Bureau of Statistics in 2015 indicate that the wage gap has considerably shrunk from 41% in the twentieth century to approximately 21% in the 21st century. The shrinking wage gap can be attributed several laws and statutes that have been implemented by companies in compliance with these regulations. An example of these Acts includes the Equal Pay Act Title 7 which advocated for all employees being paid according to their input.
To get a clear picture of the payment patterns for women of different races working in the United States, I retrieved data from the US Bureau of Statistics for 2015 which highlighted the differences in pay for women. The graph below shows these differences.
The wage system favored the Asian American woman more than the women from the other races. The Alaskan and the Hispanic women were more likely receive the least pay. In general, the white women were more likely to be paid better that the rest of their counterparts.
There is a marked increase in the number of women seeking further education and better employment opportunities. Women are now more liberal and are expanding the scope of their dreams, aiming ever higher and are even now making in-roads in hitherto considered men only careers like politics. Women are increasingly becoming involved in all aspects of society but are still earning comparatively less than their male counterparts (Cohen, 2000). Cohen states that “by 2010, the wage gap had considerably reduced to around 20% with women earning 77.4% of what the men were earning.”
In 2008, a recession hit the United States and saw the employment rates of women dip considerably but soon picked up afterward. The graph below shows these variations.
The graph shows the rates of employment for both genders for the period covering 2008-2013. It shows the slump of employment that hits the market and its impact on the different gender.
The issue of women being paid less than men has been related to the value system of the society and the perception that a woman’s place was in the kitchen. Reese Warner, in his article Pay Equity in The States: An Analysis of the Gender Pay-Gap in The Public Sector, emphasizes that this perception was entrenched when women had to stop working for a while going on maternity leave. Men were, therefore, regarded as the principal authorities in the homes whose chief responsibility was to provide for the family. It might be possible that during those times, once a man was meeting the needs of the family, the need for the woman to work was minimal but instead was required to be at home and take care of the children.
The mandate of the government is to provide the basic amenities for its citizens and ensure that public order is preserved. The amenities, in this case, include things like good roads, quality healthcare, security, and education. These services offered by the government are, of course, paid for by the taxes levied on the citizens. The attainment of a balanced societal system necessitates that laws are enacted to compel compliance. A balanced system seeks to, first and foremost, have equitable distribution of resources among the citizens and one way of doing this by enacting laws that regulate the wage system. In 1963, the Equal Pay Act was accented into law by President Kennedy. At the time of the enactment, women were earning 59% of what the men were earning. It is noteworthy that this Act came into play after the failure of the Fair Labor Standards Act failed to adequately address the issue of unequal pay based on gender (Cohen, 2000). Also, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission enacted and implemented by the United States Congress in 1965 sought to eliminate discrimination not only based on gender, but also on religion, race, ethnicity or political affiliation.
Another tendency that could be an indicator to why men were earning more than women was the courses studied by each gender in colleges and universities. While men preferred the more technical courses like sciences, engineering, and business, women were noted to prefer studying manly art courses that comparatively earned less in the market. This characteristic is aptly depicted in the article A Major Difference? Field of study and Male-Female pay differences in the federal government, in which Lewis postulates that men who studied technical courses got inducted into the job market faster than their female counterparts who had studied arts or education courses (Lewis & Oh, 2009). In the article, he notices that “men’s greater tendency to study such high-paying fields may account for half of the pay gap between male and female graduates in the general economy, and women’s mobility into traditionally male fields may explain the closing of the gender pay in recent decades.” In the periods of 1979 to 1986, women started studying the more technical courses and challenged men in the previously male-dominated fields which led to a significant decrease in the gender pay-gap.
In the 20th century, women were not pursuing higher education as much as their male counterparts. Instead, they were dropping out of school to get married and take care of the family. This severely hampered their ability to get well-paying jobs or even get into leadership roles. As such, it was the men who graduated more often, got jobs and built their careers.
With the growth of the private sector, many people started their own businesses. The government doesn’t interfere much in the running of the private sector businesses unless, of course, there is gross violation of some government regulations. Reese and Warner opine that the private sector employs approximately 26.3 % of the national labor force. They also postulate that the private sector is a better employer than the federal government as it pays considerably higher wages. Recent statistics indicate that workers in the private sector earn roughly 30 % more than their colleagues working in the government (Reese & Warner, 2012).
Even though the practice of discrimination in payment based on gender is not deeply rooted in the private sector, rules are still in place to make sure that it does not begin to take form. In private companies that the practice may be existent, there are a variety of programs that can be implemented to curb the practice. For example, a company could initiate awareness programs that alert the female employees on their rights. By extension, the program could incorporate sensitization on issues of perceived unfairness in payment. The payment plan should be an open policy that clearly indicates how an employee’s payment is calculated at the of his service. When this is done, it reduces instances of employees complaining of unfairness (Gilbreath, Harris, & Sunday, 2002). To economically empower the women, strategies like fund-raising can be implemented to help raise the livelihoods of unemployed women. They should be educated on the procedures that are to be followed by any among them trying to access this fund. Repayment procedures can be worked out to iron out issues such as interest to be paid an initial sum, guarantors, security, etc.
The laws of economics also shed light on a few possibilities as to why women have borne the brunt of unfair wage practices from the early 19th century. Statistically, women worked shorter hours on average than the men. Several reasons can explain this. For example, a woman who gives birth within a year is liable for at least 90 days’ maternity leave with full pay. So, comparatively, a man will have worked 480 hours more than the woman during the same time frame. This might seem prohibitive for start-up companies that need full-time labor. For the man, this presents an added opportunity to gain more work-related experience and be better placed to scale the career ladder faster than the women. Such a company might unwillingly discriminate in their hiring policies based on the ROI that women employees offer in return.
The graph that follows shows the effect of discrimination on labor. It is the typical demand-supply curve that has been regressed to show how discrimination influences the curve.
The theory, in practice, illuminates the point that discrimination negatively affects the supply of labor to the market. When the labor market is unfavorably skewed against a certain section of the labor force, it has the effect of reducing the supply of labor even if the demand for that labor is there. Discrimination might be necessitated by a lot of issues. A company may decide to incline its employment policies to favor a certain gender to avoid several management issues. For example, instead of hiring a lot of women, the company policy may prefer hiring men because the input of men in terms of man-hours is significantly higher when compared to women. This is because men don’t go on longer leave holidays than women who have to take maternity leave after giving birth.
The 21st century enacted laws that promoted the position of the woman in the workplace. The level of inequity has reduced immensely such that nowadays, someone’s position in the workplace is determined not by the gender, but the level of education and competence that the person has. The labor force is now comprised equally of men and women who can go toe-to-toe in almost all aspects. This has resulted in a scenario whereby it’s now not given that the woman has to stay at home. Cases of men staying at home are now common place (Panayotakis, 2009).
In his article Individual Differences and The Potential Trade offs Between the Values of a Participatory Economy, Panayotakis observed that an economy should be equitable and efficient. An equitable economy observes the rules of natural justice and enforces laws that ensure the fair treatment of all citizens irrespective of gender, race or religion. The efficiency of an economy is measured abstractly; by the level of confidence, the government of the day enjoys among its citizens. Citizens look at how their taxes are utilized by the government in providing basic amenities like roads and health care. The confidence index gives an accurate impression of how the government is performing and feedback from such surveys can also highlight areas than the citizenry feels are not adequately addressed. Panayotakis observes that “the variability of such subjective characteristics such as preferences, life philosophies, and attitudes towards work, individual talents, and levels of intelligence raises some issues of economic significance.” The underlying characteristic of any economy is that there should be fairness and equity in any economy (Panayotakis, 2009).
The growth and development of the social status of the woman have been remarkable. From the 19th century, the role of women in the society has been changing from an entirely home-based perspective to a more diverse one. Women have now scaled the corporate ladder and have achieved just as much as their male counterparts. Women have diversified into many other fields apart from the traditional arts and humanities. There are now just as many women in the sciences, engineering, medical, and other technical fields, as there are men. Competition for employment opportunities is now knowledge-based. Potential employers now vet their employees based on education, skills, and other academically oriented criteria.
Carter, M. N., Ibarra, H., & Silva, C. (2010). Why men still get more promotions than women. Harvard Business Review, 88(9), 5-126.
Cohen, M. (2000). The Escape Clause: How US equal pay has failed women and why. Human Prospect, 3(3), 20-26.
Erikson, B., Karlsson, T., Leunig, T., & Stanfors, M. (2014). Gender, productivity, and the nature of work and pay: Evidence from the Tobacco Industry. Economic History Review, 67(1), 48.
Gilbreath, B., Harris, M., & Sunday, J. (2002). Why are women paid less than men but given higher rises? Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(4), 499-514.
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times. (1975). Retrieved from US Bureau of the Census: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/gendergap/html
Lamp, A. (2008). Gender pay gap widening: Women now paid 16% less than men, says report. Journal Article, 3(65), 11.
Lewis, G. B., & Oh, S. S. (2009). A Major Difference? Fields of study and male-female pay differences in federal government. American Review of American Administration, 39(2), 107-124.
List, J. A. (2014). Using field experiments to change the template of of how we teach economics. Journal of Economic Education, 45(1), 2014.
Mastracci, S. H. (2013). Time use on care-giving activities: Comparing federal government and privae sector workers. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 33(1), 3-27.
Panayotakis, C. (2009). Individual Differences and the potential tradeoffs between values of a participatory economy. Review of Radical Political Economics, 41(1), 23-42.
Reese, C. C., & Warner, B. (2012). Pay Equity in the States: An analysis of the gender pay-gap based in the public sector. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 32(4), 312-321.
Smith, J. P., & Ward, M. P. (1984). Women's wage and work in the twentieth century:. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/report/2007/R3119.pdf
The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. (2008). Retrieved from Gender Gap [Graphs]: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GenderGap.html
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